ArticlePDF Available

How Traditional Balinese Houses Can Adjust and Cater for International Tourist in the Canggu Area, Bali Indonesia?

Article

How Traditional Balinese Houses Can Adjust and Cater for International Tourist in the Canggu Area, Bali Indonesia?

Abstract and Figures

Bali has a unique architectural value. When tourism enters as a new culture, Balinese people need adjustments to the culture brought by tourists. Differences tradition and culture in each Regency in Bali, is the biggest obstacle for the government for make basic rules for housing. The height limit of a vertical building must not exceed than the height of a coconut tree. This rule is the main obstacle to development of high rise buildings in Bali. This research is a case study that originates from many homestay phenomena which were raised as a trend of mass media coverage in Bali. Period of housing development is obtained through interviews with homeowners and tourists. Results of this study indicate that ritual zone cannot be lost. Canggu community did several ways to maintain their residential units. First is adding space to existing buildings, and make combination in two or more occupant-owned buildings so that more rooms are available for commercial functions without sacrificing the ritual zone.
Content may be subject to copyright.
International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, Vol. 24, Issue 03, 2020
ISSN: 1475-7192
DOI: 10.37200/IJPR/V24I3/PR201901 Received: 27 Jan 2020 | Revised: 08 Feb 2020 | Accepted: 14 Feb 2020 2561
Abstract--
Bali has a unique architectural value. When tourism enters as a new culture, Balinese
people need adjustments to the culture brought by tourists. Differences tradition and culture in each Regency
in Bali, is the biggest obstacle for the government for make basic rules for housing. The height limit of a
vertical building must not exceed than the height of a coconut tree. This rule is the main obstacle to
development of high rise buildings in Bali. This research is a case study that originates from many homestay
phenomena which were raised as a trend of mass media coverage in Bali. Period of housing development is
obtained through interviews with homeowners and tourists. Results of this study indicate that ritual zone
cannot be lost. Canggu community did several ways to maintain their residential units. First is adding space
to existing buildings, and make combination in two or more occupant-owned buildings so that more rooms
are available for commercial functions without sacrificing the ritual zone.
Key words-- Balinese Traditional House, Adjustment, Tourism
I.
INTRODUCTION
The ancestors of Balinese people very sacred with structure of the housing space. Every inch of
land, the distance between one building to another, has its own size that comes from body dimensions of the
occupants in the house. However, after the rapid development of tourism in Bali, these traditional homes face
many challenges. Starting from the curiosity of tourists to the culture and social life of the Balinese people,
the house only used for tourist attraction. In the beginning, tourist just wondering how the social interaction
and cultural life of Balinese people inside the house. After that, tourist behavior develops into permanent
residence. Many tourists than come to stay for long time in Bali. Cause that, people in Bali start thinking
about building a homestay. Homestay began to develop in Bali in the 1920s which was initiated by Walter
Spies who stayed at Puri Ubud (Merta et al, 2018). In the 1930s homestay later developed in the Kuta area,
and in the 1980s, homestays began to explore the Sanur area. Anom et al (2017) research entitled
"Turismemorfosis" in detail mentions the development of tourist characteristics in the beginning of tourists to
Bali until the decade of the 2000s. In this study it was stated that in the 1980s to 2010 Bali began to
recognize integrated accommodation in the form of hotels. At this time, tourists visiting the homestay began
to decrease compared to previous years. However, after the publication of the ASEAN Tourism Standards
Task Force by the ASEAN Ministry of Tourism in 2010, homestays re-emerged as priority accommodation.
Seven standards set by the ASEAN Tourism Ministry include, 1) Green Hotels, 2) Food and Beverage
Service, 3) Public Restroom, 4) Homestays, 5) Ecotourism, 6) Tourism Heritage, 7) Community Based
Tourism (CBT). The existence of this community based tourism encourages the development of homestays in
1
Mahendradatta University, Bali, Indonesia. Email: suda.nurjani@gmail.com
2
Udayana University, Bali, Indonesia. E-mail: acwin@unud.ac.id
How Traditional Balinese Houses Can Adjust
and Cater for International Tourist in the
Canggu Area, Bali Indonesia?
1Ni Putu Suda Nurjani, 2Ngakan Ketut Acwin Dwijendra
International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, Vol. 24, Issue 03, 2020
ISSN: 1475-7192
DOI: 10.37200/IJPR/V24I3/PR201901 Received: 27 Jan 2020 | Revised: 08 Feb 2020 | Accepted: 14 Feb 2020 2562
community residential units in all City Districts in Bali.
The density of accommodation in Kuta area has an impact on the surrounding area. One of the areas
affected by the transfer of tourists is the Canggu area. Accommodation in this area began to grow after the
construction of the Petitenget-Canggu shortcut road. Tugu Batubolong Hotel is the first accommodation that
built in the Canggu area. Now, this hotel has been eroded by the growth of accommodation that built inside
the residence of the Canggu community. Tourists prefer to stay in homes that have empty rooms with a daily
or monthly rental system. Starting from one or two houses, then spread to all banjar in Canggu. The concept
of a homestay that previously used an empty room in a house with the concept of one single bed, is now
undergoing a transformation into a dormitory, better known as the "monkey house" by the Canggu
community. This monkey house offers multi-bedroom beds. One room can consist of 4 until 8 bed, that rental
rates are calculated per head of the person staying. Various phenomena that occur after the rapid tourism in
the village of Canggu, requires people to adapt to the new culture brought by tourists. In addition to adapting
in terms of social interaction, the physical environment of the community is also required to be able to
accommodate the needs of tourists who live in it. The construction of accommodation that exceeds the
number of tourists who come to Canggu per month has resulted in competition among the people in
determining homestay rates. The community is faced with two very difficult choices. On the one hand,
people are required to fulfill economic needs, so they begin to modify the spaces in the house so that they
can get many rooms for rent. In other life, the people of Canggu are very attached to the traditional tradition,
where processions of humans are born until humans die, must be done inside their traditional house. This
case need requires conservation of the ritual space inside the house. It is this dualism that requires the
community to immediately seek solutions in developing tourism accommodation units owned horizontally,
considering that until now, the District Government in Bali has not allowed the construction of buildings
high above the height of a coconut tree (15 m).
Research
Question
From the research background, it can be raised the problem of how to adjust space within the
traditional Balinese houses of the Canggu community which has been used for lodging.
1. How Balinese traditional house in Canggu adjust to the need of tourist?
2. How do people in Canggu build tourist accommodation inside the traditional house that has high ritual
value?
Research
Objectives
Conservation of traditional Balinese homes is very important given the strong customs and culture
that unite the community. Customs and culture as one of the tools of the Balinese people survive from the
pressure of the capitalists who want to dominate all of Bali's nature. The island of Bali without customs and
culture will eliminate local identity as a thousand temple island.
Purpose of this study in general is help solve the problem of developing tourism accommodation
that built inside traditional Balinese houses. Helping to find a solution related to the emergence of cheap
tourism problems which is the main issue for the development of tourist accommodation in Bali today.
Providing conceptual solutions and methods for developing tourist accommodation that are in harmony with
International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, Vol. 24, Issue 03, 2020
ISSN: 1475-7192
DOI: 10.37200/IJPR/V24I3/PR201901 Received: 27 Jan 2020 | Revised: 08 Feb 2020 | Accepted: 14 Feb 2020 2563
the concept of Balinese culture, as the basis for making awig-awig (traditional Balinese rules) in determining
physical rates and limits for the construction of tourist accommodation built in the homes of Balinese people.
Outcome Targets and Research
Benefits
The focus of this research is that Canggu community houses are still occupied today, but at the same
site tourist accommodation was also built. The house under study still has a family sanctuary inside the house
and residents of the house must have customary ties with Canggu Village.
The benefits of this research can be seen from various perspectives. In terms of local communities,
the existence of this research is expected to be able to provide a basic guide for the Canggu community who
want to develop their homes for homestays and other tourist accommodations, by not reducing selling value
and not violating applicable rules and regulations. Provide solution for Balinese people who want develop his
house. Benefits for policy makers, this research can be used as a guideline to formulate tourist
accommodation policies that are currently not detailed in the Regional Regulations or in the awig-awig.
II.
