Factors Influencing Training Effectiveness: Evidence from Public
Sector in Bahrain
Ehsan Saeed Idrees Yaqoot
, Wan Shakizah Wan Mohd. Noor
, Mohd Faizal Mohd
Abstract: The objective of this study is to explore problems faced by training programmes
implemented at the public sector in Bahrain. Key issues discussed are related to training and
development. The significance of the training cannot be ignored in delivering the needed knowledge
and capabilities. Therefore, the training should be effective enough to attain these objectives. This study
evaluates in accordance with vocational training a number of contextual factors discovered to have an
influence in a different combination with other previously examined effective factors. It explores the
relationship between them. It also identifies types of relation between the training effectiveness and the
contextual factors. The framework of this study is established according to the Kirkpatrick training
model. This model consists of four levels measuring training effectiveness namely reaction, learning,
behavior, and result. Instrument utilized in this study was a 122 item questionnaire combined to respond
to 2 hypotheses. The questionnaire was prepared and distributed among the targeted respondents. It is
revealed that contextual factors namely training environment, and trainee motivation have positive
impact on the programms conducted in the public sector. This study provides critical input and
contribution to literatures related to training in the public sector in Bahrain.
Keywords: Training effectiveness; training environment; trainee motivation; training factors
JEL Classification: H40; M53
Training and its effectiveness has been currently a topic of attention and concern no
matter what was the type of organization or its activity’s nature. Organizations have
understood the training importance and the significant role it plays in enhancing the
PhD Candidate, School of Business Management, College of Business Universiti Utara Malaysia,
Address: Sintok, 06010 Universiti Utara Malaysia, Kedah, Malaysia, Corresponding author:
Senior Lecturer, PhD, School of Business Management, College of Business Universiti Utara
Malaysia, Malaysia, Address: Sintok, 06010 Universiti Utara Malaysia, Kedah, Malaysia, E-mail:
Senior Lecturer, PhD, School of Business Management, College of Business Universiti Utara
Malaysia, Address: Sintok, 06010 Universiti Utara Malaysia, Kedah, Malaysia, E-mail: m.faizal
AUDŒ, Vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 31-44
ACTA UNIVERSITATIS DANUBIUS Vol 13, no 2, 2017
job performance, and employee’s efficiency. It also provides the organization with
the ability to survive, especially with the hard competition nowadays. Training is the
ideal approach for preparing employees with certain skills or giving them the ability
to fill the gaps in their performance (Shree, 2017). For illustration, new computerized
systems might need workers to be trained on the way to deal and work with those
systems. Otherwise, the workers will lack the knowledge and understating of making
appropriate use of them. Overall, training is a typical process to accommodate
employees with new skills or improve their knowledge to a higher stage. It is well
understood that training can be employed to empower manpower to alter the
organizational or country’s culture and productivity or service quality. Additionally,
training can remedy to a great extent if not completely deficiencies related to job
performance or problems. Training can serve as an immediate treatment or solution
to the organizational requirements and a fast performance enhancer. It has a strong
effect on the existing performance level. The main aim of training is the
improvement or correction of any performance deficiencies. Training like anything
else needs to have clearly indicated logical goals to be successful (Denby, 2010).
These goals will set the proper frame for the training contents and define the
benchmark to achieve the planned targets of training. It is very important to be
realistic and not to expect overstated goals. Unrealistic goal anticipation ensures
failure because it is simply unreachable. Training needs specifying and targeting the
areas that needs improvement. Widening the training scope will interfere with its
usefulness. Therefore, it should be focused (Denby, 2010). Training is effected by
many factors such as the managerial support, peer encouragement, adequate
resources and consequences for training application on the job field (Sanjeevkumar
& Yanan, 2011). Although, there are other elements which were found to affect the
positive results of the training such as the participants, training material,
organizations, and trainer, this study is limited only to the training environment, and
trainee motivation representing the independent variables as proposed by previous
literatures, that may encourage to a higher degree the training effectiveness
(Almakhadmah, 2012; Lin, 2012; Homklin, Takahashi, & Techakanont, 2013;
Massenberg, Spurk, & Kauffeld, 2015).
