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Factors Influencing Training Effectiveness: Evidence from Public Sector in Bahrain


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The objective of this study is to explore problems faced by training programmes implemented at the public sector in Bahrain. Key issues discussed are related to training and development. The significance of the training cannot be ignored in delivering the needed knowledge and capabilities. Therefore, the training should be effective enough to attain these objectives. This study evaluates in accordance with vocational training a number of contextual factors discovered to have an influence in a different combination with other previously examined effective factors. It explores the relationship between them. It also identifies types of relation between the training effectiveness and the contextual factors. The framework of this study is established according to the Kirkpatrick training model. This model consists of four levels measuring training effectiveness namely reaction, learning, behavior, and result. Instrument utilized in this study was a 122 item questionnaire combined to respond to 2 hypotheses. The questionnaire was prepared and distributed among the targeted respondents. It is revealed that contextual factors namely training environment, and trainee motivation have positive impact on the programms conducted in the public sector. This study provides critical input and contribution to literatures related to training in the public sector in Bahrain.
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Factors Influencing Training Effectiveness: Evidence from Public
Sector in Bahrain
Ehsan Saeed Idrees Yaqoot
, Wan Shakizah Wan Mohd. Noor
, Mohd Faizal Mohd
Abstract: The objective of this study is to explore problems faced by training programmes
implemented at the public sector in Bahrain. Key issues discussed are related to training and
development. The significance of the training cannot be ignored in delivering the needed knowledge
and capabilities. Therefore, the training should be effective enough to attain these objectives. This study
evaluates in accordance with vocational training a number of contextual factors discovered to have an
influence in a different combination with other previously examined effective factors. It explores the
relationship between them. It also identifies types of relation between the training effectiveness and the
contextual factors. The framework of this study is established according to the Kirkpatrick training
model. This model consists of four levels measuring training effectiveness namely reaction, learning,
behavior, and result. Instrument utilized in this study was a 122 item questionnaire combined to respond
to 2 hypotheses. The questionnaire was prepared and distributed among the targeted respondents. It is
revealed that contextual factors namely training environment, and trainee motivation have positive
impact on the programms conducted in the public sector. This study provides critical input and
contribution to literatures related to training in the public sector in Bahrain.
Keywords: Training effectiveness; training environment; trainee motivation; training factors
JEL Classification: H40; M53
1. Introduction
Training and its effectiveness has been currently a topic of attention and concern no
matter what was the type of organization or its activity’s nature. Organizations have
understood the training importance and the significant role it plays in enhancing the
PhD Candidate, School of Business Management, College of Business Universiti Utara Malaysia,
Address: Sintok, 06010 Universiti Utara Malaysia, Kedah, Malaysia, Corresponding author:
Senior Lecturer, PhD, School of Business Management, College of Business Universiti Utara
Malaysia, Malaysia, Address: Sintok, 06010 Universiti Utara Malaysia, Kedah, Malaysia, E-mail:
Senior Lecturer, PhD, School of Business Management, College of Business Universiti Utara
Malaysia, Address: Sintok, 06010 Universiti Utara Malaysia, Kedah, Malaysia, E-mail: m.faizal
AUDŒ, Vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 31-44
job performance, and employee’s efficiency. It also provides the organization with
the ability to survive, especially with the hard competition nowadays. Training is the
ideal approach for preparing employees with certain skills or giving them the ability
to fill the gaps in their performance (Shree, 2017). For illustration, new computerized
systems might need workers to be trained on the way to deal and work with those
systems. Otherwise, the workers will lack the knowledge and understating of making
appropriate use of them. Overall, training is a typical process to accommodate
employees with new skills or improve their knowledge to a higher stage. It is well
understood that training can be employed to empower manpower to alter the
organizational or country’s culture and productivity or service quality. Additionally,
training can remedy to a great extent if not completely deficiencies related to job
performance or problems. Training can serve as an immediate treatment or solution
to the organizational requirements and a fast performance enhancer. It has a strong
effect on the existing performance level. The main aim of training is the
improvement or correction of any performance deficiencies. Training like anything
else needs to have clearly indicated logical goals to be successful (Denby, 2010).
These goals will set the proper frame for the training contents and define the
benchmark to achieve the planned targets of training. It is very important to be
realistic and not to expect overstated goals. Unrealistic goal anticipation ensures
failure because it is simply unreachable. Training needs specifying and targeting the
areas that needs improvement. Widening the training scope will interfere with its
usefulness. Therefore, it should be focused (Denby, 2010). Training is effected by
many factors such as the managerial support, peer encouragement, adequate
resources and consequences for training application on the job field (Sanjeevkumar
& Yanan, 2011). Although, there are other elements which were found to affect the
positive results of the training such as the participants, training material,
organizations, and trainer, this study is limited only to the training environment, and
trainee motivation representing the independent variables as proposed by previous
literatures, that may encourage to a higher degree the training effectiveness
(Almakhadmah, 2012; Lin, 2012; Homklin, Takahashi, & Techakanont, 2013;
Massenberg, Spurk, & Kauffeld, 2015).
2. Literature Review
Researchers have argued that employees’ training can help increase the feeling of
belonging and feeling of responsibility. The more training provided, the more
benefits for the employees, the further enhanced skills and capabilities, and the more
advantages reflected back to the organization (Terrana et al., 2016). Training
advantages is not only limited to improvement in the occupational skillfulness, but
also improvements in awareness and appreciation of the employee, and an
affirmative mental and behavior characteristics of the employee.
