ArticlePDF Available

Does Perceived Stress and Workplace Bullying Alter Employees’ Moral Decision-making? Gender-Related Differences

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Recent studies in the fields of moral psychology and neuropsychology concerning moral decision-making emphasize the importance of intuitive and emotional processes. There is growing evidence that the brain regions related to moral decision-making are sensitive to stress, which can affect moral decisions. Scientists more commonly focus on the effects of acute rather than chronic stress on moral decision-making. In the current study, we focused on employees' moral decision-making and workplace bullying, which also related to stress. The aim of the paper was to investigate whether employees' moral decision-making was altered by perceived stress and workplace bullying, and whether this depended on gender. Three hundred ninety participants - 186 men and 204 women aged 18-65 years - responded to a questionnaire (online or a paper version). Our results indicate in general that perceived stress and workplace bullying lead to more egoistic and non-utilitarian decisions by employees. We conclude that perceived stress and workplace bullying lead to change completely the decisions of men, it becomes non-utilitarian. Thus, perceived stress and workplace bullying do not change completely the decisions of women, it was more non-utilitarian in all conditions.
Content may be subject to copyright.
J. Vveinhardt, D. Majauskiene,
D. Valanciene
ISSN 1648-4460
Influence of External Environment Analysis on the Company’s Internal Activities
TRANSFORMATIONS IN BUSINESS & ECONOMICS, Vol. 19, No 1 (49), 2020
323
Vveinhardt, J., Majauskiene, D., Valanciene, D. (2020), Does
Perceived Stress and Workplace Bullying Alter Employees’ Moral
Decision-making? Gender-Related Differences, Transformations in
Business & Economics, Vol. 19, No 1 (49), pp.323-342.
DOES PERCEIVED STRESS AND WORKPLACE BULLYING
ALTER EMPLOYEES’ MORAL DECISION-MAKING?
GENDER-RELATED DIFFERENCES
1Jolita Vveinhardt
Institute of Sport Science and
Innovations
Lithuanian Sports University
Sporto st. 6
LT-44221 Kaunas
Lithuania
Tel.: +370 698 06668
E-mail: j.vveinhardt@gmail.com
2Daiva Majauskiene
Department of Physical and
Social Education
Lithuanian Sports University
Sporto st. 6
LT-44221 Kaunas
Lithuania
Tel.: +370 37 302626
E-mail: daiva.majauskiene@lsu.lt
3Dovile Valanciene
Institute of Sport Science and
Innovations
Lithuanian Sports University
Sporto st. 6
LT-44221 Kaunas
Lithuania
Tel.: +370 37 302662
E-mail: dovile.valanciene@lsu.lt
1Jolita Vveinhardt, PhD, is a Chief Researcher at the Institute
of Sport Science and Innovations of Lithuanian Sports
University. Professor at the Department of Sports and Tourism
Management, Lithuanian Sports University. For the past
several years she has been exploring the phenomena of
mobbing and nepotism, climate of the organization and other
aspects related to human resource management. She is the
author and co-author of more than 100 scientific publications
in Lithuanian and foreign journals, various scientific
publications on the topics of economics and management of
organizations. J. Vveinhardt is the author and co-author of five
books. The main research areas are mobbing in employee
relations, climate of organization, nepotism as a management
anomaly, favoritism, cronyism, protectionism, values
congruence, human resource management, corporate social
responsibility. Her publications have appeared in the Journal of
Business Economics and Management, Engineering
Economics, Journal of Business Ethics and among others.
2Daiva Majauskiene, PhD, is a lecturer at the Department of
Physical and Social Education, Lithuanian Sports University.
The main research areas are sports history, olympism.
3Dovile Valanciene, PhD, is a researcher at the Institute of
Sport Science and Innovations, Assoc. Prof. at the Department
of Sports and Tourism Management, Lithuanian Sports
University. The main research areas are the paradigm
J. Vveinhardt, D. Majauskiene,
D. Valanciene
ISSN 1648-4460
Influence of External Environment Analysis on the Company’s Internal Activities
TRANSFORMATIONS IN BUSINESS & ECONOMICS, Vol. 19, No 1 (49), 2020
324
of complex systems, the theory of law, history of law, sports
law, philosophy of science, philosophy of law, social sciences
and neuroscience, decision-making and neuroscience.
Received: April, 2019
1st Revision: May, 2019
2nd Revision: January, 2020
Accepted: February, 2020
ABSTRACT
. Recent studies in the fields of moral psychology
and neuropsychology concerning moral decision-making
emphasize the importance of intuitive and emotional processes.
There is growing evidence that the brain regions related to moral
decision-making are sensitive to stress, which can affect moral
decisions. Scientists more commonly focus on the effects of acute
rather than chronic stress on moral decision-making. In the
current study, we focused on employees’ moral decision-making
and workplace bullying, which also related to stress. The aim of the
paper was to investigate whether employees’ moral decision-making
was altered by perceived stress and workplace bullying, and
whether this depended on gender. Three hundred ninety
participants 186 men and 204 women aged 18-65 years
responded to a questionnaire (online or a paper version). Our
results indicate in general that perceived stress and workplace
bullying lead to more egoistic and non-utilitarian decisions by
employees. We conclude that perceived stress and workplace
bullying lead to change completely the decisions of men, it becomes
non-utilitarian. Thus, perceived stress and workplace bullying do
not change completely the decisions of women, it was more non-
utilitarian in all conditions.
KEYWORDS
: decision-making, moral, perceived stress, gender,
workplace bullying.
JEL classification
: D70, D91, DI30, J70, J81.
Introduction
Over the past two decades, moral decision-making processes have received increasing
attention from scientists (e.g. Bartels, 2008; Conway, Gawronski, 2013; Cushman et al., 2006;
Feltz, Cokely, 2008; Fumagalli et al., 2010; Greene et al., 2001; Greene et al., 2004; Greene,
2007; Greene et al., 2008; Lucas et al., 2014; Moore et al., 2008; Sarlo et al., 2014; Starcke et
al., 2010; Starcke et al., 2012; Valdesolo, DeSteno, 2006; Youssef et al., 2012; Lorincová et
al., 2019; Sia, Jose, 2019; Polyanska et al., 2019; GanushchakEfimenko et al., 2018). Moral
psychology has long been primarily focused on reasoning processes (e.g. Kohlberg, 1969;
Piaget, 1965; Turiel, 1983). Recently, some scientists (e.g. Greene, Haidt, 2002; Greene et al.,
2001; Greene et al., 2004; Greene et al., 2008; Nichols, 2002; Nichols, 2004; Schnall et al.,
2008; Van den Bos, 2003) have claimed that reasoning (“higher” cognition) and emotions
(intuition) are both important, but emotions (intuition) play an especially significant role in
moral decision-making. To clarify the role of emotional processing in moral decision-making,
Greene et al. (2004) proposed a dual-process theory. They describe two competing and
sometimes crucial systems responsible for moral decisions: the automatic emotional system
and the more controlled cognitive system. According to Greene (2007), controlled cognitive
processes drive utilitarian moral decisions, while automatic emotional processes drive
nonutilitarian (deontological) decisions. A decision to sacrifice one or a group of people to
save otherslives is called utilitarian because it increases the overall benefit of all individuals
J. Vveinhardt, D. Majauskiene,
D. Valanciene
ISSN 1648-4460
Influence of External Environment Analysis on the Company’s Internal Activities
TRANSFORMATIONS IN BUSINESS & ECONOMICS, Vol. 19, No 1 (49), 2020
325
involved (Greene et al., 2008; Starcke et al., 2012; Babikova, Bucek, 2019; Popov et al.,
2019). The dual-process theory was supported by research where functional magnetic
resonance data was used during moral decision-making tasks. Activation was observed in the
prefrontal cortex during rational processing, and in the inferior parietal lobes, the anterior
temporal lobes, and the anterior cingulate gyrus when emotions were processed (e.g.
Robertson et al., 2007; Young, Koenigs, 2007).
Moral decision-making is evaluated and investigated through the use of various tasks,
e.g. personal and impersonal moral judgements (Greene et al., 2001), simple moral
judgements (Moll et al., 2001), moral picture tasks (Moll et al., 2002), or everyday moral
dilemmas (Starcke et al., 2010), but often research relies on tasks such as the “trolley”
dilemma (Foot, 1967; Greene et al., 2001; Greene et al., 2004; Greene et al., 2008; Thomson,
1986): “You are at the wheel of a runaway trolley quickly approaching a fork in the tracks. On
the tracks extending to the left is a group of five railway workmen. On the tracks extending to
the right is a single railway workman. If you do nothing, the trolley will proceed to the left,
causing the deaths of the five workmen. The only way to avoid this is for you to hit a switch
on the dashboard that will cause the trolley to proceed to the right, causing the death of the
single workman. Is it appropriate to hit the switch to avoid the deaths of the five workmen?”.