LITERATURE REVIEW
Some studies on traditional Balinese residences are carried out by Acwin (2003), Wastika (2005),
Parwata, I. W. (2011) very useful to find out the basic concepts underlying the formation of spatial structures
in traditional Balinese residential houses. Acwin (2003) suggested that the concept of building traditional
Balinese houses in principle was based on the concept of balancing the relationship between Bhuana Agung
and Bhuana Alit, Manik Ring Cucupu, Tri Hita Karana, Tri Angga, Hulu-Teben until the concept of the value
of Sanga Mandala giving direction spatial planning, both at home and residential (village) scale. The
application of traditional Balinese housing conceptions according to Acwin (2003) was also influenced by
the concept of Tri Pramana (Desa, Kala, Patra) which became an operational tactical foundation, realizing a
housing pattern that varied in each City District in Bali. Refer to the concept put forward by Wastika (2005).
Wastika stated that, Tri Hita Karana is the basic concept of building houses in Bali. House building in
traditional Balinese housing plans to pay attention to the abiotic environment. Cover the building with a wall
(perimeter fence), while each building in it is left open to be able to take advantage of light, air, freely by
opening the widest possible space that can oriented in the middle of site (natah). In one yard at traditional
Balinese house is generally divided into three parts, namely part luan (above) is used for worship places, the
middle part of the residence while the teben (low) part is to store materials that are no longer useful and keep
animals. In each of these areas also planned places for plants that are useful for ceremonial facilities,
household needs and for medicine. In terms of strength, we also consider the selection of building materials,
which are adapted to the environment.
The basic concept is then explained in more detail by Parwata (2011). Parwata stated that traditional
Balinese housing is a form of building that functions as a residence built using the size of the limbs of a
homeowner known as "sikut", with the aim that the homeowner can become one with the building occupied.
The use of these sizes is adjusted to Hasta Kosala Kosali. Traditional Balinese homes are based on religious
norms, beliefs, local customs. In the implementation guidelines contained various rules, provisions, and
various other arrangements which are protective factors in its development. Hasta kosala kosali itself
consists of several parts. In the article "Traditional Balinese Architecture: What Is Thought and What Is
International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, Vol. 24, Issue 03, 2020
ISSN: 1475-7192
DOI: 10.37200/IJPR/V24I3/PR201901 Received: 27 Jan 2020 | Revised: 08 Feb 2020 | Accepted: 14 Feb 2020 2564
Seen" made by Gantini et al (2011) it is stated that the concept of the kosala kosali consists of three parts,
namely, the building, ritual and physical procedures of the building itself. These three things are the cause of
the harmony of the buildings in traditional Balinese homes so that this concept must be preserved. The entry
of tourism into Bali brings various kinds of changes, including changes in the structure of the space of the
community housing units. As done by Primadi et al (2017), Diasana Putra et al (2017), Budiharjo (2017) who
examines changes in traditional Balinese homes due to the rapid development of tourism in Bali. Efforts to
make Balinese culture as a tourism commodity have been carried out since the colonial era through
Baliseering ", followed by the New Order era with the theme" Cultural Tourism "and in the 21st century the
tourism trend in Bali changed to" Ajeg Bali "(preservation of Bali).
The change in Bali's tourism paradigm towards the concept of sustainability is one form of the
government's concern about the loss of Bali's local values and concepts, including the architecture of its
residential units. As Primadi et al (2017) stated, the existence of Balinese homes has been displ aced due to an
increase in the number of family members and increased economic needs. Economics is the main factor that
has driven changes in the arrangement of space in traditional Balinese homes. In the case of Penglipuran
Village, what was updated was only material for external physical appearance. To accommodate the
additional function of tourism, the Penglipuran community only renovates the interior of the building, adjusts
to the needs of tourists, such as the addition of a bathroom and dressing table. The most consistently
maintained by the Penglipuran community is the physical form of angkul (entrance / entrance) and natah
orientation center which is maintained in the center of the yard. Slightly different from the changes identified
by Diasana Putra et al (2017).
Based on the literature review above, it can be seen the physical characteristics of traditional
Balinese housing as well as the values contained in them. So, in creating an effort to develop the value
system it becomes a basic reference to see the developments that occur in the present. Any building that has
been removed by the community, and what buildings have been maintained until now. From the results of a
comparison theory and facts of the field, a finding of a new arrangement pattern can be developed.
III.
RESEARCH
METHODS
This research is a case study research that originated from the many phenomena of homestay in
Canggu tourism area which was raised as a trending topic of mass media coverage in Bali. The main focus of
this research is the traditional Canggu community house which has the status of karang ayahan desa (having
traditional ties with the Canggu Village), but has now undergone a change. Have tourist facilities and must
have a holy place (sanggah/pemerajan) in the house. Data collection was carried out by interviewing
residents of the house and tourists who stayed in the houses. Observation of the composition in the
residential space and the form of tourist accommodation that was built was carried out to obtain the physical
characteristics of people's homes. Data from these observations are then compared with the results of
interviews with homeowners and what tourists expect for accommodation provided, to be taken into
consideration in making recommendations for additional space for tourist accommodation. The
documentation of the object of the research is carried out to help the writer remember the building problems
that occur in spaces that are in the object of study. In the future, this research is expected to be used as input
in the development of traditional Balinese homes, especially in the Tourism area.
International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, Vol. 24, Issue 03, 2020
ISSN: 1475-7192
DOI: 10.37200/IJPR/V24I3/PR201901 Received: 27 Jan 2020 | Revised: 08 Feb 2020 | Accepted: 14 Feb 2020 2565
IV. RESULT AND
DISCUSSION
Results
Based on the results of observations, documentation and interviews with the people who live in
seven banjars in Canggu, there is a unique arrangement of space in their homes. In some literature on
traditional Balinese homes, and several previous researchers, mentioning that the linear pattern in traditional
Balinese homes is very synonymous with the composition of the residential space of the people in the
mountains, because the geographical conditions of the house are not made possible with the concept of sanga
mandala on the axis of the earth, kaja-kelod (north-south) and kangin-kauh / sunrise and sunset (east-west).
The fact of the condition of the settlements in Canggu seems to break the concept of a linear pattern that is
only found in mountainous regions. Starting the access into the Canggu community housing unit there are
buildings of angkul-angkul with the same form as those in Bali in general. Naming the building has the same
concept, namely the center is on the middle site (natah). The kitchen is placed near the main entrance of the
site, where the kitchen has the meaning of neutralizing all negative auras before residents and visitors enter
the residential area. After that there is a barn building placed adjacent to the kitchen (paon). Buildings that
are used for beds are bale daje and bale delod. The meaning of bale delod by the people of Canggu is a
traditional bale for the execution of manusa yadnya (special holy for human) ceremony. The position is not
placed just east of Natah. The building that is right in the east of Natah before pemerajan is sanggah natah.
As shown in the following picture:
Figure 1. Structure of the building inside the Canggu community residence before the entry of tourism
Source: Author, 2019
Sanggah natah has a very important role in developing the composition of buildings in Canggu. The
imaginary axis that determines the orientation of the building inside the house is between the sanggah natah
and the entrance (angkul-angkul). This imaginary axis in addition to functioning as the center of the
orientation of the building period, this empty space also plays an important role in the various ritual activities
of the community.
Gergely Hory et al (2017) in his research entitled "Exploration of Spatial Design Issues at Hostels
Backpacker in Budapest's Historic Center: Informality, Density, Adaptability suggests that tourist
characteristics greatly influence the physical development of an area. Gergely Hory et al's findings also occur
A
B
C
D
E
G
F
Remarks:
A = Angkul-Angkul
B = Dapur
C = Bale Adat
D = Lumbung
E = Bale Daja
F = Sanggah Natah
G =
Sanggah/Pemerajan
imaginar
y axis
orientati
on of the
building
International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, Vol. 24, Issue 03, 2020
ISSN: 1475-7192
DOI: 10.37200/IJPR/V24I3/PR201901 Received: 27 Jan 2020 | Revised: 08 Feb 2020 | Accepted: 14 Feb 2020 2566
in Canggu Village. At the end of the 90s until the beginning of 2000, the characteristics of tourists who came
to Canggu Village, belonging to tourists who were concerned with the comfort of a place to stay, were
interested in learning local culture and prioritizing natural beauty. Tugu Hotel as the only one
accommodation at that time, became a favorite place that was always full of tourist bookings. Residential
houses are only used as cultural objects, where tourists only see the activities of the Canggu community who
at that time were fishermen.