Another importance of the training is that it gives the adaptation possibility to the
competitiveness characteristic and market rapid changes. Training is a stored force
to retain the liveliness of business. Organization’s concurrence is the toughest kind
of competitions. Training is clearly becoming an essential human investment.
Developed countries pay much attention to mentality innovation and creativity and
not only to equipment or technology. Developed countries take every advantage of
the available and possible workers’ development opportunities. Studies have
confirmed that training is the main source of achieving employee development and
expertise, with first class training that fulfils its aim to develop a first class service
or product as a result of the developed performance. Therefore, the organization can
maintain an insuperable position in the community (Sanjeevkumar & Yanan, 2012).
2.1. Training Effectiveness
Training has been defined as the trainee’s behavioral influential process (Ghosh,
Joshi, Satyawadi, Mukherjee, & Ranjan, 2011). It is a tool that allows the
organization to survive and causes its persistence. The benefit of it is not limited to
the organization, but to the employees as well by accommodating them with the
expertise needed to meet the modern advancement in the work fields (Ahmed et al.,
2010). It forms one of the methods to save the organization’s investments. This is
clearly valid in the event that new capabilities gained were applied in the work
environment (Griffin, 2011).
In the past, people used to believe that the traditional education from the primary
school to the college level was sufficient, unaware that training is mandatory for the
development of employees of any level in the organization. It is also necessary for
improving the quality of life. The public sectors are the organizations that control
the development process and level of services in the Kingdom of Bahrain. That
means equipping its staff with better skills and knowledge will be positively reflected
in the society. It will act like training the developers which will yield a further
developed output. According to Griffin (2010), the role of the government is to find
a solution for the challenges faced to eliminate the gaps in the workforce skills to be
able to follow up with the global economy. Lately, the ultimate goal of the
development professionals and customers is to provide a method towards achieving
the required results. They keep their acting and thinking within their limited
experience of training which usually lacks the necessary farsighted vision of the
business (O’Connor & Little, 2012).
After the consideration of the importance of training, another important factor is
associated with it. As with everything that is surrounding us, time and money will
not be spent on something that is useless and ineffective. Training effectiveness is
another factor to be taken into consideration by people in charge of setting the
organization’s development plans. Training effectiveness is the relationship between
the input variables, output variables and the process or transfer factor. According to
Bimpitsos & Petridou (2012) a successful systematic approach is a result of frequent
evaluation and previous testing. This function integrates many different evidences to
improve the learning and training activities. It requires the involvement of three
parties, the assessment tool, the training/evaluation participants, and the party
tracking this process, studying and using the results to improve them continuously.
2.2. Training Environment
Training environment is all about the condition or surrounding of the medium the
training programme takes place in. It involves sound clarity and level, correct
lighting such as the color/strength, active needed hardware and devices such as
computers, site arrangement like U type table arrangement or groups or site
arrangement such as the parking, and other training resources (Sanjeevkumar &
Yanan, 2011). The learning environment is a link between the learning and the area
created for this purpose. It covers the design, the structure, the contents, the control
and the way of using these premises in favor of the learning. There is a lack of studies
about the influence of the environment on the effectiveness of the training to cover
the importance of the surrounding factors such as the lighting source (artificial, or
natural from sunlight), brightness, color, angle of it, sound clarity, level, echo, and
other sources of noise (Shabha & Gaines, 2013). It is one of the key factors
responsible of the successful implementation of the training programmes. It is being
measured based on the reaction of the trainees in level 1 in Kirkpatrick’s evaluation
model, in addition to other factors like (presentation methodology, trainer,
material/handouts, and training audio-visuals). An unsatisfactorily prepared training
environment has a distractive impact on the intake of the participants (Lendahls &
Oscarsson, 2017). It is also one of the factors to establish the training programme
and has been found to influence the effectiveness and the learning outcomes
positively (Chukwu, 2016).
Quality in training programmes is what all the organizations are planning to reach.
Quality in training requires quality in all the aspects related to the programme
including the setup of the venue. A portion of the instructional activity of the
programme can reflect the quality level from the point of view of a convenient
learning environment, classroom convenience, organization of chairs, reachable
water, toilet, fresh air etc., (Niwaz, Asad, & Muhammad, 2011). The training
environment was found to have a significant correlation in addition to influencing
the training effectiveness in any organization. It was also found to have a functional
control over the expected results of trainees. On the other hand, an effective
relationship was detected between the training environment and the work
environment as IVs (independent variables) with the training effectiveness as a DV
(dependent variable). It is critical to determine every factor that may contribute the
outcomes in the stage of setting the objective to raise the probability of the success
of the programme (Sanjeevkumar & Yanan, 2012).
2.3. Trainee Motivation
Keeping the employees motivated is the simplest way to reach the competitive edge,
raise the rating, and profitability. Motivation is critical because it is a sort of
involvement, recognition and a reward to the human resources, which is fundamental
for any organization. Motivation yields satisfaction which is influenced by
remuneration and recognition. Motivation is an internal generating force that
controls our work (Pollitt & Oldfield, 2017).