2. Literature Review
Researchers have argued that employees’ training can help increase the feeling of
belonging and feeling of responsibility. The more training provided, the more
benefits for the employees, the further enhanced skills and capabilities, and the more
advantages reflected back to the organization (Terrana et al., 2016). Training
advantages is not only limited to improvement in the occupational skillfulness, but
also improvements in awareness and appreciation of the employee, and an
affirmative mental and behavior characteristics of the employee.
Another importance of the training is that it gives the adaptation possibility to the
competitiveness characteristic and market rapid changes. Training is a stored force
to retain the liveliness of business. Organization’s concurrence is the toughest kind
of competitions. Training is clearly becoming an essential human investment.
Developed countries pay much attention to mentality innovation and creativity and
not only to equipment or technology. Developed countries take every advantage of
the available and possible workers’ development opportunities. Studies have
confirmed that training is the main source of achieving employee development and
expertise, with first class training that fulfils its aim to develop a first class service
or product as a result of the developed performance. Therefore, the organization can
maintain an insuperable position in the community (Sanjeevkumar & Yanan, 2012).
2.1. Training Effectiveness
Training has been defined as the trainee’s behavioral influential process (Ghosh,
Joshi, Satyawadi, Mukherjee, & Ranjan, 2011). It is a tool that allows the
organization to survive and causes its persistence. The benefit of it is not limited to
the organization, but to the employees as well by accommodating them with the
expertise needed to meet the modern advancement in the work fields (Ahmed et al.,
2010). It forms one of the methods to save the organization’s investments. This is
clearly valid in the event that new capabilities gained were applied in the work
environment (Griffin, 2011).
In the past, people used to believe that the traditional education from the primary
school to the college level was sufficient, unaware that training is mandatory for the
development of employees of any level in the organization. It is also necessary for
improving the quality of life. The public sectors are the organizations that control
the development process and level of services in the Kingdom of Bahrain. That
means equipping its staff with better skills and knowledge will be positively reflected
in the society. It will act like training the developers which will yield a further
developed output. According to Griffin (2010), the role of the government is to find
a solution for the challenges faced to eliminate the gaps in the workforce skills to be
able to follow up with the global economy. Lately, the ultimate goal of the
development professionals and customers is to provide a method towards achieving
the required results. They keep their acting and thinking within their limited
experience of training which usually lacks the necessary farsighted vision of the
business (O’Connor & Little, 2012).
After the consideration of the importance of training, another important factor is
associated with it. As with everything that is surrounding us, time and money will
not be spent on something that is useless and ineffective. Training effectiveness is
another factor to be taken into consideration by people in charge of setting the
organization’s development plans. Training effectiveness is the relationship between
the input variables, output variables and the process or transfer factor. According to
ACTA UNIVERSITATIS DANUBIUS Vol 13, no 2, 2017
Bimpitsos & Petridou (2012) a successful systematic approach is a result of frequent
evaluation and previous testing. This function integrates many different evidences to
improve the learning and training activities. It requires the involvement of three
parties, the assessment tool, the training/evaluation participants, and the party
tracking this process, studying and using the results to improve them continuously.