According to Greene et al. (2001), most people say “yes”. However, the “footbridge”
dilemma is often presented together with the “trolley” dilemma (Thomson, 1986; Greene et
al., 2001; Greene et al., 2004; Greene et al., 2008): “A runaway trolley is heading down the
tracks toward five workmen who will be killed if the trolley proceeds on its present course.
You are on a footbridge over the tracks, in between the approaching trolley and the five
workmen. Next to you on this footbridge is a stranger who happens to be very large. The only
way to save the lives of the five workmen is to push this stranger off the bridge and onto the
tracks below where his large body will stop the trolley. The stranger will die if you do this,
but the five workmen will be saved. Is it appropriate for you to push the stranger on to the
tracks in order to save the five workmen?”. According to Greene et al. (2001), most people
say “no”. These represent utilitarian (“yes”) and nonutilitarian (deontological) (“no”) moral
decisions. One dilemma is described as impersonal (the “trolley” dilemma) and other personal
(the “footbridge” dilemma). Greene et al. (2001; 2004; 2008) suggest that the different
answers to these dilemmas are provoked by strong emotional responses. Pushing someone off
a footbridge provoked a stronger emotional response than simply hitting a switch. Koenigs et
al. (2007) and Greene et al. (2001; 2004; 2008) divided personal moral dilemmas into “low-
conflict” and “high-conflict”. Only high-conflict dilemmas are suitable for assessing conflict
between utilitarian responses (which rely on controlled cognitive processes) and nonutilitarian
responses (based on automatic emotional processes), but low-conflict dilemmas do not create
such conflicts (Greene et al., 2008).
In today’s world, it is impossible to avoid stress; it is conditioned by the peculiarities
of social life and the problems of economic life. There is no unanimous definition of the
concept of stress in the scientific literature. It is considered a pattern of negative physiological
states and psychological responses that occur in an individual. Selye (1984), who was
interested in the physiological and psychological phenomenon of stress, defined it as an
unspecific reaction of an organism to harmful stimuli. Lazarus and Folkman (1984) define
stress as a special relationship between a person and the environment that is defined by the
person as hindering or exceeding his/her resources and causing a threat to his/her welfare.
According to Mills and Huebner (1998), stress is an expression of a balance between a person
and situation that is manifested in impaired organ function, excessive strain, psychic tension,
J. Vveinhardt, D. Majauskiene,
D. Valanciene
ISSN 1648-4460
Influence of External Environment Analysis on the Company’s Internal Activities
TRANSFORMATIONS IN BUSINESS & ECONOMICS, Vol. 19, No 1 (49), 2020
326
conflict, dependency, and an inability to manage feelings and emotions. Although definitions
abound, stress is generally regarded as an emotional state of nervousness, tension, and strain
(Cooke, Rousseau, 1984) resulting from a failure to respond adequately to mental, emotional,
or physical demands (Selye, 1984). Stress is an adaptive physiological response that involves
numerous biological processes in reactions to physical and cognitive demands (Youssef et al.,
2012). Researchers have recognized stress as a significant occupational hazard that can impair
physical health, psychological well-being, and work performance (Kahn, Byosiere, 1992;
Sauter, Murphy, 1995), causing damage to the nervous system, physical exhaustion, and
various diseases (Selye, 1975). Beyond neurobiology, acute stress has been shown to affect
cognitive and behavioral responses, including working memory (Duncko et al., 2009; Oei et
al., 2006; Porcelli et al., 2008; Robinson et al., 2008; Schoofs et al., 2009), episodic memory
(Jelici et al., 2004; Stawski et al., 2009), and to impair memory retrieval, including social
memory (Merz et al., 2010).
Recent neuroimaging studies have shown that stress can also lead to changes in
prefrontal cortex and the limbic system. There is growing evidence that the brain regions
related to moral decision-making are also sensitive to stress, so stress can affect moral
decisions (e.g. Dedovic et al., 2009; Kalvemark et al. 2004; Kern et al., 2008; Kudielka, Kern,
2004; Pruessner et al., 2004; Pruessner et al., 2008). It is important to note that stressed
individuals may rely more on intuition and less on reasoning (Yu, 2016).
Scientists have identified the following brain regions related to moral decision-
making. The right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the bilateral inferior parietal lobe are
related to cognitive processes, and the medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate/precuneus,
the region of the superior temporal sulcus/inferior, the parietal lobe, and the amygdala are
related to emotional processes (Greene et al., 2001, Greene et al., 2004; Luo et al., 2006; Moll
et al., 2001). Typically, stress is classified as acute or chronic; acute stress lasts from several
minutes to hours, and chronic stress persists for 30 days or more (Stoney et al., 1999).
Scientists more commonly focus on acute stress and its moral decision-making implications
than on chronic stress (e.g. Starcke et al., 2008; Starcke et al., 2010; Starcke et al., 2012;
Youssef et al., 2012). No studies have investigated chronic stress and moral decision-making.
It seems reasonable to conduct a thorough investigation of the influence of different types of
stress on moral decisions, and how this influence is affected by background and
circumstances.
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether perceived stress and
workplace bullying altered employees’ moral decision-making and whether this effect was
influenced by gender. There have been no previous studies of this combination of factors. For
the study, we used 20 everyday moral situations developed by Starcke et al. (2010), to which
there are altruistic or egoistic responses. Starcke et al. (2010) showed that stress had no
impact on decision-making in any of these situations, and researchers have failed to find
significant differences between the decisions of stressed and non-stressed groups, but they
have established a positive correlation between egoistic decisions and cortisol stress responses
in highly emotional situations. Because these situations may not elicit emotions that are strong
enough to create tension between automatic emotional processes and controlled cognitive
processes, we also presented respondents with 12 high-conflict dilemmas (Greene et al., 2001,
Greene et al., 2004, Greene et al., 2008; Koenigs et al., 2007) to generate tension between
utilitarian and nonutilitarian decisions. According to the dual-process theory of Greene et al.
(2004), such dilemmas create tension between automatic emotional and controlled cognitive
processes. Youssef et al. (2012) and Starcke et al. (2012) found that (acute) stress reduces the
J. Vveinhardt, D. Majauskiene,
D. Valanciene
ISSN 1648-4460
Influence of External Environment Analysis on the Company’s Internal Activities
TRANSFORMATIONS IN BUSINESS & ECONOMICS, Vol. 19, No 1 (49), 2020
327
use of utilitarian decisions to resolve moral dilemmas. Valdesolo, DeSteno (2006) found that
a positive mood leads to more utilitarian decisions. Moreover, research has demonstrated that
men tend to make more utilitarian decisions than do women (Fumagalli et al., 2010; Youssef
et al., 2012) in personal moral dilemmas. The present study examines employees and their
perceived stress from workplace bullying, which allows a chronic stress situation to be
considered in relation to moral decision-making. There is no single definition of workplace
bullying, but bullying at work is about interpersonal, systematic, abusive behavior that may
lead to social, psychological, and psychosomatic problems for an employee (Einarsen et al.,
2003; Rayner, Cooper, 2006, Rayner et al., 2002; Sedziuviene, Vveinhardt, 2019).
We propose the following hypotheses: 1. Employees’ perceived stress and workplace
bullying lead to more egoistic decisions. 2. Employees’ perceived stress and workplace
bullying reduce the likelihood of utilitarian decisions regarding personal high-conflict moral
dilemmas. 3. Men have a stronger preference for egoistic decisions and utilitarian responses
than women do.
1. Participants and Methods
1.1 Participants and Procedure
Three hundred ninety participants responded to the questionnaire (186 men and 204
women). The demographic variables presented in Table 1 show the distribution of
respondents. The age range was 18-65 years (M = 27.5, SD = 9.3).
Table 1. Demographic Data
Characteristics
Total (N = 390)
Total (N = 100%)
Gender
Men
Women
186
204
47.7%
52.3%
Age (years)
18-25
26-35
Over 36
238
98
54
61.1%
25.1%
13.8%
Marital status
Single and living alone
Single and living with parents
Married or living in a partnership
86
116
188
22.1%
29.7%
48.2%
Job type
Constantly contact with clients
Rarely contact with clients
Never contact with clients
219
103
68
56.2%
26.4%
17.4%
Job position held
Ordinary employee
Administration employee
Head
231
74
85
59.2%
19%
21.8%
Working experience (years)
Up to 1
1-3
4-7
Over 8
50
64
150
126
12.8%
16.4%
38.5%
32.3%
Organization size
Very small (up to 10 employees)
Small (up to 50 employees)
Middle (up to 250 employees)
Big (over 250 employees)
101
91
80
118
25.9%
23.3%
20.5%
30.3%
Source: created by the authors.