According to Aziz & Ahmad (2011), there are six factors that increase the trainee
motivation. This is very useful for the human resource (HR) and training
professionals to setup a successful training. The first factor is to give the interested
trainee the option to choose. Because the training will be very beneficial for both
parties, the employee and the organization, it is very important to ensure of the
interest of the employee to attend that specific training programme. This is attained
by either making the option available for them, or by their involvement in the
determination of the training. The second factor is the reputation of the training
which will also influence the motivation. This can be derived from previous records
related to certain training to get an observation and information about the training
from the point of view of the contents and material, venue and facilities, trainer,
trainer style, and the general background about the training. The third factor is the
design of the training, which consists of principles like the relationship of the training
contents to the job, expected reward or type of rewards available in the organization,
training method applied, as well as honoring and appreciation by the firm. Fourth,
trainees should find the training as a way to simplify or improve their capability to
look after their form of work. Fifth, the training should fulfil their future’s vision
toward getting better opportunities and a better position. Finally, the training should
also satisfy the trainees’ needs. For example, to be distinguished by increasing their
knowledge and skills or to obtain a better income. Training is a tool for any
organizations’ plans to enhance its functionality, because of the effect it has on the
workforce potential, performance, level of skills and effectiveness. Training
practitioners say it is difficult to measure the real effectiveness of the training
because there are many other factors playing important roles in the personnel
performance, in addition to the deliverable subject, such as supervision (social
factor), trainee expectation from the programme, training aids (training
environment) and other factors that has a deep impact on the effectiveness of the
training and the motivation of the trainees. A good source for measuring the training
effectiveness in the public sector is from the trainee’s level of self-efficacy and
motivation (Yanson & Johnson, 2016).
Motivation is connected with other essential factors to form an appropriate
environment for training transfer to reach the effectiveness and the aim of the
training. For example, suitable training facilities will motivate the employees’ to
attend and make the learning actually happen. Otherwise, their negative feeling will
not be limited to the training itself, but to the organization in general and to the HR
or training department specifically (Kirkpatrick, 1975).
3. Conceptual Framework
The framework of the study is shown in Figure 1. It presents the theoretical
components of the traditional framework and illustrates the relationship between the
independent variables with the dependent variable. In this study training
effectiveness is the dependent variable. The independent variables are the training
environment and trainee motivation. Independent variables are the factors that have
influence into the effectiveness of training. Processing of data collected is by using
quantitative method. Trainee’s gathered data forms the base for the training
effectiveness different levels analysis.
Figure 1. Research Framework of the Study
3.1. Hypotheses
Since there were studies indicating a positive and a significant relationship between
training environment, trainee motivation and training effectiveness, while other
studies presented conflicting results, it brings the need for more research in this
subject. The aim of the study is to investigate this relationship between these factors
in the public sector in the kingdom of Bahrain. Accordingly, and based on the
framework of the study the following hypotheses were proposed:
H1. There is a positive relationship between training environment and training
H2. There is a positive relationship between trainee motivation and training
4. Method
Comparing the appropriateness between the measuring methods with the line of
reasoning, quantitative survey type with Likert five points is the rating scale utilized
that was found to be more suited for this research. Survey was found to be a useful
tool for the examination of the variables’ relationship to verify the hypotheses, in
addition for giving a probability to collect a large number of data from a large
measure of respondents. At first pilot test is conducted to confirm the reliability of
Training Environment
Trainee Motivation
Training effectiveness
the instrument. Thirty questionnaires were requested to be filled by easiest reachable
employees in the public sector. Cronbach’s Alpha obtained values were 0.839 for
training environment, 0.877 for trainee motivation, and 0.884 for training
As stated by (Krejcie & Morgan, 1970), 382 employees is the equivalent size of
sample for an employees' number of population of 56,988 in the public sector. At
least three months should pass after participating into the training was preserved as
a criteria (Kirkpatrick, 1970). The target respondents were supervisors and clerks
only. Taking into account the results of the assessment process of the factors
involved, cross-sectional survey form of design was decided on to be used in addition
to the quantitative method. Eleven items investigated the coefficient of influence into
reaction, seven items for the learning, twelve items for the behavior, and six for the
results. A total of Thirty two items were prepared to form a measuring instrument
for the dependent variable. The second section of the questionnaire assessed the
relationship between the training environment and trainee motivation. Six items
measured the trainee motivation of the respondents. Nine items measured the
training environment The Statistical Package employed for data analyses is SPSS
version 23. While the third section of the questionnaire assessed the demographic
analysis of the respondent.
Although, frequent attempts were made to get the entire questionnaires back, only
155 were brought back. This is according to several reasons like 60% of the targeted
respondents refused to participate. Other respondents were found not to participate
in any training courses in the specified period. Other respondents ignored to
responsed or return back the questionnaire even with the frequent tries from the
researcher. In addition 27 questioners were neglected because of unsuitably filled
and accordingly deleted. The reason behind the small number of participation rate is
because of the discourage research culture Arabian countries are known for
(Gelaidan, 2012).
The questionnaire was also translated to Arabic language with the help of bilingual
experts from the English Language Center in the University of Bahrain to increase
the possibility of obtaining a clearer and precise response from a questionnaire that
is conducted in an Arabic country.