2.2. Training Environment
Training environment is all about the condition or surrounding of the medium the
training programme takes place in. It involves sound clarity and level, correct
lighting such as the color/strength, active needed hardware and devices such as
computers, site arrangement like U type table arrangement or groups or site
arrangement such as the parking, and other training resources (Sanjeevkumar &
Yanan, 2011). The learning environment is a link between the learning and the area
created for this purpose. It covers the design, the structure, the contents, the control
and the way of using these premises in favor of the learning. There is a lack of studies
about the influence of the environment on the effectiveness of the training to cover
the importance of the surrounding factors such as the lighting source (artificial, or
natural from sunlight), brightness, color, angle of it, sound clarity, level, echo, and
other sources of noise (Shabha & Gaines, 2013). It is one of the key factors
responsible of the successful implementation of the training programmes. It is being
measured based on the reaction of the trainees in level 1 in Kirkpatrick’s evaluation
model, in addition to other factors like (presentation methodology, trainer,
material/handouts, and training audio-visuals). An unsatisfactorily prepared training
environment has a distractive impact on the intake of the participants (Lendahls &
Oscarsson, 2017). It is also one of the factors to establish the training programme
and has been found to influence the effectiveness and the learning outcomes
positively (Chukwu, 2016).
Quality in training programmes is what all the organizations are planning to reach.
Quality in training requires quality in all the aspects related to the programme
including the setup of the venue. A portion of the instructional activity of the
programme can reflect the quality level from the point of view of a convenient
learning environment, classroom convenience, organization of chairs, reachable
water, toilet, fresh air etc., (Niwaz, Asad, & Muhammad, 2011). The training
environment was found to have a significant correlation in addition to influencing
the training effectiveness in any organization. It was also found to have a functional
control over the expected results of trainees. On the other hand, an effective
relationship was detected between the training environment and the work
environment as IVs (independent variables) with the training effectiveness as a DV
(dependent variable). It is critical to determine every factor that may contribute the
outcomes in the stage of setting the objective to raise the probability of the success
of the programme (Sanjeevkumar & Yanan, 2012).
2.3. Trainee Motivation
Keeping the employees motivated is the simplest way to reach the competitive edge,
raise the rating, and profitability. Motivation is critical because it is a sort of
involvement, recognition and a reward to the human resources, which is fundamental
for any organization. Motivation yields satisfaction which is influenced by
remuneration and recognition. Motivation is an internal generating force that
controls our work (Pollitt & Oldfield, 2017).
According to Aziz & Ahmad (2011), there are six factors that increase the trainee
motivation. This is very useful for the human resource (HR) and training
professionals to setup a successful training. The first factor is to give the interested
trainee the option to choose. Because the training will be very beneficial for both
parties, the employee and the organization, it is very important to ensure of the
interest of the employee to attend that specific training programme. This is attained
by either making the option available for them, or by their involvement in the
determination of the training. The second factor is the reputation of the training
which will also influence the motivation. This can be derived from previous records
related to certain training to get an observation and information about the training
from the point of view of the contents and material, venue and facilities, trainer,
trainer style, and the general background about the training. The third factor is the
design of the training, which consists of principles like the relationship of the training
contents to the job, expected reward or type of rewards available in the organization,
training method applied, as well as honoring and appreciation by the firm. Fourth,
trainees should find the training as a way to simplify or improve their capability to
look after their form of work. Fifth, the training should fulfil their future’s vision
toward getting better opportunities and a better position. Finally, the training should
also satisfy the trainees’ needs. For example, to be distinguished by increasing their
knowledge and skills or to obtain a better income. Training is a tool for any
organizations’ plans to enhance its functionality, because of the effect it has on the
workforce potential, performance, level of skills and effectiveness. Training
practitioners say it is difficult to measure the real effectiveness of the training
because there are many other factors playing important roles in the personnel
performance, in addition to the deliverable subject, such as supervision (social
factor), trainee expectation from the programme, training aids (training
environment) and other factors that has a deep impact on the effectiveness of the
training and the motivation of the trainees. A good source for measuring the training
effectiveness in the public sector is from the trainee’s level of self-efficacy and
motivation (Yanson & Johnson, 2016).
Motivation is connected with other essential factors to form an appropriate
environment for training transfer to reach the effectiveness and the aim of the
training. For example, suitable training facilities will motivate the employees’ to
attend and make the learning actually happen. Otherwise, their negative feeling will
ACTA UNIVERSITATIS DANUBIUS Vol 13, no 2, 2017
not be limited to the training itself, but to the organization in general and to the HR
or training department specifically (Kirkpatrick, 1975).