J. Vveinhardt, D. Majauskiene,
D. Valanciene
ISSN 1648-4460
Influence of External Environment Analysis on the Company’s Internal Activities
TRANSFORMATIONS IN BUSINESS & ECONOMICS, Vol. 19, No 1 (49), 2020
328
All participants were employed in Lithuanian organizations. We attempted to include
participants of various ages, of both genders and in a variety of jobs, e.g. teachers, lecturers,
lawyers, managers, business people, shop workers, sports instructors, and other jobs, who
could understand English. No incentives were offered to participants. Almost 68% of them
had over four years of work experience. A little over half of the respondents communicated
with customers constantly, so a tense and stressful environment is a characteristic of their
work. In terms of company size, the largest group (30.3%) work for companies with over 250
employees. More than half of the respondents (61%) were 18-25 years of age, and the second
largest group (25.1%) were 26-35 years of age. More than half (59.2%) of the respondents
were ordinary employees, and approximately one fifth (21.8%) were company heads at
different levels. The rest of the respondents were company administrators. Other demographic
variables are summarized in Table 1.
Instructions were provided and participants completed online or paper versions of the
questionnaire in English. The questionnaire first presented an everyday moral decision-
making (EMDM) questions, then high-conflict personal moral dilemmas, followed by a 14-
item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14), the Negative Acts QuestionnaireRevised (NAQR)
questions, and questions about demographic characteristics. The study was approved by the
local ethics committee (No. SMTEK-07). All analyses were conducted with IBM SPSS
software (v. 22.0).
1.2 Methods
1.2.1 Moral Decision-Making Tasks
Everyday moral decision-making (EMDM) tasks. EMDM tasks were used to ascertain
what moral decisions participants make (altruistic or egoistic) (Starcke et al., 2010; Appendix
A). Participants were asked to make decisions in 20 everyday moral dilemmas: 10 were highly
emotional (e.g., “You meet the love of your life, but you are married and have children.
Would you leave your family?”) and 10 dilemmas were less emotional (e.g., “You have
purchased concert tickets for yourself and a friend. The tickets differed in price. Would you
pay for the cheaper ticket?”). Each of the 20 dilemmas had two options, requiring either
altruistic or egoistic decisions (in dilemmas 15 and 11–15 “yes” indicated an egoistic
decision and “no” an altruistic decision; in 6–10 and 1620, the reverse was true). For
research purposes, the total numbers of altruistic and egoistic decisions and the percentage of
altruistic decisions were calculated.
High-conflict personal moral decision-making tasks. To assess what moral decisions
participants make (utilitarian or nonutilitarian) and to provoke conflict between controlled
cognitive processes and automatic emotional processes responses, a high-conflict personal
moral decision-making tasks were used. These were high-conflict personal moral dilemmas
(e.g. “crying baby” dilemma: “Enemy soldiers have taken over your village. They have orders
to kill all remaining civilians. You and some of your townspeople have sought refuge in the
cellar of a large house. Outside you hear the voices of soldiers who have come to search the
house for valuables. Your baby begins to cry loudly. You cover his mouth to block the sound.
If you remove your hand from his mouth, his crying will summon the attention of the soldiers
who will kill you, your child, and the others hiding out in the cellar. To save yourself and the
others you must smother your child to death. Is it appropriate for you to smother your child in
order to save yourself and the other townspeople?”) developed by Greene et al. (2001; 2004;
2008) (Appendix B). Participants were asked to make decisions in 12 high-conflict personal
J. Vveinhardt, D. Majauskiene,
D. Valanciene
ISSN 1648-4460
Influence of External Environment Analysis on the Company’s Internal Activities
TRANSFORMATIONS IN BUSINESS & ECONOMICS, Vol. 19, No 1 (49), 2020
329
dilemmas (an answer of “appropriate” indicates a utilitarian response (e.g. to save more lives
at the cost of one, or to hurt somebody but save others) and an answer of “inappropriate”
indicates a nonutilitarian response (e.g. not to save any lives, because the respondent decides
to not to hurt anybody). For our research purposes, the total number of decisions and the
percentage of utilitarian and nonutilitarian decisions were calculated.
1.2.2 Measurement of Perceived Stress Response
14-Items Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14). The participants’ perceived stress level
(degree of chronic stress) was assessed using the PSS-14 (Cohen et al., 1983). The PSS-14 is
a 14-item self-report measure with a five-point Likert scale (0 = never, 1 = almost never, 2 =
sometimes, 3 = fairly often, 4 = very often). Seven items (i.e. the stress subscale) of the PSS-
14 are negatively phrased (e.g. “In the last month, how often have you been upset because of
something that happened unexpectedly?”) and seven items (i.e. the coping subscale) are
positively phrased (e.g. “In the last month, how often have you dealt successfully with day-to-
day problems and annoyances?”). The questions in this scale ask participants about their
feelings and thoughts over the past month. PSS-14 assesses the degree to which participants
perceived situations as stressful. Total scores range between 0 and 56; higher scores represent
higher perceived stress levels.
1.2.3 Measurement of Exposure to Workplace Bullying
Negative Acts QuestionnaireRevised (NAQR). Participants’ experiences of bullying
in the workplace were assessed using the NAQR (Einarsen et al., 2009). This questionnaire
is a 22-item scale about bullying behaviors (negative acts) in the previous six months in the
workplace, which are rated according to a five-point Likert scale (1 = never, 2 = now and
then, 3 = monthly, 4 = weekly, 5 = daily). These items relate to three forms of bullying:
personal bullying (e.g. “Being humiliated or ridiculed in connection with your work”),
physically intimidating bullying (e.g. “Practical jokes carried out by people with whom you
don’t get along”), and work-related bullying (e.g. “Being ordered to do work below your level
of competence”). Higher total scores mean acts that are more negative. The questionnaire also
included a 23rd general self-report item, asking participants whether they had experienced
continual bullying (in the previous six months). This self-rating question can be as a general
indicator of mobbing or workplace/bullying. Possible answers to the 23rd item were 1 = no, 2
= yes, very rarely, 3 = yes, occasionally, 4 = yes, a few days a week, 5 = yes, almost daily.
Therefore, the first 22 items can be described as related to behavior that has been experienced,
and the 23rd as a self-rated perception of bullying according to the definition of Einarsen and
Skogstad (1996, pp.190-191): “Bullying takes place when one or more persons systematically
and over time feel that they have been subjected to negative treatment on the part of one or
more persons, in a situation in which the person(s) exposed to the treatment have difficulty in
defending themselves against them. It is not bullying when two equally strong opponents are
in conflict with each other.” We obtained permission to use this measurement from Professor
Einarsen.
2. Results
According to the demographical parameters, differences in altruistic decision-making
(in response to low-level questions) are statistically significant with working experience years
(χ2 (27) = 44.749, p = .017) in contrast to decisions regarding higher-level questions where
there were differences in the aspect of gender (χ2 (9) = 25.487, p = .005), marital status (χ2
J. Vveinhardt, D. Majauskiene,
D. Valanciene
ISSN 1648-4460
Influence of External Environment Analysis on the Company’s Internal Activities
TRANSFORMATIONS IN BUSINESS & ECONOMICS, Vol. 19, No 1 (49), 2020
330
(18) = 31.449, p = .026) and job position (χ2 (18) = 31.963, p = .022) (Table 2). Respondents
whose working experience was 13 years tended to make more altruistic decisions (low-level
questions) than others. Men scored higher on altruism than women for all higher-level
questions. We observed that respondents who were single, lived with parents and held head
job positions tended to make more altruistic decisions than others. However, in the analysis of
all EMDM questions, statistically significant differences were found between job type (χ2
(32) = 74.241, p = .000) and working experience (χ2 (48) = 71.434, p = .016). Respondents
who constantly contacted with clients and whose working experience was 13 years tended to
make more altruistic decisions (all EMDM questions) than others.
Table 2. Correlations between moral decision tasks, perceived stress, and workplace bullying
Note. p < .05; significant differences are in bold. a Percentage of altruistic decisions; b Percentage of utilitarian
decisions.
Source: created by the authors.
Statistically significant differences in utilitarian decision-making were determined
according to age (χ2 (24) = 44.017, p = .008) and working experience (χ2 (36) = 51.258, p =
.048). Younger respondents (age 1825) and respondents with working experience (up to 1
year) tended to make more utilitarian decisions than others.
J. Vveinhardt, D. Majauskiene,
D. Valanciene
ISSN 1648-4460
Influence of External Environment Analysis on the Company’s Internal Activities
TRANSFORMATIONS IN BUSINESS & ECONOMICS, Vol. 19, No 1 (49), 2020
331
An independent-samples t-test was conducted to compare perceived stress and
bullying at work between genders. All subscales of perceived stress showed significant
differences between genders (stress, t (388) = 6.58, p = .00; coping, t (388) = 2.07, p =
0.04; total PSS-14, t (388) = 5.74, p = .00). Stress received higher z-evaluations from women
and shows more support for the statements compared with men’s ratings. The form of
workplace bullying does not differ in any respect between genders, although the women gave
higher scores for the statements in the questionnaire.