Figure 2. Tugu Batu Bolong Hotel, which is the first hotel built in Canggu Area
Source: https://jenishotel.info/hotel-tugu-bali-canggu
Figure 3. Dining Venue in Tugu Batu Bolong Hotel Accommodate Tourist Character at the end of 1998
Source:https://www.google.com/search?q=hotel+tugu+batu+bolong+canggu&safe=strict&tbm=isch&tbs=rimg:
Cde2Ctt11kXaIjiR69YtajAXwRCOnghUP5CkS-
OjJb0DXB2vpFCL8_1PIbWk1NZ58wMwEHg5IqD6YewuVLiWXzye-WCoSCZHr1i1qMBfBEWm-
uExIVBx4KhIJEI6eCFQ_1kKQRjkJZdRLbxC8qEglL46MlvQNcHRGsGZ_1tedmfCioSCa-
kUIvz88htEdSDU0vRhA4EKhIJaTU1nnzAzAQRouyR7GrCansqEgkeDkioPph7CxG4yt49mujsyioSCZUuJZfP
J75YEVHRJKAR7-zB&tbo=u&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiTn5nvmfHiAhUgUI8KHaD-
AwEQ9C96BAgBEBg&biw=1036&bih=492&dpr=1.5#imgrc=cJmAhf45vfOy1M:
The establishment of Canggu Village as a tourism area was formally stated in the Regional
Regulation of Badung Regency Number 26 of 2013 concerning Regional Spatial Planning, paragalan 4 (four)
article 42 paragraph 2 letter c. In article 42 paragraph 4, it is made clear that Canggu Village is one of the
tourist destinations (DTW), with the main attraction being a stone beach. Then in article 83 clarified with the
zoning provisions of DTW in paragraph 4 it states that "the development of DTW in the form of natural
tourism is directed as natural tourism objects without permanent buildings oriented to environmental
preservation, beauty preservation, tourist attraction, water tourism, ecotourism and tourism attraction
development natural". After this determination the peak of tourist accommodation development in Canggu
Village. Travelers who were once synonymous with luxury facilities, experienced a characteristic change in
this decade. Young tourists with low budgets start dominating in Canggu. This condition shifted the position
of Tugu hotel as tervaforit accommodation. The demand for cheap accommodation began to come from
tourists, so people began renting out part of their homes or rooms inside their homes for tourist
International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, Vol. 24, Issue 03, 2020
ISSN: 1475-7192
DOI: 10.37200/IJPR/V24I3/PR201901 Received: 27 Jan 2020 | Revised: 08 Feb 2020 | Accepted: 14 Feb 2020 2567
accommodation. According to Nurjani (2015), found the periodization of the development of tourism
facilities development as follows:
Table 1. Development Period of tourist accommodation in Canggu Village
Phase
Development Of
Tourist
Accommodation
Transportation
Tourists’
Behaviour
Attitudes Of Local
Residents And Local
Policies
0
(1994-
1998)
Canggu Village
is not yet known
by tourists
This area is still
in the form of
green land, there
is no well-
developed
transportation
network
Lack of tourist
interest and
knowledge of
the Canggu
Village
There are no local
policies related to tourism
development
arrangements
1
(1998-
2012)
A tourist facility
is built, namely
Tugu Batu
Bolong Hotel
The road network
is opened to
connect one area
to another
Tourists start
coming to the
Canggu Village
The local community and
the Badung Regency
Government began
observing the Canggu
Coastal Area so that in
2003 a Detailed Plan for
Spatial Planning for
North Kuta District
(RDTR) was established
which also regulated the
development of the
Canggu Coastal Zone
2
(2011-
2012)
Began to build
various types of
tourist facilities
such as villas,
hotels and
restaurants
Transportation
networks began
to develop
between tourist
facilities with one
another
There is an
increase in
tourist visits and
additional travel
plans to the
Canggu
Improvement of the
quality of infrastructure
networks and
improvement of tourism
service facilities
3
(2012-
2013)
Organizations set
up to organize
tourism facilities
in the Canggu
Village began.
Early hierarchy
and
specialization of
Trip &
Adventure;
There is a
grouping of
tourist areas with
different
transportation
characteristics
There began to
be competition
to control land
along Canggu
Area
The dualism effect of the
development of tourist
facilities began to emerge
International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, Vol. 24, Issue 03, 2020
ISSN: 1475-7192
DOI: 10.37200/IJPR/V24I3/PR201901 Received: 27 Jan 2020 | Revised: 08 Feb 2020 | Accepted: 14 Feb 2020 2568
tourist facilities
along the coastal
area of Canggu.
4
(2013-
2015)
Specialization of
tourist facilities
Various
transportation
systems and
networks
Disintegration of
space and tourist
perception; the
population in the
Canggu Area is
getting denser;
development
problems arise
Start thinking about
efforts to control the use
of built space, because
the available space is not
able to accommodate the
rapid development of
tourist facilities
Source: Nurjani (2015)
Based on the table above, it can be seen that the development of tourism facilities in the Canggu
Area is influenced by transportation, tourist behavior and the role of local residents and local policies.
Problems began to develop in the third phase and peaked in the fourth phase
V.
DISCUSSION
Changes in the characteristics of tourists who come to Canggu
Tourists who come to Canggu Village come from various countries, with a teenage age that ranks
the most. Teenagers more do activities outside tourist accommodation. Surfing activities are favorite
activities that are carried out during the morning to evening. This surfing activity is one of the attractions in
Canggu. The presence of surf coaches who stand in the accommodation is one of the additional selling
points for accommodation owners. The phenomenon of teenage tourists that occurs in Canggu is in line
with the results of research found by Richard & Wilson (2000). The conclusion of their study states that,
teenagers prefer physical activities such as visiting historical attractions, climbing mountains and traveling
to different places. In the late evening, teenage tourists who come to Canggu spend more time with their
friends at nightclubs, cafes or restaurants that are around the tourist accommodation they occupy. In
fulfilling the need for food and food, tourists in Canggu prefer buffet stalls that are around the
accommodations they occupy. Low prices with a large variety of menus, making these stalls preferable to
large restaurants that offer expensive menus. One of the most popular cafes by tourists in Canggu is
Oldman.
Figure 4. Oldman, The most famous café in Canggu
Source: https://balivillaescape.com.au
International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, Vol. 24, Issue 03, 2020
ISSN: 1475-7192
DOI: 10.37200/IJPR/V24I3/PR201901 Received: 27 Jan 2020 | Revised: 08 Feb 2020 | Accepted: 14 Feb 2020 2569
Figure 5. Warung which is a popular eating place for tourists in Canggu in the era of 2017 until now
Source: Komang varuna
In general, tourists who come to Canggu in the era of 2017 until now, the principle is not to
prioritize exclusive occupancy that has five-star hotel facilities. Very different like before, when the first
time tourist come in Canggu area. The results of observations and interviews with tourists staying in the
Canggu homestay show that the main space needed by tourists in the homestay is a bed with a cupboard and
desk and the presence of wifi that can be accessed throughout the room. The existence of a private
bathroom is not too important for Canggu tourists. Other facilities such as kitchen, terrace dining room or
others, can be removed. Room cleanliness is the main point in the decision to choose tourist
accommodation in Canggu.
Space Adjustment as A Form of Adaptation Canggu's Community to The Function of Tourism
Schneiders in Ali and Asrori (2006) provide an understanding of the phenomenon of self-adjustment
that occurs due to pressure on individuals. Schneiders sees adaptation from three points of view. First, self -
adjustment as a form of adaptation, both self-adjustment as a form of conformity, and thirdly self-adjustment
as an attempt to master something (mastery). Ali and Asrori also mentioned that self-adjustment is a mental
response to behavior in dealing with various situations with demands from outside and from within the
individual's place of life. Morris (1975) revealed a type of adjustment that is more specific to a family living
in a residential unit. According to Morris, there are several indicators that influence a family to develop its
residence. The first is residential mobility. The reach and distance of the house is the first indicator that
Morris revealed in his research. People prefer strategic home locations. When one family member is married,
they will begin to pay attention to the privacy of their small family by choosing to make a new building as a
place to live with the location factor as the first consideration. Second residential adaptation. Adjustment to
the new environment is not easy for some people. Communities sometimes need time to be able to adjust to
their living environment. Different cultural backgrounds encourage the birth of a barrier for people to interact
with each other. The last is family adaptation. The family consists of a composition of several people who
are born with different characters. The inhabited house is required to be able to meet the needs of residents
who have diverse characters. The spaces formed become a reflection of the behavior of residents. A family
will be more adaptable when the space in the house is able to meet all of its needs. Humans are not able to
live alone so that in every house there must be a space of interaction between family members and, a space of
interaction between family members and guests who come. The existence of norms as a boundary for humans
International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, Vol. 24, Issue 03, 2020
ISSN: 1475-7192
DOI: 10.37200/IJPR/V24I3/PR201901 Received: 27 Jan 2020 | Revised: 08 Feb 2020 | Accepted: 14 Feb 2020 2570
to do something, also affects humans in developing their homes. Humans will adjust to the norms that apply
around their homes.