3. Conceptual Framework
The framework of the study is shown in Figure 1. It presents the theoretical
components of the traditional framework and illustrates the relationship between the
independent variables with the dependent variable. In this study training
effectiveness is the dependent variable. The independent variables are the training
environment and trainee motivation. Independent variables are the factors that have
influence into the effectiveness of training. Processing of data collected is by using
quantitative method. Trainee’s gathered data forms the base for the training
effectiveness different levels analysis.
Figure 1. Research Framework of the Study
Since there were studies indicating a positive and a significant relationship between
training environment, trainee motivation and training effectiveness, while other
studies presented conflicting results, it brings the need for more research in this
subject. The aim of the study is to investigate this relationship between these factors
in the public sector in the kingdom of Bahrain. Accordingly, and based on the
framework of the study the following hypotheses were proposed:
H1. There is a positive relationship between training environment and training
H2. There is a positive relationship between trainee motivation and training
Comparing the appropriateness between the measuring methods with the line of
reasoning, quantitative survey type with Likert five points is the rating scale utilized
that was found to be more suited for this research. Survey was found to be a useful
tool for the examination of the variables’ relationship to verify the hypotheses, in
addition for giving a probability to collect a large number of data from a large
measure of respondents. At first pilot test is conducted to confirm the reliability of
the instrument. Thirty questionnaires were requested to be filled by easiest reachable
employees in the public sector. Cronbach’s Alpha obtained values were 0.839 for
training environment, 0.877 for trainee motivation, and 0.884 for training
As stated by (Krejcie & Morgan, 1970), 382 employees is the equivalent size of
sample for an employees' number of population of 56,988 in the public sector. At
least three months should pass after participating into the training was preserved as
a criteria (Kirkpatrick, 1970). The target respondents were supervisors and clerks
only. Taking into account the results of the assessment process of the factors
involved, cross-sectional survey form of design was decided on to be used in addition
to the quantitative method. Eleven items investigated the coefficient of influence into
reaction, seven items for the learning, twelve items for the behavior, and six for the
results. A total of Thirty two items were prepared to form a measuring instrument
for the dependent variable. The second section of the questionnaire assessed the
relationship between the training environment and trainee motivation. Six items
measured the trainee motivation of the respondents. Nine items measured the
training environment The Statistical Package employed for data analyses is SPSS
version 23. While the third section of the questionnaire assessed the demographic
analysis of the respondent.
Although, frequent attempts were made to get the entire questionnaires back, only
155 were brought back. This is according to several reasons like 60% of the targeted
respondents refused to participate. Other respondents were found not to participate
in any training courses in the specified period. Other respondents ignored to
responsed or return back the questionnaire even with the frequent tries from the
researcher. In addition 27 questioners were neglected because of unsuitably filled
and accordingly deleted. The reason behind the small number of participation rate is
because of the discourage research culture Arabian countries are known for
The questionnaire was also translated to Arabic language with the help of bilingual
experts from the English Language Center in the University of Bahrain to increase
the possibility of obtaining a clearer and precise response from a questionnaire that
is conducted in an Arabic country.
4.1. Measurement of Items Virtuous
The questionnaire’s items employed are extracted from other relative studies. They
were examined and adopted to suit the nature of the study. The items for every
training factors and the training effectiveness measured to assess the participants’
response using five point Likert scale ranging from strongly disagree (1) to strongly
agree (5). Eight items measured the training environment influence on the
effectiveness of training programme obtained from (Yanan, 2011). The Cronbach’s
reliability test for the previous items was 0.839. Trainee motivation was assessed by
ACTA UNIVERSITATIS DANUBIUS Vol 13, no 2, 2017
five items (Green, 2002). The Cronbach’s reliability test for these items yielded a
value of 0.877.