Workplace bullying and perceived stress had no statistically significant effect on
altruistic decisions for low-emotional questions and utilitarian decisions. The perceived stress
response (PSS-14 overall score) and workplace bullying (NAQR overall score) were very
weakly negatively significantly correlated with altruistic decisions for all questions (PSS-14
overall, r = .12, p < .05; NAQR overall, r = .12, p < .05). Perceived stress response (PSS-
14 overall score) was also very weakly negatively significantly correlated with altruistic
decisions for higher-level questions (PSS-14 overall, r = .16, p < .01). The PSS-14 stress and
coping subscales also showed a very weak negative and significant correlation with altruistic
decisions for higher-level questions. PSS-14 stress subscale also showed a very weak and
significant correlation with altruistic decisions for all questions. The NAQR personal and
physically intimidating bullying subscales had no statistically significant effect on moral
decision-making tasks; however, the work-related bullying subscale was very weakly
negatively and significantly correlated with altruistic decisions for higher-level questions (r =
.13, p < .05) and altruistic decisions for all questions (r = .14, p < .01). We found that the
employees related workplace bullying to perceived stress. The PSS-14 (overall score) scale
was weakly positively and significantly correlated with the NAQR (overall score)
questionnaire (r = .25, p < .01). The subscales of the NAQR were also related to the
subscales of the PSS-14 with weakly or very weakly positive and significant correlations
(Table 3).
Table 3. Correlations between moral decision tasks, perceived stress, and workplace bullying
Notes: * p < .05; ** p < .01; significant correlations are in bold. a Percentage of altruistic decisions; b Percentage
of utilitarian decisions.
Source: own calculations.
J. Vveinhardt, D. Majauskiene,
D. Valanciene
ISSN 1648-4460
Influence of External Environment Analysis on the Company’s Internal Activities
TRANSFORMATIONS IN BUSINESS & ECONOMICS, Vol. 19, No 1 (49), 2020
332
Aiming at analysing how perceived stress and bullying/mobbing affects moral
decision making according gender, we divided participants into groups according PSS-14 and
NAQ-R overall scores: participants who suffered from stress (more than a half PSS-14 total
score) and bullying/mobbing (more than a half NAQ-R total score) and participants who did
not suffer from stress (less than a half PSS-14 total score) and bullying/mobbing (less than a
half NAQ-R total score) and analysed their moral decision-making.
Our results showed that males and females significantly differed when they suffered
from stress in altruistic (higher-level questions) responses; t (124) = 2.59, p = .01 (Table 4).
Males and females did not significantly differ when they suffered from bullying/mobbing in
moral decision making (Table 5).
Table 5. Particularities of decision-making in those suffering from stress: gender related differences
Variables
All participants
(N=126)
Males (N=42)
Females (N=84)
Gender effects
M
SD
M
SD
M
SD
t
p
EMDM a
All questions
53.25
13.20
53.80
11.25
52.98
14.12
0.333
0.740
Low-level questions
51.27
17.53
47.14
16.86
53.33
17.58
-1.888
0.061
Higher-level
questions
55.24
16.43
60.48
14.97
52.61
16.58
2.588
0.011
High-Conflict
Personal Moral
Decision-Making
Dilemmas b
43.81
24.57
48.26
21.55
41.58
25.78
1.444
0.151
Notes: p < .05; significant differences are in bold.a Percentage of altruistic decisions; b Percentage of utilitarian
decisions.
Source: own calculations.
Male and female participants’ moral decisions in altruistic (higher-level) (t (262) =
2.70, p = .007 and utilitarian responses (t (262) = 2.21, p = .028) significantly differed when
they did not suffer from stress (Table 6). Males and females significantly differed when they
did not suffer from bullying/mobbing in altruistic (higher-level) (t (350) = 3.53, p = .000 and
utilitarian responses (t (350) = 3.01, p = .003) (Table 7).
Table 6. Particularities of decision-making in those not suffering from stress: gender related differences
Variables
All participants
(N=264)
Males (N=144)
Females (N=120)
Gender effects
M
SD
M
SD
M
SD
t
p
EMDM a
All questions
56.00
12.96
57.29
12.65
54.46
13.20
1.776
0.077
Low-level questions
53.26
15.91
53.33
16.39
53.17
15.39
0.085
0.933
Higher-level
questions
58.75
16.69
61.25
16.08
55.75
16.99
2.697
0.007
High-Conflict
Personal Moral
Decision-making
Dilemmas b
47.02
25.34
50.14
27.08
43.27
22.61
2.211
0.028
Notes: p < .05; significant differences are in bold.a Percentage of altruistic decisions; b Percentage of utilitarian
decisions.
Source: own calculations.
J. Vveinhardt, D. Majauskiene,
D. Valanciene
ISSN 1648-4460
Influence of External Environment Analysis on the Company’s Internal Activities
TRANSFORMATIONS IN BUSINESS & ECONOMICS, Vol. 19, No 1 (49), 2020
333
Table 7. Particularities of decision-making in those not suffering from bullying/mobbing: gender related
differences
Variables
All participants
(N=352)
Males (N=162)
Females (N=190)
Gender effects
M
SD
M
SD
M
SD
t
p
EMDM a
All questions
55.07
12.94
56.39
12.40
53.95
13.31
1.770
0.780
Low-level questions
52.87
16.14
52.16
16.45
53.47
15.89
-0.761
0.447
Higher-level
questions
57.27
16.66
60.62
15.87
54.42
16.82
3.535
0.000
High-Conflict
Personal Moral
Decision-Making
Dilemmas b
45.84
24.63
50.08
25.32
42.25
23.50
3.007
0.003
Notes: p < .05; significant differences are in bold.a Percentage of altruistic decisions; b Percentage of utilitarian
decisions.
Source: own calculations.
3. Discussion
The aim of this study was to investigate whether employees’ moral decision-making
was altered by perceived stress and workplace bullying and how this differed between
genders. We found that the PSS-14 scale had a very weak positive and significant correlation
with NAQR questionnaire scores. Bullying is related to (chronic) stress in victims. Previous
research has found altered cortisol levels (e.g. Kudielka et al., 2004; Monteleone et al., 2009)
increased psychological stress, mental fatigue, or even depression (e.g. Agervold, Mikkelsen,
2004; Macik-Frey et al., 2007; Mikkelsen, Einarsen, 2001; Niedhammer et al., 2007;
O’Connell et al., 2007; Rayner, Keashly, 2005) among people who had suffered from
bullying at work.
Our results provide further support for Greene’s dual-process theory of moral
reasoning. Youssef et al. (2012) and Starcke et al. (2012) found that (acute) stress reduces the
likelihood of utilitarian decisions to resolve moral dilemmas. Starcke et al. (2010) identified a
positive correlation between egoistic decisions and cortisol stress responses to higher-level
emotional questions. Our results indicate that employees’ perceived stress and workplace
bullying lead to more egoistic decisions, although we found no significant correlations
between perceived stress and workplace bullying with low-emotional dilemmas and utilitarian
decisions (Table 3), we found evidence (Table 4 and Table 5) that perceived stress and
workplace bullying encourage employees to make more egoistic and non-utilitarian decisions.
We also found that perceived stress response (PSS-14 overall score) and workplace bullying
(NAQR overall score) were very weakly negatively significantly correlated with altruistic
decisions for all questions. Perceived stress response (PSS-14 overall score) was also very
weakly negatively significantly correlated with altruistic decisions for higher-level emotional
questions.
Research has also demonstrated that men tend to make more utilitarian decisions than
women do (Fumagalli et al., 2010; Youssef et al., 2012) about personal moral dilemmas.
Friesdorf et al. (2015) conducted a meta-analytic analysis of 40 studies with 6,100
participants and observed that men showed a stronger preference for utilitarian decisions over
nonutilitarian (deontological) decisions than women did. Gilligan (1982) found that men solve
moral dilemmas in a rational manner, especially with respect for law and order, whereas
J. Vveinhardt, D. Majauskiene,
D. Valanciene
ISSN 1648-4460
Influence of External Environment Analysis on the Company’s Internal Activities
TRANSFORMATIONS IN BUSINESS & ECONOMICS, Vol. 19, No 1 (49), 2020
334
women do so emotionally, especially with respect to empathy and care for others. However,
research results about moral decision-making on ethical quandaries and gender vary.
According to O’Brien et al. (2013), women score higher on emotional empathy and Rosen et
al. (2016) noticed that women make more altruistic decisions than men do. Some studies (e.g.
Eynon et al., 1997; Reiss, Mitra., 1998) show that women tend to make more ethical
decisions, but others show the reverse (e.g. Weeks et al., 1999) or suggest that there is no
connection between gender and ethical decision-making (e.g. Abdolmohammadi et al., 2003).