Not much different from the function of a private house, when a house is added to commercial
functions in the form of lodging, residents and tourists who stay overnight are required to adjust to each
other. But in this case, whether the space formed is larger adopting the needs of residents, or more
dominantly meeting the needs of tourists. Given that traditional Balinese homes are very thick with cultural
values and traditions, so the mobilization of existing spaces is very difficult to do. The position of the
building inside the site has been arranged in the sacred and profane space. This rule does not allow putting
the kitchen in the northeast area, or it is not permissible to eliminate the family holy place inside the house.
Balinese people cannot be regarded as primitive societies bound by adat. Balinese people survive with very
strong Hindu values of rituals and traditions. Object of this research study took a sample of 50 houses of the
Canggu community that had been commercialized as lodging. Based on the results of the analysis of the data
obtained, it was found that the Canggu community did several methods to withstand the pressure of
capitalism in the world of tourism. The methods include, first, adding space to existing buildings, noting that
the function of the ritual space cannot be removed. Second, adding new buildings to empty rooms that are
still inside the residential unit, thirdly merging two or more buildings belonging to the occupants so that
more rooms can be obtained that can be commercialized. One of the buildings with the most mergers is
traditional bale adat and bale delod. And the dimensions of the lumbung which are currently made smaller,
which only functioned as a symbol of worship of the goddess Sri.
Utamaning
Nista (UN)
Area for
Penunggun
Karang
Utamaning
Madya (UM)
Area for Bale
Daja
Utamaning
Utama (UU)
Area for
family temple
(sanggah/pem
erajan)
Madyaning
Nista (MN)
Lumbung or
angkul-angkul
position
Madyaning
Madya (MM)
Natah
(courtyard)
Madyaning
Utama (MU)
Bale Dangin
Nistaning
Nista (NN)
Paon
(Kitchen)
Nistaning
Madya (NM)
Bale Delod
Nistaning
Utama (NU)
Utamaning
Nista (UN)
Area for
Penunggun
Karang +
commercial
zone for rent
Utamaning
Madya (UM)
Area for Bale
Daja + Adjust
Room for rent
in the backyard
of bale daja
Utamaning
Utama (UU)
Area for
family temple
(sanggah/pem
erajan)
Conservation
zone until
now
Madyaning
Nista (MN)
Commercial
zone for rent
Madyaning
Madya (MM)
Natah
(courtyard),
Conservation
Zone Until
Now
Madyaning
Utama (MU)
Bale Dangin
Figure 6. Basic Reference for Placement Building
Units in Balinese Traditional Housing
Source: Sulistyawati (2018)
NORTH (Mountain)
SOUTH (Sea)
International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, Vol. 24, Issue 03, 2020
ISSN: 1475-7192
DOI: 10.37200/IJPR/V24I3/PR201901 Received: 27 Jan 2020 | Revised: 08 Feb 2020 | Accepted: 14 Feb 2020 2571
VII.
CONCLUSION
Planning housing in Bali requires careful thinking, because there are various aspects that must be
considered. Aspect of spatial geometry originating from the philosophy of Tri Hita Karana to the aspects of
custom and socio-culture. Every space that is maintained in form and function is based on ritual interests.
The entry of tourism to Canggu village, requires a change in the function of space. However, the concept of
sunrise symbolized by the existence of Pelinggih Surya (temple in the center of courtyard become symbolize
of the sun). This building have important value for Balinese people. Cause that, this building become one of
conservation component inside traditional house. How much people can adjust tourism function inside that
house or how much area on site can changed, very determined with function of the building. Balinese
traditional building, can make smaller than before, can make up floor, but must be still in same place. Ritual
space cannot be eliminated, like place for ceremonial baby born and also place for take body when people
dead. Same function, same orientation and consider about religion and also custom. Relationship of residents
with other family members or outsiders is realized by the existence of Bale Dangin or Bale Delod, as well as
occupant relations with the environment symbolized by the existence of Natah (courtyard) as an open space
equipped with a garden as a source of lighting and ventilation for all building units in the house. This balance
concept is the core of trust in Tri Hita Karana. It is not seen from the extent of the land or the incomplete
arrangement of traditional Balinese house building units, but the essence of the concept is the harmony of
residents, outsiders and the neighborhood.
REFERENCES
1. Acwin Dwijendra, N. K. (2003). Perumahan dan Permukiman Tradisional Bali. Permukiman "Natah",
01(01), 8-24.
2. Acwin Dwijendra, N. K. (2014). Affordable Housing Provision Projects in Bali, Indonesia: Improving
Quality and Cultural Acceptability. (Doctoral), Curtin University. Retrieved from
http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11937/2042
3. Adhika, I Made and Dwijendra, Ngakan Ketut Acwin. (2020). Selfie Photos Area and Its Implication to
Water Availability and Social Culture in Wanagiri Village, Bali Indonesia. In: International Journal of
Psychosocial Rehabilitation, Vol. 24, No. 4, DOI: 10.37200/IJPR/V24I4/PR201652.
4. Ali,M. Asrori, M (2006). Psikologi Remaja Perkembangan Peserta Didik. Jakarta: Bumi Aksara.
5. Anom, I. A. S., Saptono Nugroho, I Gusti Agung Oka Mahagangga. (2017). Turismemorfosis:
Tahapan Selama Seratus Tahun Perkembangan dan Prediksi Pariwisata Bali. In S. A. P. I Nyoman
Dharma Putra (Ed.), Metamorfosis Pariwisata, Tantangan Membangun Pariwisata Berkelanjutan di
Nistaning
Nista (NN)
Paon
(Kitchen)
Nistaning
Madya (NM)
Bale Delod +
Comercial
Zone For Rent
or Demolition
bale delod for
new building
for rent
Nistaning
Utama (NU)
Comercial
Zone For Rent
Figure 7. Housing Pattern in Canggu Village After
Tourism Enter
Source: Author
International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, Vol. 24, Issue 03, 2020
ISSN: 1475-7192
DOI: 10.37200/IJPR/V24I3/PR201901 Received: 27 Jan 2020 | Revised: 08 Feb 2020 | Accepted: 14 Feb 2020 2572
Bali. Denpasar: Pustaka Larasan.
6. Ayu Siwalatri, J. P., Purwanita Setijanti. (2015). Spatial concepts of Bali indigenous architecture.
Paper presented at the International Conference Green Architecture for Sustainable Living and
Environment (GASLE).
7. Budiharjo, R. (2013). Konsep Arsitektur Bali Aplikasinya pada Bangunan Puri. NALARs, 12(1), 17-
42.
8. Budiharjo, R. (2017). Transformasi Arsitektur Puri Pada Era Pengembangan Pariwisata di Bali.
(Doktor), Universitas Parahyangan, Bandung.
9. Carmen D. Steggell, S. K. B., Lori A. Davidson, Pat R. Vega, Eric D. Hutton, Amelia R. Rodecap.
(2003). Exploring Theories of Human Behavior in Housing Research. Housing Theory and Society.
doi:10.1080/08882746.2003.11430480
10. Christina Gantini, J. P., Yuswadi Saliya, Dwinik Winawangsari. (2011). Traditional Balinese
Architecture: What is Thought and What is Seen. Paper presented at the 1st Biennale ICIAP
(International Conference on Indonesian Architecture and Planning).
11. Clinton Aigbavboa, W. T. (2018). Residential Satisfaction and Housing Policy Evolution.
12. Coulombel, N. (2010). Residential choice and household behavior: State of the Art. Paper presented at
the Sustaincity.