The training effectiveness sub levels (reaction, behavior, learning, and result) are
measured by thirty four items adopted from other related studies. The respondents’
reaction is perceived by eleven items scales. Another three items were adopted from
Al-Eisa, Furayyan, & Alhemoud (2009). Another item adopted from. One item from
Barcala (2000). Another item constructed by Wilson (2000). Finally, the lasted one
was from Lin (2012). The obtained value for the Cronbach alpha was 0.910.
To perceive the respondents’ obtained learning seven items were adopted according
to the following arrangements: Two items were from Al-Eisa et al. (2009), another
one is from Tai (2006), one item obtained from Price (2001), three more were
constructed by (Bin Lin, 2012). The obtained Cronbach alpha scale is 0.807.
To perceive the respondents’ behavior change from the training ten questions were
obtained from Lin (2012) and categorized under the training effectiveness. Two of
them are from Barcala (2000), another two are obtained from Price (2001). 3 items
are from Tai (2006), 2 items for (Wilson, 2000), an item for Barcala (2000), an item
for Price, (2001) and the final one is from Pau (2001). The Cronbach alpha value
For the purpose to measure the return on investment (result), a number of seven items
obtained from previous studies. Five of them were extracted from Barker (1997), and
the additional one is obtained from Tai (2006), and another item was obtained from
Lin (2012). The resulted Cronbach alpha was 0.939. It is identified that all the items
accomplished the validity requirements.
Computation of Cronbach’s alpha displays the degree of participants’ agreement
toward every factor. Higher scores mean higher reliability, with extant ranges
between 0 and 1. Most of the recorded dimensions represent a high level reliability.
In particular, values obtained were above the cut-off 0.07 value as stated by (Pallant,
2002). The values for both the training environment and the trainee motivation were
0.850 (within acceptable limits and above 0.7). The dependent variable training
effectiveness revealed an acceptable value of 0.960.
In accordance to examine the relationship between the independent variables
(training environment, trainee motivation) and the dependent variable (training
effectiveness) a statistics summary is performed in this section, starting by
identifying the results of the descriptive statistics and analyzing the independent and
dependent variables relationship. After that multiple regression analysis is conducted
to measure the contribution level of the training environment and trainee motivation
into the training effectiveness. Items’ reliability of the survey is checked statistically
by a theoretical assessment conducted in an Arabic country.
5.1. Descriptive Results
Referring to the descriptive statistics obtained data, which show that the larger
number of the participants was males (58.6%). Females were only 41.4%. This does
not support the idea which states that females are usually forming the larger
employees’ rate in the organizational culture. And referring to the age of the
respondents, which show the following: 20-29 (14.8%), 30-39 (54.7%), 40-49
(19.5), and 50 or more (10.9%). This indicates that most of the respondents appear
to be in the middle age. This is the most productive age for long years to come. They
are far away from retirement. This supports the positive idea to maximize and get
most performance of this category considering them to be the typical workforce for
this sector. And in term of participants’ experience, the following are the indicated
information: Under 5 years (12.5%), 6-10 (30.5%), 11-15 (26.6%), 16-20 (8.6%), 21
or more were only (21.9%). It shows that most of the respondents’ characteristics are
considered to be beginners in the practical life. They are newly introduced to their
jobs, luck the experience to shape their characteristics and behavior and will form a
good category to react positively to the training. Training for sure will improve their
performance from now on.