Further explorations are expected in this field. We found that men tend to make more
altruistic and utilitarian decisions than women do in all questions and in higher-level
questions, but women tend to make more altruistic responses in low-level questions. Men
make more utilitarian decisions than women do (Table 2). Youssef et al. (2012) also found
that stress group provided significantly fewer utilitarian responses than control group and
females also gave significantly fewer utilitarian responses than males. They concluded that in
stress conditions participants tend to make fewer utilitarian responses in high conflict personal
moral dilemmas. Our results also showed that in stress conditions (perceived stress and
bullying/mobbing) (Table 4 and Table 5) participants tended to make more non-utilitarian
decisions. We found significant differences between the two genders in altruistic (higher-level
questions) and utilitarian responses when genders did not suffer from stress and
bullying/mobbing, men tended to make more altruistic (higher-level questions) and utilitarian
decisions than women (Table 6 and Table 7). According to perceived stress, we found a
significant difference between the two genders in altruistic (higher-level questions) responses,
men tended to make more altruistic decisions than women, but according to
bullying/mobbing, we did not find significant differences in altruistic (higher-level questions)
responses. Therefore, stress per se does not lead to men’s altruistic decision-making
tendencies, bullying and mobbing lead to similar altruistic (higher-level questions) responses
in both men and women. Our results provide further evidence that there are gender differences
in moral decision-making. Thus, the first hypothesis that stress and bullying experienced by
employees encourage egoistic and less altruistic decisions was confirmed. The second
hypothesis that stress and bullying experienced by employees reduce the likelihood of
utilitarian decisions was confirmed. The third hypothesis that men prefer egoistic and
utilitarian decisions more than women was partially confirmed. It would be useful to compare
people in different countries for further research.
Conclusions
We have demonstrated that in general perceived stress and workplace bullying lead to
more egoistic and non-utilitarian decisions by employees. When genders did not suffer from
stress and bullying/mobbing, men tended to make more altruistic (higher-level questions) and
utilitarian decisions than women. We have also demonstrated that genders did not differ
significantly in utilitarian responses when they suffered from stress and bullying/mobbing,
both men and women tended to make more non-utilitarian decisions. Our results indicate that
perceived stress and workplace bullying lead to change completely the decisions of men, it
becomes non-utilitarian. Thus, perceived stress and workplace bullying do not change
completely the decisions of women, it was more non-utilitarian in all conditions.
References
Abdolmohammadi, M.J., Read, W.J., Scarbrough, D.P. (2003), “Does selection-socialization help to explain
J. Vveinhardt, D. Majauskiene,
D. Valanciene
ISSN 1648-4460
Influence of External Environment Analysis on the Company’s Internal Activities
TRANSFORMATIONS IN BUSINESS & ECONOMICS, Vol. 19, No 1 (49), 2020
335
accountants’ weak ethical reasoning?”, Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 42, No 1, pp.71-81.
Agervold, M., Mikkelsen, E. (2004), “Relationships between bullying, psychosocial work environment and
individual stress reactions”, Work & Stress, Vol. 18, No 4, pp.336-351.
Babikova, K., Bucek, J. (2019), “A Model Replication with an Extension of Students’ Perception of Prospective
Employer Attractiveness”, Journal of Competitiveness, Vol. 11, No 2), pp.5-21.
Bartels, D.M. (2008), “Principled moral sentiment and the flexibility of moral judgment and decision making”,
Cognition, Vol. 108, No 2, pp.381-417.
Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., Mermelstein, R. (1983), “A global measure of perceived stress”, Journal of Health and
Social Behavior, Vol. 24, No 4, pp.385-396.
Conway, P., Gawronski, B. (2013), “Deontological and utilitarian inclinations in moral decision making: a
process dissociation approach”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 104, No 2, pp.2016-
2035.
Cooke, R.A., Rousseau, D.M. (1984), “Stress and strain from family roles and work-role expectations”, Journal
of Applied Psychology, Vol. 69, No 2, pp.252-260.
Cushman, F., Young, L., Hauser, M. (2006), “The role of conscious reasoning and intuition in moral judgment:
Testing three principles of harm”, Psychological Science, Vol. 17, No 12, pp.1082-1089.
Dedovic, K., D’Aguiar, C., Pruessner, J.C. (2009), “What stress does to your brain: a review of neuroimaging
studies”, The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 54, No 1, pp.6-15.
Duncko, R., Johnson, L., Merikangas, K., Grillon, C. (2009), “Working memory performance after acute
exposure to the cold pressor stress in healthy volunteers”, Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, Vol.
91, No 4, pp.377-381.
Einarsen, S., Skogstad, A. (1996), “Bullying at work: Epidemiological findings in public and private
organizations”, European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, Vol. 5, No 2, pp.185-201.
Einarsen, S., Hoel, H., Notelaers, G. (2009), “Measuring exposure to bullying and harassment at work: Validity,
factor structure and psychometric properties of the Negative Acts Questionnaire- Revised”, Work &
Stress, Vol. 23, No 21, pp.24-44.
Einarsen, S., Hoel, H., Zapf, D., Cooper, C. (2003), The concept of bulling at work: the European tradition”, in:
S. Einarsen, H. Hoel, D. Zapf, C. Cooper (Eds.), Bullying and Emotional Abuse in the Workplace:
International Perspectives in Research and Practice, London: Taylor & Francis, pp.3-30.
Eynon, G., Hill, N.Y., Stevens, K.T. (1997), “Factors that influence the moral reasoning abilities of accountants:
Implications for universities and the profession”, Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 16, No 12/13, pp.1297-
1309.
Feltz, A., Cokely, E.T. (2008), The fragmented folk: More evidence of stable individual differences in moral
judgments and folk intuitions”, in: B.C. Love, K. McRae, V.M. Sloutsky (Eds.), Proceedings of the 30th
Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society , Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society, pp.1771-
1776).
Foot, P. (1967), “The problem of abortion and the doctrine of double effect”, Oxford Review, Vol. 5, pp.5-15.
Friesdorf, R., Conway, P., Gawronski, B. (2015), “Gender differences in responses to moral dilemmas: a process
dissociation analysis”, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Vol. 41, No 5, pp.696-713.
Fumagalli, M., Ferrucci, R., Mameli, F., Marceglia, S., Mrakic-Sposta, S., Zago, S., Lucchiari, C., Consonni, D.,
Nordio, F., Pravettoni, G., Cappa, S.F., Priori, A. (2010), “Gender-related differences in moral
judgments”, Cognitive Processing, Vol. 11, No 3, pp.219-226.
GanushchakEfimenko, L., Shcherbak, V., Nifatova, O. (2018), Assessing the effects of socially responsible
strategic partnerships on building brand equity of integrated business structures in Ukraine”, Oeconomia
Copernicana, Vol. 9, No 4, pp.715-730, doi: 10.24136/ oc.2018.035.
Gilligan, C. (1982), In a different voice: psychological theory and women‘s development, Harvard University
Press.
Greene, J.D. (2007), The secret joke of Kant’s soul”, in: W. Sinnott-Armstrong (Ed.), Moral Psychology, The
Neuroscience of Morality: Emotion, Brain Disorders, and Development, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp.
1771-1776.
Greene, J.D., Haidt, J. (2002), “How (and where) does moral judgment work?”, Trends in Cognitive Sciences,
Vol. 6, No 12, pp.517-523.
Greene, J.D., Morelli, S.A., Lowenberg, K., Nystrom, L.E., Cohen, J.D. (2008), “Cognitive load selectively
interferes with utilitarian moral judgment”, Cognition, Vol. 107, No 3, pp.1144-1154.
Greene, J.D., Nystrom, L.E., Engell, A.D., Darley, J.M., Cohen, J.D. (2004), “The neural bases of cognitive
conflict and control in moral judgment”, Neuron, Vol. 44, No 2, pp.389-400.
Greene, J.D., Sommerville, R.B., Nystrom, L.E., Darley, J.M., Cohen, J.D. (2001), “An fMRI investigation of
J. Vveinhardt, D. Majauskiene,
D. Valanciene
ISSN 1648-4460
Influence of External Environment Analysis on the Company’s Internal Activities
TRANSFORMATIONS IN BUSINESS & ECONOMICS, Vol. 19, No 1 (49), 2020
336
emotional engagement in moral judgment”, Science, Vol. 293, pp.2105-2108.
Jelici, M., Geraerts, E., Merckelbach, H., Guerrieri, R. (2004), “Acute stress enhances memory for emotional
words, but impairs memory for neutral words”, International Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 114, No 10,
pp.1343-1351.
Kahn, R.L., Byosiere, P.B. (1992), “Stress in organizations”, in: M.D. Dunnette, M. Hugh (Eds.), Handbook of
Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, pp.571-650.
Kalvemark, S., Hoglund, A.T., Hansson, M.G., Westerholm, P., Arnetz, B. (2004), “Living with conflicts ethical
dilemmas and moral distress in the health care system”, Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 58, No 6,
pp.1075-1084.
Kern, S., Oakes, T.R., Stone, C.K., McAuliff, E.M., Kirschbaum, C., Davidson, R.J. (2008), “Glucose metabolic
changes in the prefrontal cortex are associated with HPA axis response to a psychosocial stressor”,
Psychoneuroendocrinology, Vol. 33, No 4, pp.517-529.
Koenigs, M., Young, L., Adolphs, R., Tranel, D., Cushman, F., Hauser, M., Damasio, A. (2007), “Damage to the
prefrontal cortex increases utilitarian moral judgements”, Nature, Vol. 446, No 7138, pp.908-911.