4.1. Measurement of Items Virtuous
The questionnaire’s items employed are extracted from other relative studies. They
were examined and adopted to suit the nature of the study. The items for every
training factors and the training effectiveness measured to assess the participants’
response using five point Likert scale ranging from strongly disagree (1) to strongly
agree (5). Eight items measured the training environment influence on the
effectiveness of training programme obtained from (Yanan, 2011). The Cronbach’s
reliability test for the previous items was 0.839. Trainee motivation was assessed by
five items (Green, 2002). The Cronbach’s reliability test for these items yielded a
value of 0.877.
The training effectiveness sub levels (reaction, behavior, learning, and result) are
measured by thirty four items adopted from other related studies. The respondents’
reaction is perceived by eleven items scales. Another three items were adopted from
Al-Eisa, Furayyan, & Alhemoud (2009). Another item adopted from. One item from
Barcala (2000). Another item constructed by Wilson (2000). Finally, the lasted one
was from Lin (2012). The obtained value for the Cronbach alpha was 0.910.
To perceive the respondents’ obtained learning seven items were adopted according
to the following arrangements: Two items were from Al-Eisa et al. (2009), another
one is from Tai (2006), one item obtained from Price (2001), three more were
constructed by (Bin Lin, 2012). The obtained Cronbach alpha scale is 0.807.
To perceive the respondents’ behavior change from the training ten questions were
obtained from Lin (2012) and categorized under the training effectiveness. Two of
them are from Barcala (2000), another two are obtained from Price (2001). 3 items
are from Tai (2006), 2 items for (Wilson, 2000), an item for Barcala (2000), an item
for Price, (2001) and the final one is from Pau (2001). The Cronbach alpha value
was 0.880.
For the purpose to measure the return on investment (result), a number of seven items
obtained from previous studies. Five of them were extracted from Barker (1997), and
the additional one is obtained from Tai (2006), and another item was obtained from
Lin (2012). The resulted Cronbach alpha was 0.939. It is identified that all the items
accomplished the validity requirements.
5. Results
Computation of Cronbach’s alpha displays the degree of participants’ agreement
toward every factor. Higher scores mean higher reliability, with extant ranges
between 0 and 1. Most of the recorded dimensions represent a high level reliability.
In particular, values obtained were above the cut-off 0.07 value as stated by (Pallant,
2002). The values for both the training environment and the trainee motivation were
0.850 (within acceptable limits and above 0.7). The dependent variable training
effectiveness revealed an acceptable value of 0.960.
In accordance to examine the relationship between the independent variables
(training environment, trainee motivation) and the dependent variable (training
effectiveness) a statistics summary is performed in this section, starting by
identifying the results of the descriptive statistics and analyzing the independent and
dependent variables relationship. After that multiple regression analysis is conducted
to measure the contribution level of the training environment and trainee motivation
into the training effectiveness. Items’ reliability of the survey is checked statistically
by a theoretical assessment conducted in an Arabic country.
5.1. Descriptive Results
Referring to the descriptive statistics obtained data, which show that the larger
number of the participants was males (58.6%). Females were only 41.4%. This does
not support the idea which states that females are usually forming the larger
employees’ rate in the organizational culture. And referring to the age of the
respondents, which show the following: 20-29 (14.8%), 30-39 (54.7%), 40-49
(19.5), and 50 or more (10.9%). This indicates that most of the respondents appear
to be in the middle age. This is the most productive age for long years to come. They
are far away from retirement. This supports the positive idea to maximize and get
most performance of this category considering them to be the typical workforce for
this sector. And in term of participants’ experience, the following are the indicated
information: Under 5 years (12.5%), 6-10 (30.5%), 11-15 (26.6%), 16-20 (8.6%), 21
or more were only (21.9%). It shows that most of the respondents’ characteristics are
considered to be beginners in the practical life. They are newly introduced to their
jobs, luck the experience to shape their characteristics and behavior and will form a
good category to react positively to the training. Training for sure will improve their
performance from now on.
5.2. Correlation
Based on the generated outcomes from the variables analysis, it was found that an
inter-item correlation of high value exists between all the dimensions. Appendix A
displays the results of the correlation between training environment, trainee
motivation and training effectiveness. It is revealed that training environment and
trainee motivation are positively correlated to training effectiveness. These
correlations confirm the study’s hypotheses H1, and H2 to have a positive
relationship between training environment, trainee motivation, and training
Table A. Correlation results
Training Environment
Trainee Motivation
Training Effectiveness
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2tailed)
5.3. Regression Analysis
Appendix B reveals the outcomes of the multiple regression analysis to which the
training environment and the trainee motivation variables affect training
effectiveness. These outcomes show that training environment and trainee
motivation together contributed to training effectiveness by a variance of .401
(40.1%). It revealed that 40.1% of the variance in training effectiveness can be
accounted by the individual variables dimensions. The trainee motivation has the
larger influence on training effectiveness having a beta value of .515 over the
influence of training environment which accounted for a beta value of .248.