Based on the generated outcomes from the variables analysis, it was found that an
inter-item correlation of high value exists between all the dimensions. Appendix A
displays the results of the correlation between training environment, trainee
motivation and training effectiveness. It is revealed that training environment and
trainee motivation are positively correlated to training effectiveness. These
correlations confirm the study’s hypotheses H1, and H2 to have a positive
relationship between training environment, trainee motivation, and training
Table A. Correlation results
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2tailed)
5.3. Regression Analysis
Appendix B reveals the outcomes of the multiple regression analysis to which the
ACTA UNIVERSITATIS DANUBIUS Vol 13, no 2, 2017
training environment and the trainee motivation variables affect training
effectiveness. These outcomes show that training environment and trainee
motivation together contributed to training effectiveness by a variance of .401
(40.1%). It revealed that 40.1% of the variance in training effectiveness can be
accounted by the individual variables dimensions. The trainee motivation has the
larger influence on training effectiveness having a beta value of .515 over the
influence of training environment which accounted for a beta value of .248.
Table B. Correlation results
R Square .401
N=114 *p<.05 ** p<.01
The concluded findings in this study clarify the positive significant relationship from
training environment into training effectiveness. They match other previous studies’
findings like the one by Shabha & Gaines (2013) stating the positive relationship
between the training environment and the training effectiveness. While the
governmental organizations suffer from shortage in other factors related to training
effectiveness such as promotions or rewards to encourage employee’s performance
enhancements, brings the necessity to bring attention to different available training
performance boosters subjects like the training environment and the trainee
motivation. These organizations need to focus more into similar factors for the
reason of a rapid development pressure from the current more complicated nature of
Arguably, the results in this study verify previous studies which confirm that well
prepared and equipped training environment can enhance the trainee’s reception of
the new knowledge and intention to learn from the training. Trainee’s enhanced
learning performance is connected and influenced by the trainer ability to prepare a
suitable training environment and employee to a high degree the training process
equipment’s and simulators exists in that environment. The organization and the
trainer can affect the degree of learning obtainable by employment of the supportive
medium and encouraging atmosphere. This in turn maximizes the organizations
productivity and allows it’s distinguishing. Plentiful advantages to all the parties
involved; the staff, the management the clients or beneficiaries and the organization
can be achieved using such approach. This statement confirms antecedent studies
that viewed training environment as having an affirmative relationship with training
effectiveness such as Diamantidis & Chatzoglou (2012), and Sanjeevkumar & Yanan
The above stated justifications in theory support the previously mentioned literatures
reviewed supporting the importance of the training environment to create motivation
inside the trainee facilitating the training’s purpose. Even with the influence level of
the other training process related factors, the above mentioned training factors
antecedents can have lower or higher influence degree into the training effectiveness
in comparison with other factors which has also been confirmed in the outcomes of
the study. It was revealed in this study that the trainee motivation was the higher
effective factor compared with the other argued factor. The training environment is
still effective, but it is the least effective factor.
Finally, the results also show that there is a significant positive statistical relationship
between the training effectiveness and trainee motivation. This supports hypotheses
H2. This indicates the important role played by this factor and represents an essential
practice for being one of the effective factors regardless of the population or nature
of the organization. Thus, trainee motivation forms a supportive party to the public
sector. However, in any status, organization is required to give much of important
awareness to encourage employments of any employees’ motivation enhancers such
as post training rewards, because the better the encouragement the employee get, the
more effectiveness will be reflected to the organization and gain from training.
Therefore, when investing or establishing for a good motivation strategy for the
advantages of training, it will be a successful training first of all which in turn helps
the organization to jump into a higher profession stage.
The outcomes of this study studied the impact of training contextual factors on the
training effectiveness by collecting primary data from employees in the public
sector. Sample employees consist of clerks and supervisors to explore the
dimensions’ significance of the training factors placed under focus in this study. The
accomplished results showed that training factors have a significant effect in the
training performance. Accordingly, it verifies for the training specialists to pay
attention to these important factors. This helps them to achieve competitive benefits.
Other essential concerns are not researched on this study. More research is required
to broaden the subject’s area. Although with the existing boundaries in this study
and possibility for more expansion, its findings’ importances are still visible. An
example of those boundaries is the limited participants’ number forming the studies
sample. This works against generalize the findings. This indicates the importance for
ACTA UNIVERSITATIS DANUBIUS Vol 13, no 2, 2017
more studies to increase the sample’s size, and to explore other areas and factors
such as the training material, trainer, and social support.