13. Desmala Sari, A. H. G. K., Sri Marhanah. (2018). Analisis Faktor Motivasi Wisatawan Muda Dalam
Mengunjungi Destinasi Wisata Minat Khusus. Journal of Indonesian Tourism, Hospitality and
Recreation, 1(2).
14. Dharmayanty, Ni Luh Putu Dessy, Paturusi, Syamsul Alam, Dwijendra, Ngakan Ketut Acwin, and Dewi,
Ni Ketut Agusinta. (2019), Development and Behaviour Response of the Balinese Inhabitting in
Denpasar City and Badung Regency, Bali-Indonesia. In: Journal of Social and Political Sciences, Vol.2,
No.2, 455-467.
15. Diasana Putra I Dewa Gede Agung, M. L., Robert J.Fuller. (2017). A Methodology to Evaluate t he
Transformation of Traditional Balinese Houses as A Consequence of Tourism. International Journal of
Architectural Research, 11(1), 83-100. Eichner, M. M. (1986). A model of household housing
adjustment: confronting analytical issues. (Ph.D), Iowa State University Capstones. Retrieved from
https://lib.dr.iastate.edu/rtd/8070(8070)
16. Dwijendra, Ngakan Ketut Acwin (2019) 'Transformation of Traditional Housing in Bungaya
Village,Karangasem Bali, Indonesia', International Journal of Current Advanced Research, 08(01), pp.
16793-16798.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24327/ijcar.2019.16798.3118
17. Dwijendra, Ngakan Ketut Acwin and Sueca, Ngakan Putu. (2019). The Determinant Factor of Home
Transformation in Bali, Indonesia , In: The Journal of Social Sciences Research, Vol. 5, No. 12, pp 1855-
1860.
18. Dwijendra, Ngakan Ketut Acwin. (2019), Morphology of House Pattern in Tenganan Dauh Tukad
Village, Karangasem Bali, Indonesia. In: Journal of Social and Political Sciences, Vol.2, No.1, 173-181.
19. Dwijendra, Ngakan Ketut Acwin. (2020). Identity Struggle Perspective in Car-Shaped Shrine in Paluang
Temple, Nusa Penida Bali, Indonesia, In: International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, Vol. 24,
No. 4, DOI: 10.37200/IJPR/V24I4/PR201653.
20. Hariyono, P. (2014). ARSITEKTUR HUMANISTIK MENURUT TEORI MASLOW. Paper presented
at the SNST ke-5, Fakultas Teknik Universitas Wahid Hasyim Semarang.
21. Hauge, A. L. (2007). Identity and place: a critical comparison of three identity theories. Retrieved
from http://www.highbeam.com/DocPrint.aspx?DocId=1G1:160922464
22. Hory Gergely, Z. M., Peter Mullner,Melinda Benko. (2017). Exploration of Spatial Design Issues at
Backpacker Hostels in Budapest's Historic Center: Informality, Density, Adaptability. Frontiers of
Architectural Research, 6, 157-168.
23. Linda Groat, D. W. (2013). Architectural Research Methods. United State of America: John Wiley &
Sons, Inc.,
24. Menuh, N. N. (2015). Karakteristik Wisatawan Backpacker Mancanegara Dan Dampaknya Terhadap
Perkembangan Pariwisata Di Kuta, Bali. (Master), Udayana, Denpasar.
25. Mohd Noor Ismawi Ismail, M. H. H., Norliza Aminuddin,Norazah Mustafa. (2015). Comunity-Based
Homestay Service Quality, Visitor Satisfaction, and Behavioral Intervention. Procedia -Social and
Behavioral Sciences, 398-405. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.05.192
26. Morris Winter, W. M. a. M. (1975). A Theory of Family Housing Adjustment. Journal of Marriage
and Family, 37(1), 79-88. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/351032.
27. Murphy, L. (2001). Exploring Social Interactions of Backpackers. Annals of Tourism Research, 28(1),
50-67. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/S0160-7383(00)00003-7
28. Nick Kontogeorgopoulos, A. C., Varaphorn Duangsaeng. (2015). Homestay Tourism and the
Comercializationof the Rural Home in Thailand. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 20(1), 29-
International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, Vol. 24, Issue 03, 2020
ISSN: 1475-7192
DOI: 10.37200/IJPR/V24I3/PR201901 Received: 27 Jan 2020 | Revised: 08 Feb 2020 | Accepted: 14 Feb 2020 2573
50. doi:10.1080/10941665.2013.852119
29. Nurjani, Ni Putu Suda, Paturusi, Syamsul Alam, Dwijendra, Ngakan Ketut Acwin, and Putra, I Dewa
Gede Agung Diasana. (2019), Morphology of Backpacker Dormitory Inside Traditional Balinese House,
Canggu Village, Bali, Indonesia. In: Journal of Social and Political Sciences, Vol.2, No.3, 514-521.
30. Nurjani, S. (2015). Kontribusi Perizinan Dalam Pengendalian Pemanfaatan Ruang Untuk Fasilitas
Wisata Di Kawasan Pesisir Canggu, Bali. (Master), Udayana, Denpasar.
31. Pambudi, Yonathan Suryo, Yulian Purnama, Ngakan Ketut Acwin Dwijendra, Siti Kholifah, Aspizain
Caniago. (2020). The Effect of Internal Factors on the Improvement of the Role of the Community and
Quality of Waste Bank Management "Mekar Asri" in RT. 5 RW. XVI, Mojosongo Sub-District,
Surakarta City, Indonesia, In: Test Engineering and Management, Vol. 82, January-February 2020, pp.
14695-14703.
32. Parwata, I. W. (2011). Rumah Tinggal Tradisional Bali dari Aspek Budaya dan Antropometri. Mudra,
26(1), 95-106.
33. Peter Ferschin, M. D. A., Galina paskaleva. (2014). Parametric Balinese Rumah; Procedural Modeling
of Traditional Balinese Architecture. Paper presented at the Digital Heritage International Congress
2013, Marseille France.
34. Primadi Gede, I. K. A. (2017). Pengaruh Modernisasi Terhadap Rumah Tinggal Tradisional Di Desa
Adat Penglipuran Kabupaten Bangli. Anala, 2(16), 12-28.
35. Putra, I. N. D. (2018). Homestay Mozaik Pariwisata Berbasis Kerakyatan, Badung.
36. Rusydi, M. (2008). PERILAKU PENGHUNI RUMAH DOME DI PRAMBANAN SLEMAN
ADAPTASI DAN ADJUSTMENT DI SETING BARU. Lintas Ruang, 2(3), 99-108.
37. Ruth K Kimaiga, B. O. K. (2018). Homestay Tourist Accomodationas a Tool for Socio-Economic
Well-Beingof Rural Comunities in Kenya. Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Management, 6(4), 143-
151. doi:10.17265/2328-2169/2018.08.001
38. Sahriyadi. (2011). Makna Budaya Pada Sistem Zonasi Dan Sirkulasi Rumah Tradisional di Desa Ubud
Kelod,Bali. KOMPOSISI, 9(02).
39. Sulistyawati, A. (2018). Teo-Kosmologi Arsitektur Bali & Transformasinya (I. K. Donder Ed.).
Surabaya: Paramita.
40. Tatsiramos, K. (2006). Residential Mobility and Housing Adjustment of Older Households in Europe.
In IZA (Ed.): Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit Institute for the Study of Labor.
41. Timothy, D. J., & Teye, V. B. (2009). Tourism and the Lodging Sector: Butterworth-
Heinemann/Elsevier.
42. Wilson, R. (2000). Niche Tourism: Contemporary Issues, Trends and Cases. In M. Novelli (Ed.):
Routledge.
43. Dane, Senol, Menizibeya Osain Welcome, and . "A case study: Effects of wet cupping therapy in a
male with primary infertility ." Journal of Complementary Medicine Research 10 (2019), 155-
161. doi:10.5455/jcmr.20190807074320
44. Singh, J., Mohite, P.N., Rana, S.S.Rare variant of mixed total anomalous pulmonary venous
connection(2012) Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research, 3 (3), pp. 248-250.
45. Fracasso, C., Friedman, H. Near-death experiences and the possibility of disembodied consciousness:
Challenges to prevailing neurobiological and psychosocial theories (2011) NeuroQuantology, 9 (1),
pp. 41-53.