Table B. Correlation results
Sig. t
Training Environment
Trainee Motivation
R Square .401
F 37.150
Sig. .000
Durbin-Watson 1.968
N=114 *p<.05 ** p<.01
5. Discussion
The concluded findings in this study clarify the positive significant relationship from
training environment into training effectiveness. They match other previous studies’
findings like the one by Shabha & Gaines (2013) stating the positive relationship
between the training environment and the training effectiveness. While the
governmental organizations suffer from shortage in other factors related to training
effectiveness such as promotions or rewards to encourage employee’s performance
enhancements, brings the necessity to bring attention to different available training
performance boosters subjects like the training environment and the trainee
motivation. These organizations need to focus more into similar factors for the
reason of a rapid development pressure from the current more complicated nature of
Arguably, the results in this study verify previous studies which confirm that well
prepared and equipped training environment can enhance the trainee’s reception of
the new knowledge and intention to learn from the training. Trainee’s enhanced
learning performance is connected and influenced by the trainer ability to prepare a
suitable training environment and employee to a high degree the training process
equipment’s and simulators exists in that environment. The organization and the
trainer can affect the degree of learning obtainable by employment of the supportive
medium and encouraging atmosphere. This in turn maximizes the organizations
productivity and allows it’s distinguishing. Plentiful advantages to all the parties
involved; the staff, the management the clients or beneficiaries and the organization
can be achieved using such approach. This statement confirms antecedent studies
that viewed training environment as having an affirmative relationship with training
effectiveness such as Diamantidis & Chatzoglou (2012), and Sanjeevkumar & Yanan
The above stated justifications in theory support the previously mentioned literatures
reviewed supporting the importance of the training environment to create motivation
inside the trainee facilitating the training’s purpose. Even with the influence level of
the other training process related factors, the above mentioned training factors
antecedents can have lower or higher influence degree into the training effectiveness
in comparison with other factors which has also been confirmed in the outcomes of
the study. It was revealed in this study that the trainee motivation was the higher
effective factor compared with the other argued factor. The training environment is
still effective, but it is the least effective factor.
Finally, the results also show that there is a significant positive statistical relationship
between the training effectiveness and trainee motivation. This supports hypotheses
H2. This indicates the important role played by this factor and represents an essential
practice for being one of the effective factors regardless of the population or nature
of the organization. Thus, trainee motivation forms a supportive party to the public
sector. However, in any status, organization is required to give much of important
awareness to encourage employments of any employees’ motivation enhancers such
as post training rewards, because the better the encouragement the employee get, the
more effectiveness will be reflected to the organization and gain from training.
Therefore, when investing or establishing for a good motivation strategy for the
advantages of training, it will be a successful training first of all which in turn helps
the organization to jump into a higher profession stage.
6. Conclusion
The outcomes of this study studied the impact of training contextual factors on the
training effectiveness by collecting primary data from employees in the public
sector. Sample employees consist of clerks and supervisors to explore the
dimensions’ significance of the training factors placed under focus in this study. The
accomplished results showed that training factors have a significant effect in the
training performance. Accordingly, it verifies for the training specialists to pay
attention to these important factors. This helps them to achieve competitive benefits.
Other essential concerns are not researched on this study. More research is required
to broaden the subject’s area. Although with the existing boundaries in this study
and possibility for more expansion, its findings’ importances are still visible. An
example of those boundaries is the limited participants’ number forming the studies
sample. This works against generalize the findings. This indicates the importance for
more studies to increase the sample’s size, and to explore other areas and factors
such as the training material, trainer, and social support.
Moreover, these findings can also benefit any other organization without limiting the
sector. They can also be used to evaluate the same programme in other countries, or
a local different sort of training programmes. It is also important to indicate that in
the course of inspecting and searching concerning literatures on training
effectiveness and the related factors, most of the literature studies focused factors
take place in the training venue such as the training material and the trainer style.
Factors take place outside the training venue did not get the appropriate attention
such as the social support. In addition to that, the majority of previous studies were
conducted in either western or Asian countries.
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... The training environment is "all about the condition or surrounding of the medium the training programme takes place in" ( [115], p. 34). The training environment is key factors responsible for the successful implementation of a training programme is the training environment [115]. ...
... The training environment is "all about the condition or surrounding of the medium the training programme takes place in" ( [115], p. 34). The training environment is key factors responsible for the successful implementation of a training programme is the training environment [115]. It includes the suitability of the physical facilities, equipment, classrooms and accommodation [106,116]. ...
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Training programmes are evaluated to verify their effectiveness, assess their ability to achieve their goals and identify the areas that require improvement. Therefore, the target of evaluators is to develop an appropriate framework for evaluating training programmes. This study adapted Kirkpatrick’s four-level model of training criteria published in 1959 to evaluate training programmes for head teachers according to their own perceptions and those of their supervisors. The adapted model may help evaluators to conceptualise the assessment of learning outcomes of training programmes with metrics and instruments. The model also helps to determine the strengths and weaknesses of the training process. The adaptation includes concrete metrics and instruments for each of the four levels in the model: reaction criteria, learning criteria, behaviour criteria and results criteria. The adapted model was applied to evaluate 12 training programmes for female head teachers in Saudi Arabia. The study sample comprised 250 trainee head teachers and 12 supervisors. The results indicated that the adapted Kirkpatrick evaluation model was very effective in evaluating educational training for head teachers.
... The assessment of entrepreneurs is crucial as it ensures that the training programs conducted are giving a positive impact on the entrepreneurs. Besides, the assessment also can improve the training programs in terms of method, content and objective in the future (Warhuus et al., 2017) A study conducted by (Yaqoot, Noor, & Isa, 2017)on the effectiveness of entrepreneurship training among entrepreneurs in Bahrain. The findings collected by the researchers were that effective entrepreneurship training influenced entrepreneur's behavior, learning, reaction and result. ...