Kohlberg, L. (1969), Stage and sequence: the cognitive-developmental approach to socialization”, in: D.A.
Goslin (Ed.), Handbook of Socialization Theory and Research, Rand McNally, pp.347-480.
Kudielka, B.M., Kern, S. (2004), “Cortisol day profiles in victims of mobbing (bullying at the Work Place):
Preliminary results of a first psychobiological field study”, Journal of Psychosomatic Research, Vol. 56,
No 1, pp.149-150.
Lazarus, R.S., Folkman, S. (1984), Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer.
Lorincová, S., Hitka, M., Bajzíková, Ľ., Weberová, D. (2019), Are the motivational preferences of employees
working in small enterprises in Slovakia changing in time, Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues,
Vol. 6, No 4, pp.1618-1635.
Lucas, B.J., Livingston, R.W. (2014), “Feeling socially connected increases utilitarian choices in moral
dilemmas”, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 53, July, pp.1-4.
Luo, Q., Nakic, M., Wheatley, T., Richell, R., Martin, A., Blair, R.J. (2006), “The neural basis of fimplicit moral
attitude-an IAT study using event-related fMRI”, Neuroimage, Vol. 30, No 4, pp.1449-1457.
Macik-Frey, M., Quick, J.C., Nelson, D.L. (2007), “Advances in occupational health: from a stressful beginning
to a positive future”, Journal of Management, Vol. 33, No 6, pp.809-840.
Merz, C.J., Tabbert, K., Schweckendiek, J., Klucken, T., Vaitl, D., Stark, R. (2010), “Investigating the impact of
sex and cortisol on implicit fear conditioning with fMRI”, Psychoneuroendocrinology, Vol. 35, No 1,
pp.33-46
Mikkelsen, E.G., Einarsen, S. (2001), “Bullying in Danish work-life: prevalence and health correlates”,
European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, Vol. 10, No 4, pp.393-413.
Mills, L.B., Huebner, E.S. (1998), “A prospective study of personality characteristics, occupational stressors, and
burnout among school psychology practitioners”, Journal of School Psychology, Vol. 36, No 1, pp.103-
20.
Moll, J., Eslinger, P.J., Oliveira-Souza, R. (2001), “Frontopolar and anterior temporal cortex activation in a
moral judgment task: preliminary functional MRI results in normal subjects”, Arquivos de Neuro-
Psiquiatria, Vol. 59, No 3B, pp.657-664.
Moll, J., Oliveira-Souza, R., Eslinger, P.J., Bramati, I.E., Mourao-Miranda, J., Andreiuolo, P. A., Pessoa, L.
(2002), “The neural correlates of moral sensitivity: a functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation
of basic and moral emotions”, The Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 22, No 7, pp.2730-2736.
Monteleone, P., Nolfe, G., Serritella, C., Milano, V., Di Cerbo, A., Blasi. F., Petrella, C., Maj, M. (2009),
“Hypoactivity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in victims of mobbing: role of the subjects'
temperament and chronicity of the work-related psychological distress”, Psychotherapy and
Psychosomatics, Vol. 78, No 6, pp.381-383.
Moore, A., Clark, B., Kane, M. (2008), “Who shalt not kill? Individual differences in working memory capacity,
executive control, and moral judgment”, Psychological Science, Vol. 19, No 6, pp.549-557.
Niedhammer, I., David, S., Degioanni, S. (2007), “Economic activities and occupations at high risk for
workplace bullying: results from a Large-scale cross-sectional survey in the general working population
in France”, International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Vol. 80, No 4, pp.346-
353.
Nichols, S. (2002), “Norms with feeling: Towards a psychological account of moral judgment”, Cognition, Vol.
84, No 2, pp.221-236.
Nichols, S. (2004), Sentimental rules: On the Natural Foundations of Moral Judgment, New York: Oxford
University Press.
J. Vveinhardt, D. Majauskiene,
D. Valanciene
ISSN 1648-4460
Influence of External Environment Analysis on the Company’s Internal Activities
TRANSFORMATIONS IN BUSINESS & ECONOMICS, Vol. 19, No 1 (49), 2020
337
O’Brien, E., Konrath, S.H., Grühn, D., Hagen, A.L. (2013), “Empathic concern and perspective taking: linear
and quadratic effects of age across the adult life span”, The Journals of Gerontology Series B
Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, Vol. 68, No 2, pp.168-175.
O’Connell, P.J., Calvert, E., Watson, D. (2007), Bullying in the Workplace: Survey Reports, 2007. Report to The
Department of Enterprise Trade and Employment, Dublin: The Department of Enterprise Trade and
Employment.
Oei, N.Y., Everaerd, W.T., Elzinga, B.M., van Well, S., Bermond, B. (2006), “Psychosocial stress impairs
working memory at high loads: An association with cortisol levels and memory retrieval”, Stress, Vol. 9,
No 3, pp.133-141.
Piaget, J. (1965), The Moral Judgement of the Child, Free Press.
Porcelli, A.J., Cruz, D., Wenberg, K., Patterson, M.D., Biswal, B.B., Rypma, B. (2008), “The effects of acute
stress on human prefrontal working memory systems”, Physiology & Behavior, Vol. 95, No 3, pp.282-
289.
Pruessner, J.C., Dedovic, K., Khalili-Mahani, N., Engert, V., Pruessner, M., Buss, C., Renwick, R., Daher, A.,
Meaney, M.J., Lupien, S. (2008), “Deactivation of the limbic system during acute psychosocial stress:
evidence from positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies”,
Biological Psychiatry, Vol. 63, No 2, pp.234-240.
Pruessner, J.C., Champagne, F., Meanes, M.J., Dagher, A. (2004), “Dopamine release in response to a
psychological stress in humans and its relationship to early life maternal care: a positron emission
tomography study using raclopride”, Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 24, No 11, pp.2825-2831.
Polyanska, A., Zapukhliak, I., Oksana, D. (2019), Culture of organization in conditions of changes as an ability
of efficient transformations: the case of gas transportation companies in Ukraine”, Oeconomia
Copernicana, Vol. 10, No 3, pp.561-580, doi: 10.24136/oc.2019.027.
Popov, E.V., Veretennikova, A.Y., Kozinskaya, K.M. (2019), „Formal Institutional Environment Influence on
Social Entrepreneurship in Developed Countries“, Montenegrin Journal of Economics, Vol. 14, No 4,
pp.45-56.
Rayner, C., Cooper, C.L. (2006), Workplace bullying”, in: K.E. Kelloway, J. Barling, J.J. Hurrell (eds.),
Handbook of Workplace Violence, Thousand Oaks: Sage, pp.121-145.
Rayner, C., Keashly, L. (2005), Bullying at work: perspectives from Britain and North America”, in: S. Fox.,
P.E. Spector (Eds.), Counterproductive Work Behaviors: Investigations of Actors and Targets,
Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, pp.271-296.
Rayner, C., Hoel, H., Cooper, C.L. (2002), Workplace Bullying: What We Know, Who is to Blame, and What
Can We Do?, London: Taylor & Francis.
Reiss, M.C., Mitra, K. (1998), “The effects of individual difference factors on the acceptability of ethical and
unethical workplace behaviors”, Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 17, No 14, pp.1581-1593.
Robertson, D., Snarey, J., Ousley, O., Harenski, K., DuBois Bowman, F., Gilkey, R., Kilts, C. (2007), “The
neural processing of moral sensitivity to issues of justice and care”, Neuropsychologia, Vol. 45, No 4,
pp.755-766.
Robinson, S.J., Sunram-Lea, S.I., Leach, J., Owen-Lynch, P.J. (2008), “The effects of exposure to an acute
naturalistic stressor on working memory, state anxiety and salivary cortisol concentrations”, Stress, Vol.
11, No 2, pp.115-124.
Rosen, J.B., Brand, M., Kalbe, E. (2016), “Empathy mediates the effects of age and sex on altruistic moral
decision making”, Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, Vol. 10, No 302, DOI:
10.3389/fnbeh.2016.00067.
Sarlo, M., Lotto, L., Rumiati, R., Palomba, D. (2014), “If it makes you feel bad, don't do it! Egoistic rather than
altruistic empathy modulates neural and behavioral responses in moral dilemmas”, Physiology &
Behavior, Vol. 130, pp.27-134.
Sauter, S.L., Murphy, L.R. (1995), Organizational risk factors for job stress, American Psychological
Association Washington, DC.
Selye, H. (1975), “Stress and distress”, Comprehensive Therapy, Vol. 1, No 8, pp.9-13.
Selye, H. (1984), The stress of life, McGraw-Hill Book Co.
Schnall, S., Haidt, J., Clore, G.L., Jordan, A.H. (2008), “Disgust as embodied moral judgment”, Personality and
Social Psychology Bulletin, Vol. 34, No 8, pp.1096-1109.
Schoofs, D., Wolf, O. T., Smeets, T. (2009), “Cold pressor stress impairs performance on working memory tasks
requiring executive functions in healthy young men”, Behavioral Neuroscience, Vol. 123, No 5, pp.1066-
1075.