46. Fattahi, S., Naderi, F., Asgari, P., Ahadi, H. Neuro-feedback training for overweight women:
Improvement of food craving and mental health (2017) NeuroQuantology, 15 (2), pp. 232-238.
47. Rinsha, V., Varghese, J.M., Shahin, M.A Grid Connected Three-Port Solar Micro Inverter(2014)
Bonfring International Journal of Power Systems and Integrated Circuits, 4 (2), pp. 25-30.
48. Venkateswara Rao, B., Nagesh Kumar, G.V.Voltage Collapse Proximity Indicator based Placement
and Sizing of Static VAR Compensator using BAT Algorithm to improve Power System
Performance(2014) Bonfring International Journal of Power Systems and Integrated Circuits, 4 (3),
pp. 31-38.
... It is governed under Article 38 Paragraph 2 of the Indonesia Copyrights Law, which stipulates that "the State is under obligation to establish an inventory, protects, and preserve TCE" (Article 38 of Indonesia Copyrights Law). Despite the legislation, the government has not taken any measures for conducting inventories of the existing and remaining TCE, which existed and have been passed from generation to generation within the community (Nurjani & Dwijendra, 2020). This nonperforming obligation of the government ignores the rule and contrary to the great relevance of TCE in the living of community because the protection of communal rights takes up parts of intellectual property that are firmly inseparable from the global trade and inevitably include the conflict of interest, which may disproportionately bring loss to the community or even nation (Nawastuty S, 2015). ...
... Admittedly or not, the current international system of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) protection is a system whose formation is motivated by the emergence of industrialization in Western states and then developed according to the needs of technologically advanced societies . To that end, in recent years, local communities and governments of developing states, in particular, have called for a protection system similar to that applied to IPR for Traditional Knowledge and Traditional Cultural Expressions (Nurjani & Dwijendra, 2020). In 2000 WIPO members formed the Inter-Governmental Committee on Intellectual Property and Genetic Resources, Traditional Knowledge and Folklore (IGC), and in 2009 they agreed to develop an international legal instrument that could provide adequate protection for Traditional Knowledge, Genetic Resources and Traditional Cultural Expressions (Folklore) (Hakim, 2009;Hysa, 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
The protection of traditional knowledge (TK) and traditional cultural expression (TCE) of underprivileged indigenous communities is threatened due to frequent exploitation attempts by commercial actors for economic benefits. The literature highlighting the legal gaps and necessities to support such legal reforms to protect those communities are scarce in the literature, which has been studied in the current research. The current study aims to provide insightful recommendations for policymakers to help protect the legal rights of underprivileged communities scattered in various parts of the world. Indonesian study setting provided a perfect case to achieve the study objectives. Using a qualitative doctrinal legal research design, the secondary data were collected, and content was analyzed using phenomenological and linguistic analysis. The results revealed that the protection of TK and TCE in Indonesia and several underprivileged communities in various countries need serious legal amendments in local legislation considering international laws. Contextually, the Indonesian Copyright Law is inadequate to accommodate the full protection for TCE. Meanwhile, Indonesian laws that regulate traditional knowledge are overlapping and immature to protect national cultural heritage comprehensively. A new regulation is recommended to ensure that all international legal instruments related to traditional knowledge should help the community of traditional knowledge copyrights in Indonesia with affirmative action towards indigenous communities. Policy recommendations and future research directions are suggested to protect Traditional Cultural Expression and Traditional Knowledge of underprivileged communities in general and Indonesia in focus.
... Thus, the probability of a motorcycle having an accident is very large. Motorcycle accidents are the leading cause of death in adolescent children [34,43,47]. The consequences of traffic accidents are also very worrying. ...
Article
Full-text available
Transportation problems are caused by many factors. In addition to factors directly related to the transportation itself, such as traffic density, the availability of adequate public transportation, it is also influenced by other factors outside of transportation. The phenomenon of student shuttle activities using motorbikes is one of the causes of transportation problems. This phenomenon appears in almost all of Indonesia, including in Gianyar Regency. The frequency of these activities is influenced, among others, by the time schedule for teaching and learning at school (half day school) and the behavior and habits of the community in traffic. The habit of picking up students by motorcycle is getting stronger along with the low quality of public transportation services. Data collected from 14 junior high schools in Gianyar district showed that almost 48% of students were picked up by their parents using motorbikes. Meanwhile, 17.80% of students ride their own motorbikes for school activities. The consequences of these problems include congestion and the possibility of experiencing traffic accidents, inefficient use of time and costs and air pollution. On the other hand, the Gianyar Regency government has operated free student transportation #AMAN to serve students in 43 junior high schools, although its operations have not covered the entire region. The purpose of this study was to find how do push and pull strategies affect student's shuttle activities using motorbikes? The study was conducted in 14 junior high schools with 400 respondents from parents of students. The analytical method used is SEM-AMOS. The result of this study is that there is a fairly strong influence of the pull strategy on the willingness to move using student transportation. Meanwhile, the pull strategy has a less strong influence on behavioral changes in the use of motorcycle for student's shuttle activities.
... Tri Hita Karana is etymologically formed from the word Tri means three. Hita means happiness, and Karana means to cause or cause and can be interpreted as three harmonious relationships that cause happiness (Wastika 2005;Nurjani 2020). The three relationships are (1) a harmonious relationship between humans and Ida Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa; (2) A harmonious relationship between humans and each other; and (3) A harmonious relationship between humans and their environment. ...
Article
The Tri Hita Karana (THK) concept has not been widely used in promoting tourism in Bali, even though the THK concept can be applied in promotional media. The promotional media will have a distinctiveness or selfhood among the existing promotional media. With the development of science and technology and the increasing influence of tourism today, the THK concept is gradually being ignored and even forgotten, replaced by other concepts that come from outside, which are not necessarily suitable for use in Bali, especially in the process of promoting Bali for the benefit of tourism. In connection with this issue, this paper intends to provide an understanding of three main points: (1) the THK concept, (2) promotional media, and (3) tips for designing tourism promotion media based on the THK concept. This research uses the semiotic method. The semiotic method is a qualitative interpretive, a method that focuses on the sign and text as the object of study and how the researcher interprets and understands the code behind the character and reader. The THK concept in promoting Bali tourism can be applied in promotional media in logos, brochures, leaflets, flyers, billboards, newspaper advertisements, television advertisements, flight magazines, and stickers. The promotional media contains illustrations, text, colors, and typography that contain messages to persuade people and have their own identity. The meaning of natural harmony can form a local Balinese identity; this concept has been applied by Balinese people, especially in every context of everyday people's cultural life.
... Architecture is the art and engineering of buildings, as emphasized by Vitruvius with his terms: venustas (beauty), firmitas (engineering) and utility (function). It is not strange if there are many learning competencies and skills demands that must be met in architecture.Some of the competencies expected from an integrated architectural studio lecture with a student-focused learning strategy are Design skills, structural systems, accessibility systems, utility systems, building security systems, building envelope systems, building codes, materials building, program preparation, site conditions, graphic skills, design methods, apprenticeship (practical fieldwork) and others (Arief & Santoso, 2020;Katoppo & Tony, 2020;Ketut, Dwijendra, & Dwijendra, 2020a;Klochko et al., 2020;Nurjani & Dwijendra, 2020;Palinkas et al., 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
The evaluation of architectural learning in Indonesia as part of the Competency-Based Curriculum (CBC) is an activity that is integrated and inseparable in a learning process. The purpose of this article is to find out the principles and competencies of an architectural learning process and then try to study and analyze the format of a competency-based learning evaluation starting from the concepts, aspects and evaluation tools used. By using qualitative methods with a literature document triangulation approach, observation and in-depth interviews with key informants, it turns out that evaluation is not only product-oriented but also process-oriented, as an effort to monitor student development, both ability development and development. Mentally and psychologically. Both sides of evaluation are equally important so that the achievement of competency standards is carried out as a whole, which measures knowledge (cognitive) and effective attitudes and psychomotor skills. Furthermore, evaluation in competency-based learning is closely related to teaching staff's ability to evaluate both formative and summative functions. Formative evaluation is an evaluation designed and carried out to assess itself in carrying out the learning process as feedback to improve its performance. In comparison, summative evaluation is designed and carried out to gather information about students' success in achieving the expected competencies according to the learning objectives.