... The questionnaires constructed are based on the objectives of the study. The quantitative data collected from the questionnaires is capable in collecting a lot of information and it is easy to analyze and make comparisons (Yaqoot et al., 2017). Figure 1 above shows the conceptual model of entrepreneurship. ...
The purpose of the study is to examine the impact of entrepreneurship training program towards the entrepreneur’s entrepreneurial performance. The study applied mixed method research that consists of qualitative and quantitative method. Data is collected from a total of 217 entrepreneurs as the respondent of the study. Miles and Huberman technique and SPSS version 25 were used in the study for data analysis. Intervention was designed to improve the entrepreneurship training conducted. The outcome of the study found that entrepreneurship training program give significant impact on entrepreneurs by increasing their entrepreneurial skills, business skills and performance.
... Additionally, training is important in aiding organizations to gain a competitive advantage in the long term (Hutchins, 2009;Park and Jacobs, 2008;Tamkin et al., 2002). The significance of training can, therefore, not be ignored (Yaqoot et al., 2017). Consequently, the significance of training has resulted in the proliferation of employee training programs, as organizations keep investing millions of US dollars annually in training making it an expensive activity (Andoh et al., 2016;Gauld and Miller, 2004;Hughes et al., 2018;Noe, 2010). ...
Purpose Training evaluation is an important part of training programs and evaluating the reactions of trainees is of immense value, but there are few studies on this level of evaluation, as it is a neglected area of research. More so, when trainee reactions to training are poor, human resource managers together with learning and development professionals are able to improve on training programs. Nonetheless, no study has focussed on the aversions of trainees to training, and so this study aims to investigate the aversions of trainees regarding employee training. Design/methodology/approach This study uses the exploratory research design and obtains data from trainees in an online survey using an open-ended question. Thematic text analyses of the statements of 118 respondents are performed using a two-level coding process. Findings A total of 15 first-level codes are identified from the texts and categorized into five second-level codes. Further analyses culminate in the identification of two broad themes; trainers’ presentation aversions and organization of training aversions. Practical implications Attention must be given to the aversions of trainees in the training evaluation literature. This is because of the considerable amount of information that can be generated and based on that, identify the weaknesses inherent in employee training programs and ultimately improve this critical human resource function within organizations. In attending to the trainee aversions, the least and most reported should be resolved holistically for training objectives to be achieved. Originality/value Trainee reaction studies are scarce in the training literature. In addition, most of the existing trainee reaction studies focus on satisfaction while using closed-ended questionnaires. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study that focuses on the aversions of trainees and which uses an open-ended question.
... Training of employees is one area that is imminent for organisations to maintain competitiveness in today's rapidly changing business environment (Mzimela and Chikandiwa, 2017). However, organisational leaders have been in long-standing neglect and recognised employee training and development as a minor activity with little or no effect towards the organisation's outcome (Yaqoot et al., 2017). On the other hand, successful companies acknowledged that an organisation's important asset is its 'human capital'. ...
... Training of employees is one area that is imminent for organisations to maintain competitiveness in today's rapidly changing business environment (Mzimela and Chikandiwa, 2017). Organisational leaders have been in a long-standing neglect and recognised employee training and development as a minor activity with little or no effect towards the organisation's outcome (Yaqoot et al., 2017). Only until recently, successful companies acknowledged that an organisation's important asset is its 'human capital'. ...
... On the other hand, El Hajjar and Alkhanaizi (2018) revealed five factors that determine the training effectiveness: content, environment, presentation style, facilities and materials, and the training schedule. The study of Yaqoot, Noor, and Isa (2017) found that two factors-environment and trainee motivationinfluence the effectiveness of training. In addition, the study results of Ngure and Juma (2018) indicate three factors that have a significant positive correlation: training design, trainee characteristics, and training environment. ...
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The aim of this research is to explore how different variables influence the results of training completed by teachers of young learners. This research was conducted in Indonesia using the correlational research method. Samples of 418 teachers were taken from 11 provinces across Indonesia using the multistage random sampling technique. Questionnaires, interviews, and documentation were used in data collection, whereas the descriptive statistical and inferential techniques were used to analyse the data. Six variables were considered: (a) quality of instructors, (b) completeness of facilities, (c) availability of modules, (d) quality of the evaluation, (e) suitability of materials, and (f) quality of the inputs. Three of the aforementioned variables—namely, regarding materials, instructors, and input sessions—contributed significant effects to the training results. The findings were thoroughly discussed based on the perspective of further analysis, theories, and previous studies.
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In recent years, the entrepreneurship field has been getting attention and led to a growing number of entrepreneurship training programs that are provided for entrepreneurs by various institutions. The aim of the entrepreneurship training program is to equip entrepreneurs with entrepreneurship knowledge by supplying input and evaluating the output of the entrepreneurs. The entrepreneurship training program can enhance the entrepreneur’s knowledge, skills and behavior and can contribute to an increase in their performance. Various entrepreneurship training programs have been conducted. However, there is not enough evidence of whether the training programs conducted are effective. There is a lack in measuring the effectiveness of the programs toward the entrepreneurs. The entrepreneurship training programs conducted are usually not fully satisfied meeting what entrepreneurs need. Hence, this study aimed to assess the effectiveness of entrepreneurship training programs towards the level of Bumiputera entrepreneurial performances in Johor. Action research was applied in the study and intervention plan was designed to examine the changes of Bumiputera entrepreneurial performances. The study used a mixed method for data collection which consists of qualitative and quantitative methods. Three (3) respondents for the qualitative method and a number of 217 from a total population of 500 Bumiputera entrepreneurs will be used as respondents for the study. The data collected from the mixed method will be analysed using Miles and Huberman Technique and SPSS version 25.The finding from the study found that the intervention in the entrepreneurship training program gives impact on entrepreneurs entrepreneurial performance. There is a difference between before and after intervention as the entrepreneurial skill and business skill among Bumiputera entrepreneurs’ increases. This study gives insights for an entrepreneurship training provider to improve the entrepreneurship program provided for entrepreneurs. The study can be used as a reference to address other issues regarding entrepreneurship training programs.