Sedziuviene, N., Vveinhardt, J. (2019), The Reactions of Post-Soviet Countries Employees to Changes Carried
J. Vveinhardt, D. Majauskiene,
D. Valanciene
ISSN 1648-4460
Influence of External Environment Analysis on the Company’s Internal Activities
TRANSFORMATIONS IN BUSINESS & ECONOMICS, Vol. 19, No 1 (49), 2020
338
Out by Organizations in Higher Education: Cases of Lithuanian, Ukrainian and Belarusian State
Colleges”, Montenegrin Journal of Economics, Vol. 14, No 4, pp.225-236.
Sia, S. K., Jose, A. (2019), Attitude and subjective norm as personal moral obligation mediated predictors of
intention to build eco-friendly house”, Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal,
Vol. 30, No 4, pp.678-694.
Starcke, K., Ludwig, A.C., Brand, M. (2012), “Anticipatory stress interferes with utilitarian moral judgment”,
Judgment and Decision Making, Vol. 7, No 1, pp.61-68.
Starcke, K., Polzer, C., Wolf, O.T., Brand, M. (2010), “Does stress alter everyday moral decision-making?”,
Psychoneuroendocrinology, Vol. 36, No 2, pp.210-219.
Starcke, K., Wolf, O.T., Markowitsch, H.J., Brand, M. (2008), “Anticipatory stress influences decision-making
under explicit risk conditions”, Behavioral Neuroscience, Vol. 122, No 6, pp.1352-1360.
Stawski, R.S., Sliwinski, M.J., Smyth, J.M. (2009), “The effects of an acute psychosocial stressor on episodic
memory”, European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, Vol. 21, No 6, pp.897-918.
Stoney, C.M., Niaura, R., Bausserman, L., Matacin, M. (1999), “Lipid reactivity to stress: Comparison of
chronic and acute stress responses in middle-aged airline pilots”, Health Psychology, Vol. 18, No 3,
pp.241-50.
Thomson, J.J. (1986), Rights, restitution and risk, Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Turiel, E. (1983), The Development of Social Knowledge: Morality and Convention, Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press.
Valdesolo, P., DeSteno, D. (2006), “Manipulations of emotional context shape moral judgment”, Psychological
Science, Vol. 17, No 6, pp.476-477.
Van den Bos, K. (2003), “On the subjective quality of social justice: The role of affect as information in the
psychology of justice judgments”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 85, No 3, pp.482-
498.
Weeks, W.A, Moore, C.W., McKinney, J.A., Longenecker, J.G. (1999), “The effects of gender and career stage
on ethical judgment”, Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 20, No 4, pp.301-313.
Young, L., Koenigs, M. (2007), “Investigating emotion in moral cognition: a review of evidence from functional
neuroimaging and neuropsychology”, British Medical Bulletin, Vol. 84, No 1, pp.69-79.
Youssef, F.F., Dookeeram, K., Basdeo, V., Francis, E., Doman, M., Mamed, D., Maloo, S., Degannes, J., Dobo,
L., Ditshotlo, Ph., Legall, G. (2012), “Stress alters personal moral decision making”,
Psychoneuroendocrinology, Vol. 37, No 4, pp.491-498.
Yu, R. (2016), “Stress potentiates decision biases: A stress induced deliberation-to-intuition (SIDI) model”,
Neurobiology of Stress, Vol. 3, June, pp.83-95.
AR PATIRIAMAS STRESAS IR MOBINGAS DARBE VEIKIA DARBUOTOJŲ MORALINIUS
SPRENDIMUS? LYČIŲ SKIRTUMAI
Jolita Vveinhardt, Daiva Majauskienė, Dovilė Valančienė
SANTRAUKA
Naujausi moralės ir neuropsichologijos tyrimai, susiję su moralinių sprendimų priėmimu, pabrėžia
intuityvių ir emocinių procesų svarbą. Atsiranda vis daugiau įrodymų, kad žmogaus smegenų regionai, susiję su
moralinių sprendimų priėmimu, yra jautrūs stresui, kuris gali paveikti moralinius sprendimus. Mokslininkai
labiau sutelkia dėmesį į staigiai sukelto streso, o ne į patiriamo ilgalaikio streso poveikį moralinių sprendimų
priėmimui. Šiame tyrime daugiausia dėmesio buvo skiriama ištirti darbuotojų moralinsprendimų priėmimą,
atsižvelgiant į mobingą ir darbuotojų patiriamą ilgalaikį stresą.
Tyrimo tikslas ištirti, ar darbuotojų patiriamas stresas ir mobingas veikia moralinių sprendimų
priėmimą ir išsiaiškinti, kaip tai priklauso nuo lyties. 390 dalyvių (186 vyrai ir 204 moterys, 18–65 m.) atsakė į
parengtą klausimyną (internete arba užpildė popierinę versiją). Tyrimo rezultatai rodo, kad darbuotojų
suvokiamas patiriamas stresas ir mobingas lemia labiau egoistinius ir antiutilitarius sprendimus. Darytina išvada,
kad darbuotojų patiriamas stresas ir mobingas ypač veikia vyrų sprendimus, jie tampa labiau antiutilitarūs.
Moterys visomis sąlygomis (tiek patirdamos stresą ir mobingą, tiek nepatirdamos) priima labiau antiutilitarius
sprendimus nei vyrai.
REIKŠMINIAI ŽODŽIAI: sprendimų priėmimas, moralė, suvoktas stresas, lytis, mobingas.
J. Vveinhardt, D. Majauskiene,
D. Valanciene
ISSN 1648-4460
Influence of External Environment Analysis on the Company’s Internal Activities
TRANSFORMATIONS IN BUSINESS & ECONOMICS, Vol. 19, No 1 (49), 2020
339
Appendix A
Table A. Questions in Everyday Moral Decision-Making (EMDM) tasks
“Low-emotional” questions
Answer “Yes” meaning
Answer “No” meaning
“1. You have purchased concert tickets for you and a
friend. The tickets differed in price. Would you pay for the
cheaper ticket?
Egoistic decision
Altruistic decision
2. After an accident, your insurance provides you with a
home help, but you have already recovered. Would you
still use the home help?
Egoistic decision
Altruistic decision
3. You watch a boring theater play which has few visitors.
Would you leave the play early?
Egoistic decision
Altruistic decision
4. A friend always tells you incredible stories and you
suspect that they are made up. Would you confront your
friend?
Egoistic decision
Altruistic decision
5. In the supermarket, you wait at the meat counter and an
elderly man pushes to the front. Would you complain?
Egoistic decision
Altruistic decision
6. You find a 20 euro note on the pavement. Then you see a
homeless man looking for food in the dustbin. Would you
give him the money?
Altruistic decision
Egoistic decision
7. When you move out your landlord gives you a drawing
that he does not like. You know that this drawing is quite
valuable. Would you tell him?
Altruistic decision
Egoistic decision
8. A well-dressed passerby asks you for money to buy a
bus ticket because he lost his wallet. Would you give him
the money?
Altruistic decision
Egoistic decision
9. Another air passenger asks you to bring cigarettes
through customs because she has already the maximum
amount of cigarettes. Would you do this?
Altruistic decision
Egoistic decision
10. You have slightly scratched another car while parking.
It is dark and nobody has seen you. Would you leave a
message for the owner of the car?”
Altruistic decision
Egoistic decision
“High-emotional” questions
Answer “Yes” meaning
Answer “No” meaning
“11. You have a wife and kids and your employer offers
you to work for an unspecified time in Japan. Would you
accept this offer?
Egoistic decision
Altruistic decision
12. When your grandparents move, you find the diary of
your grandmother and you are curious. Would you read it?
Egoistic decision
Altruistic decision
13. You meet the love of your life, but you are married and
have children. Would you leave your family?
Egoistic decision
Altruistic decision
14. Your partner is suicidal and you feel uncomfortable in
this relationship. Would you leave your partner?
Egoistic decision
Altruistic decision
15. You play cards for money and you can catch a glance
of the cards of your opponent. Would you use this
knowledge?
Egoistic decision
Altruistic decision
J. Vveinhardt, D. Majauskiene,
D. Valanciene
ISSN 1648-4460
Influence of External Environment Analysis on the Company’s Internal Activities
TRANSFORMATIONS IN BUSINESS & ECONOMICS, Vol. 19, No 1 (49), 2020
340
16. Your mother gives you pictures she has painted
herself–— but you don’t like them. Would you hang them
up?
Altruistic decision
Egoistic decision
17. A person you really like but is fatally ill tells you that
he is in love with you. Would you build up a relationship?
Altruistic decision
Egoistic decision
18. Your department talks about a colleague saying that he
is lazy and just talks about himself. Would you tell him?
Altruistic decision
Egoistic decision
19. You are married and had a one-night stand during a
business trip. Would you tell your partner?