Moreover, these findings can also benefit any other organization without limiting the
sector. They can also be used to evaluate the same programme in other countries, or
a local different sort of training programmes. It is also important to indicate that in
the course of inspecting and searching concerning literatures on training
effectiveness and the related factors, most of the literature studies focused factors
take place in the training venue such as the training material and the trainer style.
Factors take place outside the training venue did not get the appropriate attention
such as the social support. In addition to that, the majority of previous studies were
conducted in either western or Asian countries.
Ahmed, I., Nawaz, M. M., Usman, A., Shaukat, M. Z., Ahmed, N., & Wasim-ul-Rehman. (2010). How
organizations evaluate their trainings? An evidence from Pakistani organizations, 2(5), 162–180.
Al-Eisa, A. S., Furayyan, M. A., & Alhemoud, A. M. (2009). An empirical examination of the effects
of self-efficacy, supervisor support and motivation to learn on transfer intention. Management Decision,
47(8), 1221–1244. http://doi.org/10.1108/00251740910984514.
Almakhadmah, I. (2012). Factors influencing the effectiveness of human resource training programmes
in hotel sector. (Doctoral dissertation, Universiti Utara Malaysia). Retrieved from
Aziz, S. F. A., & Ahmad, S. (2011). Stimulating training motivation using the right training
characteristic. Industrial and Commercial Training, 43(1), 53–61.
Barcala, M. (2000). Training in retailing: a guide for improving the supply of courses. International
Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 28(6), 243–260.
Bimpitsos, C., & Petridou, E. (2012). A transdisciplinary approach to training: preliminary research
findings based on a case analysis. European Journal of Training and Development, 36(9), 911–929.
Bin Lin, A. (2012). The influence of contextual factors on training effectiveness of technical employees
at silterra Malaysia SDN. BHD. (Doctoral dissertation, School of Business, Universiti Utara Malaysia).
Chukwu, G. M. (2016). Trainer attributes as drivers of training effectiveness. Industrial and
Commercial Training, 48(7), 367–373. http://doi.org/10.1108/ICT-02-2016-0013.
Denby, S. (2010). The importance of training needs analysis. Industrial and Commercial Training,
42(3), 147–150. http://doi.org/10.1108/00197851011038132.
Diamantidis, A. D., & Chatzoglou, P. D. (2012). Evaluation of formal training programmes in Greek
organisations. European Journal of Training and Development, 36(9), 888–910.
Gelaidan, H. M. H. (2012). The moderating effects Of organisational culture on the relationship
between leadership style and employee commitment to change of public sector in Yemen. Universiti
Ghosh, P., Joshi, J. P., Satyawadi, R., Mukherjee, U., & Ranjan, R. (2011). Evaluating effectiveness of
a training programme with trainee reaction. Industrial and Commercial Training, 43(4), 247–255.
Green, E. C. (2002). The influence of individual and work environment characteristics on trainee
motivation and training effectiveness measures. Retrieved from http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/2002-
Griffin, R. (2011). Seeing the wood for the trees: workplace learning evaluation. Journal of European
Industrial Training, 35(8), 841–850. http://doi.org/10.1108/03090591111168357.
Griffin, R. P. (2010). Means and ends: effective training evaluation. Industrial and Commercial
Homklin, T., Takahashi, Y., & Techakanont, K. (2013). Effects of individual and work environment
characteristics on training effectiveness: evidence from skill certification system for automotive
industry in Thailand. International Business Research, 6(12), 1–17. http://doi.org/10.5539/ibr.v6n12p1.
Kirkpatrick, D. L. (1970). Evaluation of training. In Evaluation of short-term training in rehabilitation
Kirkpatrick, D. L., & Kirkpatrick, J. D. (2009). Evaluating: part of a ten-step process. In Evaluating
Training Programs (pp. 3–15). Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
Krejcie, R. V, & Morgan, D. W. (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational
And Psychological Measurement, 38, 607–610.