This study aimed to highlight on the active training and demonstrate its impact on learners’ learning and motivation to follow such training, engage in it and apply its skills. The population of the study consisted of a group of main tax auditors, verification monitors and accounting chiefs (category III), who are practitioners in the Directorate of Public Finance under the authority of the Ministry of Finance. They attended a training course at the National Institute of Administration in Lebanon in order to be promoted to full-time employees in the Ministry of Finance. A total of 62 trainees participated in the current study, distributed in three different sections with almost equivalent number of trainees in each section. However, only 58 questionnaires were collected. To obtain the objectives of the current study, the researcher designed a special training material titled “Design Thinking” that complies with the principles of active training. As for data collection method, there was pre- and post-questionnaires. The study adopted mixed approach which combines quantitative and qualitative methodologies. The findings of this study show that active training is very efficient for trainees’ learning and increasing their cognitive knowledge. It also has a prominent role in increasing the motivation of trainees to pursue training and apply the skills acquired in this course.
In South Africa, as in some other countries, the BEd(Hons) program is a generic postgraduate qualification partly intended to deepen the expertise of educators and to enable them to lead and manage effectively. This is with the aim of ensuring the provision of quality education in a transforming education environment. Experienced education managers and law and policy makers are needed to make education yield expected relevant returns and to justify the huge investment into it. However, a previous study into one of the routes to this valuable course (the Advanced Certificate in Education Management, Law and Policy) shows the challenges some graduates face in transferring acquired knowledge and skills to their workplace. Evidence from literature then and at the time of writing this chapter shows this aspect remains a challenge, while there exists a dearth of literature and research into learning transfer in the education sector. This chapter (by focusing on the workplace environment) through secondary data and literature review aims to call attention to the serious need for more work in this field if all stakeholders would get value from the program. What is transfer of training and what are the benefits of training? Why is it difficult for graduates to transfer what they have learned into their workplace environment in the educational sector? What is the value of research into this important field? How can such studies be conducted? What suggested model could be useful for such studies? Why is the suggested model useful? These are the questions which this chapter sets out to answer. In response to these questions, this chapter highlights what transfer of training is and the benefits of training. It delineates leadership as a major reason for why it is difficult for graduates to transfer what they have learned to the workplace in the educational sector. In addition, it identifies return on investment, using findings to plan and review leadership training programs as some of the value of conducting research into the field. Furthermore, it briefly reviews some of the popular models used for such research while focusing on an adapted model from Kirkpatrick and Baldwin and Ford’s models. Lastly, the chapter accentuates the use of mixed-methods research design to reap the value of both worlds in future research.
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Previous research over the past two decades has argued Kirkpatrick’s model ignored the work environment and individual factors influencing training effectiveness. A focus of this study is to investigate four levels of Kirkpatrick’s model with a focus on moderating the influences of individual and work environment characteristic variables, which are learning motivation, self-efficacy, motivation to transfer, and social support. In the present study, we used path analysis to test the hypotheses. The results of this study expand our understanding of the progressive causal relationship of reaction, learning, and behavior to results. In particular, this study confirms the influence of the individual and work environment characteristic on training outcomes and it has implications for enhancing training effectiveness. Although the result of motivation to transfer as a moderating variable has negative effects on the relationship between learning and behavior, social support directly affects behavior change after training and moderates the relationship between learning and behavior. Furthermore, future research on training evaluation should consider the training design variables beyond the training course that may have interfered with the training outcomes.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to probe aid readers’ understanding of the areas in which drama-based trainings are being used and how drama as a tool acts as a means to achieve desired learning and behavioral changes in organizations. Design/methodology/approach The paper uses literature review to analyze the practice of drama-based training. Findings Drama-based training is one of the most effective tools to engage participants. It elicits the desired response in them when they ruminate over familiar circumstances or behaviors being depicted and leads to instant recall and associations that acts as a propeller to imbibing new learning. Coming up with an alternative response or behavior as a result of experiencing events through drama could help them learn or manage the situation through behavioral transformation. Research limitations/implications Being conceptual in nature, this model must be tested empirically by relevant stakeholders in the area of learning and development to add further weightage to literature. Practical implications By detailing drama-based training used in varied areas of specialization and how its usage has tremendous potential to facilitate bringing about desired behavioral changes, the paper demonstrates the importance of creating a lasting impact through this method of training that will specially be relevant to HRD managers. Originality/value Multidisciplinary areas in which drama- or theatre-based trainings are being used have been studied through literature review and a conceptual model of training, abbreviated as DRAMA for easy recall, has been proposed with inclusion of salient features that make drama-based interventions for training so engaging and effective for disseminating learning. This model also finds some connection with the Kolb’s experimental learning theory.
