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IMPORTANCE OF BROODSTOCK NUTRITION IN AQUACULTURE

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Abstract

Aquaculture Researcher, Fish Nutrition. Morocco. Research into aquaculture broodstock nutrition is gaining importance with the increasing use of domesticated and genetically selected stocks for aquaculture. Feed quality plays an important role in aquaculture production, as it is a major determinant of animal growth and reproductive efficiency and therefore the profitability of the aquaculture business. Adequate diets are essential for egg development, spawning, follicle formation, ovarian tissue formation, embryo growth and development. Foods must be formulated to meet the nutritional needs of the broodstock, an essential factor in achieving the desired quality of gametes and larvae. For these reasons, aquaculturists and feed manufacturers must give more importance to the feeding of fish spawners in aquaculture, hence the need for high quality nutrient supplementation, especially at the beginning of gonadal development period.
IMPORTANCE OF BROODSTOCK NUTRITION IN
AQUACULTURE
By: Dr Mustapha ABA, Aquaculture Researcher, Fish Nutrition. Morocco.
Research into aquaculture broodstock nutrition is gaining importance with the
increasing use of domesticated and genetically selected stocks for
aquaculture. Feed quality plays an important role in aquaculture production,
as it is a major determinant of animal growth and reproductive efficiency and
therefore the profitability of the aquaculture business.
Adequate diets are essential for egg development, spawning, follicle
formation, ovarian tissue formation, embryo growth and development. Foods
must be formulated to meet the nutritional needs of the broodstock, an
essential factor in achieving the desired quality of gametes and larvae. For
these reasons, aquaculturists and feed manufacturers must give more
importance to the feeding of fish spawners in aquaculture, hence the need for
high quality nutrient supplementation, especially at the beginning of gonadal
development period.
Introduction
Many studies of aquatics organisms have used physical, biological, or
biochemical parameters as indicators of broodstock reproductive
performance and egg quality .
In aquaculture, the broodstock nutrition is one of the most important
constituents for many cultured fish species , they have unpredictable and
variable reproductive performance is an important limiting factor for
maturation, fecundity, and survival of larvae.
Research into fish broodstock nutrition is gaining importance with the
increasing use of domesticated and genetically selected stocks for aquaculture.
Egg quality and spawning performance were related to the nutritional state of
the broodstock and suboptimal nutrition effects the availability of essential
biochemical constituents required for gametogenesis and reproductive control.
Given the increasing importance of domestication in aquaculture, there is a
need for an increased focus on the role of nutrition in broodstock and
maturation performance and in increasing larval survival and quality will be
fundamental to obtaining optimal performance from domesticated stocks.
The improvement of maturation performance and larval production remains a
key goal in improving the efficiency of production systems.
Among fish’s dietary components, such as proteins and lipids, have been
implicated in various reproduction-related processes, such as gonadal
maturation, gamete quality, and spawning perfor-mances.
Thus, broodstock diets should be formulated to ensure all essential nutrients
requirements are met for the fish species being cultured.
Proteins and lipids stand out as the most important nutrients for formation of
body tissues . Moreover, both nutrients play a major role in reproduction, since
they have a direct influence on embryonic development .
Therefore, the development of broodstock feeds rests with there requirements
in this stade.
Role of broodstock nutrition on fish embryo development
Le régime alimentaire des géniteurs, contenant tous les nutriments essentiels
affecte le développement de l’embryon, améliore la morphologie de l’œuf et
taux d’éclosion. Plusieurs études ont montré que le développement de
l’embryon est affecté par les taux des acides gras et les vitamines E, Cet A.
Role of Broodstock nutrition on larval quality
Seed quality improves with the increase in the quality of the nutrition of the
broodstock. The diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids increases the percentage of
live larvae after yolk resorption and improves larvae’ weights and their ability to
resist osmotic shock.
The feed has a direct Role of broodstock nutrition and on fish fecundity
Fertility is defined as the total number of eggs produced by each fish expressed
either in terms of eggs per spawning or eggs per body weight.
Several studies have shown that fertility is affected by a nutritional deficiency of
lipids and unsaturated fatty acids.
Lipids are the most studied macronutrient in terms of broodstock
nutrition.
One of the major nutritional factors that has been significantly affect
reproductive performance in fish is the dietary essential fatty acid content.
Most fish species preferentially utilize lipids to provide energy for somatic
growth but they are also a source of essential fatty acids (EFA) required for the
formation of cell membranes that are vital for successful larval development. It
is therefore important that the correct EFA are provided, in excess of
requirement levels, to allow the production of robust and healthy larvae.
In this context, the fish feed must require more content of lipids in order to
satisfy the energy needs but also the production needs of quality gametes and
larvae. Several studies have shown a close relationship between lipids and the
fatty acid composition of the broodstock diets and the gametes and larvae
produced by these broodstock.
Requirements of Proteins and Amino-Acids in Broodstock Nutrition
Proteins are the most important nutrient in fish nutrition because they are the
building blocks of the animal body at all stages of development and are
responsible for the formation of enzymes and hormones. In addition, proteins
are present in fish egg protein such as lipoproteins, hormones….and enzymes,
determining egg quality and, therefore, fish production on a large scale.
Several studies have shown that a high protein diet provided to the spawning
stock accelerates gonadal maturation in fish, a high egg survival rate, an
influence on gonadal maturation in fish and food in the body.
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