Lendahls, L., & Oscarsson, M. G. (2017). Midwifery students’ experiences of simulation- and skills
training. Nurse Education Today, 50, 12–16. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2016.12.005.
Massenberg, A. C., Spurk, D., & Kauffeld, S. (2015). Social support at the workplace, motivation to
transfer and training transfer: a multilevel indirect effects model. International Journal of Training and
Development, 19(3), 161–178. http://doi.org/10.1111/ijtd.12054.
Niwaz, A., Asad, A. R., & Muhammad, S. K. (2011). Evaluation of teachers’ training procedure and
pedagogical skills in adult literacy, 2(11), 120–125.
O’Connor, D. J., & Little, B. (2012). Evaluation – training’s ignored leverage point. Industrial and
Commercial Training, 44(5), 273–280. http://doi.org/10.1108/00197851211245022.
Pallant, J. (2002). Spss survival manual (2nd edn.). Allen & Unwin. Retrieved from
Pau, C. K. F. (2001). Factors contributing training effectiveness. MBA Research Report: School of
Management, University Sains Malaysia, Penang.
Pollitt, K., & Oldfield, J. (2017). Overcoming the odds: Exploring barriers and motivations for male
trainee primary teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 62, 30–36.
Price, J. (2001). Reflections on the determinants of voluntary turnover. International Journal of
Manpower, 22(7), 600–624. http://doi.org/10.1108/EUM0000000006233.
Sanjeevkumar, V., & Yanan, H. (2011). A study on training factors and its impact on training
effectiveness in Kedah state development corporation, Kedah, Malaysia. International Journal of
Human Resource Studies, 1(2), 136–157. http://doi.org/10.5296/ijhrs.v1i2.1130.
ACTA UNIVERSITATIS DANUBIUS Vol 13, no 2, 2017
Sanjeevkumar, V., & Yanan, H. (2012). A study of determinants of training effectiveness in Kedah
state development corporation. Review of Management, 2(1), 18–34. Retrieved from
http://mdrfindia.org/pdf/Review of Management-PDF/Review of Management, Vol. 2, No. 1-2, June
Shabha, G., & Gaines, K. (2013). A comparative analysis of transatlantic design interventions for
therapeutically enhanced learning environments – Texas vs West Midlands. Facilities, 31(13/14), 634–
Shree, S. (2017). Investigating training through the lens of dramatic possibilities. Industrial and
Commercial Training, 49(4), 157–163. http://doi.org/10.1108/ICT-10-2016-0066.
Tai, W. (2006). Effects of training framing, general self-efficacy and training motivation on trainees’
training effectiveness. Personnel Review, 35(1), 51–65. http://doi.org/10.1108/00483480610636786.
Tansu Barker, A. (1997). Determinants of salesforce effectiveness: perceptions of field managers versus
senior sales executives. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 15(6), 258–264.
Terrana, A., Dowdell, J., Edwards, B., Tahsin, F., Cacciacarro, L., & Cameron, D. (2016). Perspectives
of key stakeholders about vocational training and rehabilitation in Trinidad and Tobago. British Journal
of Occupational Therapy, 79(11), 703–712. http://doi.org/10.1177/0308022616669380.
Wilson, H. (2000). Emergency response preparedness: small group training. Part I–training and
learning styles. Disaster Prevention and Management, 9(2), 105–116. Retrieved from
Yanan, H. (2011). A Study On Training Factors And Its Impact On Training Effectiveness In Kedah
State Developemnt Corporation, Kedah, Malaysia (Unpublished Master dissertation). Universiti Utara
Yanson, R., & Johnson, R. D. (2016). An empirical examination of e-learning design: The role of
trainee socialization and complexity in short term training. Computers and Education, 101, 43–54.