The study investigated male primary school trainee teachers’ barriers and motivations for their profession. Six male trainee primary school teachers were interviewed and data were analysed thematically. Three themes arose relating to potential barriers; physical contact; experiencing negative outsider perceptions; and working within a female orientated environment. Three themes demonstrated that barriers could be overcome if participants perceived the profession as a constructive career; had positive experiences of working in a supportive environment; and were seen as effective role models. Primary teacher training courses should not only aim to reduce barriers but also highlight the positive aspects that enhance motivation.
Introduction: Vocational training and rehabilitation programs are effective in increasing employability and community participation of individuals with intellectual disabilities. Much of the research on effective programming has been conducted in high-income countries with resources targeted at individuals with intellectual disabilities. Although Trinidad and Tobago is a high-income country, there is a dearth of services and resources available to individuals with intellectual disabilities. This article explores stakeholder perspectives on the current status of vocational training and rehabilitation programs for individuals with intellectual disabilities in Trinidad and Tobago. Method: Participants from diverse groups were identified through snowball sampling. Data were collected in the form of semi-structured interviews conducted in person in Trinidad and Tobago and ranging from 45 to 75 minutes in duration. Interviews followed a loose structure of open-ended questions and the person–environment–occupation model helped inform the questions. Results: Thirty participants completed the interviews including clients, parents, teachers, principals, non-governmental organization representatives and occupational therapists. Several themes and subthemes emerged including balancing the need for inclusion and segregation, stigma, social policy, issues in current vocational services and independence and expectations. Conclusion: Vocational services in Trinidad and Tobago face many challenges including resource shortages and meeting the varying needs of clients. They also provide important safe spaces for socialization and acceptance. Resources are needed to improve the level of current services and to help address the competing and at times contradictory goals of differing stakeholders.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to discover trainer variables that act as driving forces on training effectiveness. This can be a catalyst for improving the quality of training outcomes thereby making training firms more competitive as well as bridge the gap in literature. Design/methodology/approach This qualitative research study used the grounded theory methodology. Data analysis was performed using open, axial and selective coding with a discursive set of theoretical propositions emerging. Qualitative data were collected through a focus group, one-on-one interviews and secondary sources. The subjects comprised primarily 26 past participants to the researcher’s firm’s training programs. Findings Seven major trainer attributes – facilitator disposition, real life examples, group work, interaction, participant involvement, stories/illustrations and demonstrations – were recognized by trainees whose post-training appraisals confirm that the training was effective. These trainer attributes combine with environmental factors to trigger trainee characteristics leading to behavior change and performance improvement. Research limitations/implications The paper makes a significant contribution to training evaluation literature. Researchers can take up any of the discovered attributes to further refine training evaluation theories or models. Practical implications New knowledge can be utilized to improve quality training presentations to improve learning outcomes. Organizational performance improvement, which is the desired return on investment of training, can better be achieved. Originality/value The paper goes beyond conceptual models to empirical discovery.
Using data from 143 individuals, this study examined how pre-training socialization and task complexity affected learning in an online environment. A controlled laboratory experiment, using a 3 (socialization) X 2 (complexity) between subjects design was conducted. Participants were assigned to either more or less complex training and received either face-to-face, online, or no socialization before beginning the training. Results indicated that those who received face-to-face socialization performed better than those who received either online socialization or no socialization. There was no learning difference between the online and no socialization condition. Those who received simpler training performed better than those who received more complex training. Socialization and complexity were not interactively related. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
In Malaysia so many enterprise implement various training program to enhance their employees by working performance. But as overall view, the training environment still exist shortages in enterprise today, for instance, lack of knowledge of training, resources, trainer etc..Employee training has been a matter of concern and attention by many business fields nowadays. Organizations realize that employee training is an essential element to increase efficiency of job performance and keep their business running, as competition are getting more intense. Training is the process of providing employees with specific skills or helping them correct deficiencies in their performance (David, 2010).This study, combining theoretical and empirical research, trying to find factors that affect employee training and its impact in acting human resource practices thereby laying the theoretical foundation for the future research about survey on the employee training, also provide a good reference. Therefore, the problem addressed in this study is examine the factors affect training (types of training, training environment, work environment and employees’ personal characteristics) and training effectiveness on human resource practices in Kedah State Development Corporation (KSDC) which is the parent company under BDB Company. This research also determine the main factors which influence employee training on human resource practices. Management is committed to human resource development as well as its social responsibilities through various programs. Training and development programs are offered by the KSDC Company that training program also adapted to the latest technological advances. Key words: Job performance, Skills, Technological advances, Training, Work environment
Supervisor support, peer support and transfer motivation have been identified as important predictors for training transfer. Transfer motivation is supposed to mediate the support–training transfer relationship. Especially after team training interventions that include all team members (i.e., intact-team training), individual perception of these factors might be shared among team members. However, an integration of the team level in the training transfer process is rare, yet still needed. Analyzing 194 employees from 34 teams in the context of intact-team training interventions, we found similar relationships and processes at both levels of analysis: Social support enhances transfer motivation at the individual and team levels. Furthermore, motivation to transfer increases training transfer and serves as a connecting mechanism in the social support–training transfer link. The results underline the importance of (1) considering multiple levels in theories and research about the training transfer process and (2) ensuring the practice of individual-directed support and a shared, supportive climate within teams.