... Likewise, in Canggu, there is a high value of species diversity index obtained with an awareness of the community. Although the development of tourist facilities in Canggu is relatively rapid, the community is still trying to maintain the existence of the ritual zone [12]. So, the existence of telajakan and ritual plants can be pursued. ...
Article
Full-text available
The life of Balinese people can never be separated from ritual activities or religious ceremonies. The existence of telajakan is essential to preserve. Aside from being a traditional Balinese identity, it also provides space for ritual plants and biodiversity. So that effort is needed to manage the existence of telajakan . This research is expected to analyze the characteristics of telajakan and the existence of ritual plants found in telajakan . Field observation was undertaken to inventory distribution point of remains telajakan in Canggu village. The sampling method uses purposive sampling by tracing along the main road and marking the visible point of telajakan . Changes function of telajakan was found in the Canggu area, and in Penglipuran villages, there is still preserved. Following this study, 49 samples of remains telajakan were collected from Canggu village and 69 samples from Penglipuran village. The characteristics of telajakan can be observed with the structure and size. The result shows, the structure of telajakan can be any combination of an open ditch, covered ditch, pedestrians track, open ground, grass, and fence wall. Size of telajakan can be grouped into small size (width <50 cm), medium size (width 50-99 cm), large size (width 100-149 cm), and extra-large size (width > 150 cm). Based on survey research and observation, various plants are found in each sample. Seventy-seven species of plants were found in 49 samples of telajakan in Canggu village. Plumeria accuminata, Codiaeum Sp., and Bougainvillea spectabilis is the most common species. Meanwhile, in Penglipuran village, 117 species of plants were found in 69 samples of telajakan . Furthermore, the most common species found were Plumeria accuminata, Alternanthera ficoidea, Cordyline terminalis, and Cananga odorata. Result show both Canggu village and Penglipuran villages have high species diversity index (H′>3). Canggu village species diversity index amount 3.88 and Penglipuran village amount 4.12. The utilization of telajakan as space for ritual plants can preserve Balinese tradition and cultures’ local identity.
... Not a few temples in Bali, have changed both physically and non-physically so that people today do not know the value and historical meaning of a temple site. Ornaments and reliefs that have historical significance are often replaced with contemporary shapes and materials [11]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Architecture plays an essential role in various aspects of life and becomes evidence in tracing the nation's history. Efforts to encourage the preservation of historical buildings, including preserving the architectural style of Balinese temples, have been carried out by many people. The traditions and local wisdom of traditional Balinese architecture inherited from the people in Bali can be used as cultural capital and symbolic capital for the development and preservation of traditional Balinese architecture. Restoration activities at the Temple of Guwang Village, Gianyar Bali, Indonesia aim to restore the building as closely as possible to its original form by prioritizing aspects of preservation so that the carving patterns, ornaments, and characteristics of traditional Balinese architecture in the temple still survive as evidence of civilization and historical developments. The exploratory qualitative method [24] was used in this study by triangulation of data collection, namely from documents, observations and in-depth interviews. This research method aims to analyze the dominance of cultural and symbolic capital in the restoration process carried out by the people of Guwang Village. The results of this study will undoubtedly enrich the vocabulary of researchers and readers in understanding the process of restoring the architectural heritage of temples in Bali, and in addition, to offer knowledge in the scientific area of architectural culture and to improve and add understanding, both for authors and readers.
... Based on Law number 11 of 2020 concerning Job Creation, this spatial use control is carried out through: provisions for the suitability of spatial use activities, which consist of: (a) location permits, this stage is the process of checking the suitability of land use and utilization permits at the requested location; and (b) approval for spatial use; this stage is advanced to obtain the applicant's consent. The requested site is following the allocation contained in the spatial planning arrangement to be further granted the utilization permit requested [8] [9][37] [41][45] [55]. ...
Article
Full-text available
From an environmental perspective, implementation and awareness of environmental sustainability are translated into sustainable development policies. To become a sustainable development, the performance of development must consider environmental, social, and economic factors based on living resources that ensure the quality of life of present and future generations. The rapid development of the city will always be followed by population growth. It will lead to land-use change, especially in areas that have potential land values for development. The Regional Government's role in controlling the conversion of land functions is by determining the allocation of agricultural land for food crops. However, the community often responds to this directive as discriminatory treatment because of restrictions on the right to build on their land, which is different from other people's land in areas designated for settlement and tourism. There is an indication of a common form of space utilization control. Besides, the principle of justice is not created for the people who own land for agricultural purposes. In terms of utilization, land allocated for agriculture cannot build buildings that are not following their original function, but landowners' incentives are not optimal. Likewise, investors who make villas and restaurants on land designated for agriculture are not subject to appropriate disincentives. This phenomenon that occurs in Canggu Village reflects that the control of spatial use listed in the RTRW direction of Badung Regency does not yet have the principles of justice and the principles of sustainable development. Concerning the preceding, as an effort to overcome the phenomenon while preventing further similar phenomena from occurring and protecting the values of social justice in society, management of spatial use control is required, especially on land designated for food crop agriculture.
Article
Grounded in constructivism and considering the context of literature studies, the current research examines the direct and indirect impact of students’ perception of their teachers’ indigenous knowledge and cultural competencies on their learning outcomes via an underlying mechanism of student engagement. The current study aims to provide insightful recommendations for academicians and school administrative bodies to provide necessary teacher training and development facilities so they can better transfer their knowledge to the students. Furthermore, the current study brings several theoretical and practical advances in the context of literature studies. Utilizing a time-lagged quantitative research design, data were collected from the 536 literature students from the higher educational institutions of Indonesia. Moreover, data were analyzed using structural equation modeling in SmartPLS3 software. The results revealed that students’ perception of their teachers’ indigenous knowledge and cultural competency positively influences their learning outcomes in terms of cognitive, social, and interpersonal skills. Besides, no significant differences were found between the impact of teachers' indigenous knowledge and cultural competencies on students learning outcomes reflecting the utmost importance of both study constructs in enhancing students’ abilities. Moreover, results also revealed the significant mediatory role of students' engagement between their perceptions of teachers’ indigenous knowledge and cultural competencies to enhance their learning outcomes.
Article
Full-text available
Writing this paper aims to explain the importance of pranayama practice as yoga and wellness in the era of modernization. Some data show that the level of stress in society is getting more and more people who experience stress from various circles. This happens because of work, lifestyle and also the social environment of the community. Pranayama teaches us to breathe consciously which can reduce emotional turmoil, so that we can breathe more balanced, calm and deep. Conscious breathing works directly at the center of integration of mind and body. Memory is the movement of breathing, and breathing is the movement of memory. With the various problems experienced by society today, the role of pranayama is very important in curing diseases that are experienced by many people, such as the deep stress caused by the problems of life in this modern era, which can disturb the mind to make people suffer from stress diseases which are also stress diseases. triggers physical diseases that can harm the body so that it cannot carry out activities in a fit manner. Pranayamaas yoga and wellness has a very positive effect on society in this modern era. By doing pranayama people can control their breath so that they can also control their minds and if they can control their minds, the stress level in society can decrease.
Article
Full-text available
The uniqueness of Balinese architecture has enabled Balinese culture to assert itself amidst the strong influence of modernization and globalization. The Balinese people still adhere to the principles of Balinese architecture, cosmology, topography, and orientation. Recent studies have uncovered how different natural topographies inform the philosophical understanding of the layout of rural villages. Bali's famous settlement layout specifically draws upon the imaginary line of the Mountain-Sea axis, locally named kaja-kelod. This term is widely used by the native Balinese, translated kaja for north and kelod for south. When the first settlements developed, the secondary axis was naturally created, the so-called kangin-kauh, which refers to the direction of the sun: kangin (east) is where the sun rises and kauh (west) is where the sun sets. These two imaginary axes have been implemented in today's modern designs and have become the most fundamental concept in town planning and rural and architectural design in Bali. In addition to exploring the influence of this popular understanding of traditional Balinese architecture, this research discovered that the philosophical use of these imaginary axes is more complicated as these not only refer to the Mountain-Sea axis (kaja-kelod) or sun direction (kangin-kauh). More than 30 layouts of Bali villages categorized as "traditional" were studied utilizing the hermeneutic approach, framed by cosmology and morphology. The findings are as follows: (1) the direction of kaja does not necessarily indicate orientation towards the mountain nor always mean north. For some villages, this term refers to the orientation towards sacred structures or sites, or main roads; (2) while kelod commonly means south and the direction towards lower sea level, the findings show that few villages referred to the term to identify the nearest lake's orientation; (3) the direction of kangin-kauh (east-west) does not always refer to the linear direction of sunrise-sunset because some villages replaced the use of the east-west axis with the interchangeable "right-left orientation" of the kaja; and (4) the kaja direction is the most critical direction for most villages in the study.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this research is to determine the description of motivation and cooperation of RT 5 RW. XVI community members in Mojosongo managing waste bank, as well as the influence of motivation and attitude of society in improving the quality of waste bank management. The research was conducted on the community in RT. 5 RW. XVI MekarAsri urban village Mojosongo, Jebres District, Surakarta City, Indonesia. The sample included all the 85 heads of families living in the site location. Data analysis was conducted using descriptive statistic and a structural model to determine the direct and indirect influence on internal factors and predisposition that influence the citizen in waste bank management. The results exhibited that community efforts in increasing participation and quality of waste management of MekarAsri banks are quantitatively increased annually. This was evident from internal factors that affect the performance of waste bank management directly influenced by motivation and attitude, and indirectly influenced by knowledge through attitude and income through motivation. This indicated that in the waste bank management, community residents of RT 5 RW XVI were more motivated to earn income with the knowledge that motivates how people think to increase their income through their participation in waste bank management.
Article
Full-text available
In the context of providing adequate housing, a large number of people in developing countries are transforming their homes. This informal housing provision also occurs in Bali, both in BTN (National Savings Bank) housing and in traditional homes. The purpose of this study was to determine a number of determinant factors of home transformation. To achieve the objectives, this study used a survey research strategy, and two case studies were selected. Using a questionnaire as the main tool, one hundred and sixty-six respondents were interviewed. Logistic regression analysis states that both household and residential characteristics are important determinants of transformation. Two home variables, namely the size of the house and the number of original beds are good predictors. The study also shows that four household characteristics appear to be important, namely total expenditure, number of residents, type of household, and ownership.
Article
Full-text available
Traditional Settlements Tenganan Dauh Tukad Traditional Village, Karangasem regency, has a uniqueness of traditional dwelling patterns that become the local character of the region. However, along with the development of tourism in this village, the traditional settlement is not only a pride but also the object of commodification. This is an interesting phenomenon where on the one hand, people try to maintain their traditional residential identity to attract tourists visiting, but, on the other hand, they change their dwelling as a tourism facility. The change is a challenge and pressure for maintaining the traditional configuration as an identity. This is a phenomenon of conflict in the development of a cultural tourism area. On the one hand, tourists expect natural and original nature and culture. On the other hand, society and culture change as the society interacts with the outside culture and the desire to accommodate the needs of the visiting tourists. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the paradoxical phenomenon of changes in the morphology of residential patterns in Tenganan Dauh Tukad Village and explore the conflict between conservation of traditional housing character and tourism demand. By conducting field studies (measurements), of selected, stratified random sampling houses, and interviews, to examine the impact of changes on values and their meanings, this study will discuss changes in the physical configuration, meanings, and values of a traditional house. This research will explore the original roles and meanings of altered housing that can still be maintained and the new roles and values contained in the new configuration. In this study will also discuss the impact of new values on the meaning and value of the original configuration. With the identification of the morphologic character of the residential pattern, it is expected to be a model of change and provide an appropriate perspective for the community, the government and the tourism actors in transforming the traditional housing in Tenganan Dauh Tukad Village, Karangasem Regency.
Article
Full-text available
Traditional Settlements Bungaya Traditional Village, Karangasem regency, has a uniqueness of traditional dwelling patterns that become local character of the region. However, along with the development of tourism in this village, the traditional settlement is not only a pride, but also the object of commodification. This is an interesting phenomenon where on the one hand, people try to maintain their traditional residential identity to attract tourists visiting, but, on the other hand, they change their dwelling as a tourism facility. The change is a challenge and a pressure for maintaining the traditional configuration as an identity. This is a phenomenon of conflict in the development of a cultural tourism area. On the one hand, tourists expect a natural and original nature and culture. On the other hand, society and culture change as the society interacts with the outside culture and the desire to accommodate the needs of the visiting tourists. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the paradoxical phenomenon of changes in the morphology of residential patterns in Bungaya Village and explore the conflict between conservation of traditional housing character and tourism demand. By conducting field studies (measurements), of selected stratified random sampling houses, and interviews, to examine the impact of changes on values and their meanings, this study will discuss changes in the physical configuration, meanings and values of a traditional house. This research will explore the original roles and meanings of altered housing that can still be maintained and the new roles and values contained in the new configuration. In this study will also discuss the impact of new values on the meaning and value of the original configuration. With the identification of the morphologic character of the residential pattern, it is expected to be a model of change and provide an appropriate perspective for the community, the government and the tourism actors in transforming the traditional housing in Bungaya Village, Karangasem Regency.
Book
This book explores residential satisfaction and housing policy trends in developing nations by using subsidised low-income housing examples in South Africa, Ghana and Nigeria as case studies. While there has been much documentation on the formation of residential satisfaction and the evolution of housing policy in developed nations, relatively little has been written about these topics in developing nations. This book provides readers with two major practical insights: The first is focused on the theoretical underpinning of residential satisfaction and the formation of residential satisfaction in subsidised low-income housing through the development of a conceptual framework, while the second is focused on housing policy evolution and its trends in South Africa. In this section of the book, comparative overviews of public housing in two West African countries are provided with an emphasis on the philosophical basis for its development in these countries. The central aim of the book is to provide readers with ideas on residential satisfaction formation and housing policy trends in South Africa.
Article
ABSTRAKDalam penelitian ini penulis menganalisis faktor motivasi wisatawan muda dalam mengunjungi destinasi wisata minat khusus. Memahami pengetahuan motivasi wisatawan terutama wisatawan muda sangat penting untuk memprediksi pola perjalanan masa depan dan memungkinkan pemasar tujuan untuk merencanakan dan melaksanakan strategi pemasaran yang efektif. Tujuan penelitian ini yaitu untuk mengetahui faktor apa saja yang memotivasi dan faktor apa yang mendominasi wisatawan muda dalam berwisata. Metode yang digunakan yaitu metode penelitian deskriptif kuantitatif berdasarkan data yang didapatkan melalui kuisioner. Tekhnik analisis data yang digunakan yaitu analisis faktor. Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa terdapat tujuh faktor-faktor baru yang mempengaruhi motivasi wisatawan muda dalam mengunjungi destinasi wisata minat khusus. Hasil penelitian ini diharapkan dapat menjadi tambahan referensi baru dalam bidang analisis faktor motivasi wisata minat khusus yang selama ini belum banyak diteliti sehingga dapat digunakan sebagai rujukan dalam penelitian di masa yang akan datang maupun bagi pengelola destinasi wisata minat khusus dalam menyusun strategi pemasaran yang ditujukan untuk wisatawan muda.Kata Kunci : Analisis Faktor, Wisatawan Muda, Motivasi Wisata, Destinasi Wisata Minat Khusus. FACTOR ANALYSIS OF YOUNG TRAVELERS' MOTIVATIONS IN VISITING SPECIAL INTEREST TOURISM DESTINATIONS ABSTRACTIn this study, researcher aims to analyze young travelers' factors of motivations in visiting special interest tourism destinations. Understanding the concept of tourist motivations, specifically young tourists in this case, is very important to predict travel patterns in the future and enable destinations marketer to plan an effective strategy of marketing. Goals in this research were to identify what factors motivate and which factor dominates young travelers the most in traveling. This research uses a quantitive approach based on data collected by survey with questionnaires. Technique of data-analyzing in this research is factor analysis. Result of this research concludes that there are 7 new factors which influence young travelers' motivations in visiting special interest tourism destinations. This result hopefully is able to be a new reference in the factor analysis of special interest tourism motivations field of study which has only a few researches conducted regarding the topic. In addition, researcher also wishes that this research could become a reference for special interest tourism destinations marketers in planning their market strategies for young travelers. Keywords: Factor Analysis, Young Travelers, Travel Motivations, Special Interest Tourism Destinations.