Altruistic decision
Egoistic decision
20. A close friend is dying. In his fever, he asks you to go
and get a favorite book, but he could die while you are
going. Would you do it?“
Altruistic decision
Egoistic decision
Source: Starcke et al. (2010).
Appendix B
Table B. Dilemmas in High-Conflict Personal Moral Decision-Making tasks
“High-conflict” personal moral dilemmas
“Appropriate” response
meaning
“Inappropriate”
responses meaning
1. Crying Baby
“Enemy soldiers have taken over your village. They have orders to kill all
remaining civilians. You and some of your townspeople have sought refuge in
the cellar of a large house. Outside you hear the voices of soldiers who have
come to search the house for valuables. Your baby begins to cry loudly. You
cover his mouth to block the sound. If you remove your hand from his mouth
his crying will summon the attention of the soldiers who will kill you, your
child, and the others hiding out in the cellar. To save yourself and the others
you must smother your child to death. Is it appropriate for you to smother your
child in order to save yourself and the other towns people?
Utilitarian decision
Nonutilitarian decision
2. Euthanasia
You are the leader of a small group of soldiers. You are on your way back
from a completed mission deep in enemy territory when one of your men has
stepped in trap that has been set by the enemy and is badly injured. The trap is
connected to a radio device that by now has alerted the enemy to your
presence. They will soon be on their way. If the enemy finds your injured man
they will torture him and kill him. He begs you not to leave him behind, but if
you try to take him with you, your entire group will be captured. The only way
to prevent this injured soldier from being tortured is to shoot him yourself. Is it
appropriate for you to shoot this soldier in order to prevent him from being
tortured by the enemy?
Utilitarian decision
Nonutilitarian decision
3. Footbridge
A runaway trolley is heading down the tracks toward five workmen who will
be killed if the trolley proceeds on its present course. You are on a footbridge
over the tracks, in between the approaching trolley and the five workmen.
Next to you on this footbridge is a stranger who happens to be very large. The
only way to save the lives of the five workmen is to push this stranger off the
bridge and onto the tracks below where his large body will stop the trolley.
The stranger will die if you do this, but the five workmen will be saved. Is it
appropriate for you to push the stranger on to the tracks in order to save the
five workmen?
Utilitarian decision
Nonutilitarian decision
J. Vveinhardt, D. Majauskiene,
D. Valanciene
ISSN 1648-4460
Influence of External Environment Analysis on the Company’s Internal Activities
TRANSFORMATIONS IN BUSINESS & ECONOMICS, Vol. 19, No 1 (49), 2020
341
4. Lawrence of Arabia
You are the leader of a small army that consists of warriors from two tribes,
the hill tribe, and the river tribe. You belong to neither tribe. During the night
a hill tribesman got into an argument with a river tribesman and murdered
him. The river tribe will attack the hill tribe unless the murderer is put to
death, but the hill tribe refuses to kill one of its own warriors. The only way
for you to avoid a war between the two tribes that will cost hundreds of lives is
to publicly execute the murderer by cutting off is a head with your sword. Is it
appropriate for you to cut off this man’s head in order to prevent the two tribes
from fighting a war that will cost hundreds of lives?
Utilitarian decision
Nonutilitarian decision
5. Modified Bomb
You are negotiating with a powerful and determined terrorist who is about to
set off a bomb in a crowded area. Your one advantage is that you have his
teenage son in your custody. There is only one thing that you can do to stop
him from detonating his bomb, which will kill thousands of people if
detonated. To stop him, you must contact him over the satellite hook-up that
he has established and, in front of the camera, break one of his son’s arms and
then threaten to break the other one if he does not give himself up. Is it
appropriate for you to break the terrorist’s son’s arm in order to prevent the
terrorist from killing thousands of people with his bomb?
Utilitarian decision
Nonutilitarian decision
6. Modified Lifeboat
You are on a cruise ship when there is a fire on board, and the ship has to be
abandoned. The lifeboats are carrying much more people than they were
designed to carry. The lifeboat you’re in is sitting dangerously low in the
watera few inches lower and it will sink. The seas start to get rough, and the
boat begins to fill with water. If nothing is done it will sink before the rescue
boats arrive and everyone on board will die. However, there is an injured
person who will not survive in any case. If you throw that person overboard
the boat will stay afloat and the remaining passengers will be saved. Is it
appropriate for you to throw this person overboard in order to save the lives of
the remaining passengers?
Utilitarian decision
Nonutilitarian decision
7. Modified Safari
You are part of a group of ecologists who live in a remote stretch of jungle.
The entire group, which includes eight children, has been taken hostage by a
group of paramilitary terrorists. One of the terrorists takes a liking to you. He
informs you that his leader intends to kill you and the rest of the hostages the
following morning. He is willing to help you and the children escape but as an
act of good faith he wants you to kill one of your fellow hostages whom he
does not like. If you refuse his offer all the hostages including the children and
yourself will die. If you accept his offer then the others will die in the morning
but you and the eight children will escape. Is it appropriate for you to kill one
of your fellow hostages in order to escape from the terrorists and save the lives
of the eight children?
Utilitarian decision
Nonutilitarian decision
8. Sacrifice
You, your husband, and your four children are crossing a mountain range on
your return journey to your homeland. You have inadvertently set up camp on
a local clan’s sacred burial ground. The leader of the clan says that according
to the local laws, you and your family must be put to death. However, he will
let yourself, your husband, and your three other children live if you yourself
will kill your oldest son. Is it appropriate for you to kill your oldest son in
order to save your husband and your other three children?
Utilitarian decision
Nonutilitarian decision
9. Sophie's Choice
It is wartime and you and your two children, ages eight and five, are living in a
territory that has been occupied by the enemy. At the enemy’s headquarters is
a doctor who performs painful experiments on humans that inevitably lead to
death. He intends to perform experiments on one of your children, but he will
allow you to choose which of your children will be experimented upon. You
have twenty four hours to bring one of your children to his laboratory. If you
refuse to bring one of your children to his laboratory he will find them both
and experiment on both of them. Is it appropriate for you to bring one of your
children to the laboratory in order to avoid having them both die?
Utilitarian decision
Nonutilitarian decision
J. Vveinhardt, D. Majauskiene,
D. Valanciene
ISSN 1648-4460
Influence of External Environment Analysis on the Company’s Internal Activities
TRANSFORMATIONS IN BUSINESS & ECONOMICS, Vol. 19, No 1 (49), 2020
342
10. Submarine
You are the captain of a military submarine traveling underneath a large
iceberg. An onboard explosion has caused you to lose most of your oxygen
supply and has injured one of your crew who is quickly losing blood. The
injured crew member is going to die from his wounds no matter what happens.
The remaining oxygen is not sufficient for the entire crew to make it to the
surface. The only way to save the other crew members is to shoot dead the
injured crew member so that there will be just enough oxygen for the rest of
the crew to survive. Is it appropriate for you to kill the fatally injured crew
member in order to save the lives of the remaining crew members?
Utilitarian decision
Nonutilitarian decision
11. Vaccine Test
A viral epidemic has spread across the globe killing millions of people. You
have developed two substances in your home laboratory. You know that one
of them is a vaccine, but you don’t know which one. You also know that the
other one is deadly. Once you figure out which substance is the vaccine you
can use it to save millions of lives. You have with you two people who are
under your care, and the only way to identify the vaccine is to inject each of
these people with one of the two substances. One person will live, the other
will die, and you will be able to start saving lives with your vaccine. Is it
appropriate for you to kill one of these people with a deadly injection in order
to identify a vaccine that will save millions of lives?
Utilitarian decision
Nonutilitarian decision
12. Vitamins
You are the leader of a mountaineering expedition that is stranded in the
wilderness. Your expedition includes a family of six that has a genetically
caused vitamin deficiency. A few people’s kidneys contain large amounts of
this vitamin. There is one such person in your party. The only way to save the
lives of the six members of this family is to remove one of this man’s kidneys
so that the necessary vitamins may be extracted from it. The man will not die
if you do this, but his health will be compromised. The man is opposed to this
plan, but you have the power to do as you see fit. Is it appropriate for you to
forcibly remove this man’s kidney in order to save the lives of the six vitamin-
deficient people?“
Utilitarian decision
Nonutilitarian decision
Source: Greene et al. (2001), Greene et al. (2004), Greene et al. (2008), Koenigs et al. (2007).
... Scientific literature (Guglielmi et al., 208, Feijó et al., 2019) usually attributes them to the phenomenon of mobbing which is analysed through separate aspects of causes and consequences. This issue is very often explored by organizational behavioural psychologists (Hassard, 2018;Akter, 2019; Góralewska-Słońska, 2019; Galletta, 2019) and is studied to a lesser extent from the perspective of classical management research (Guglielmi, 2018;Mujtaba, Senathip, 2020;Vveinhardt et al., 2020). However, the managerial perspective is particularly relevant because research shows that damage caused by mobbing is systemic, affecting not only the individual, but also the entire organization. ...
... Public Policy and Administration. 2021, Vol. 20, Nr. 1, p.[34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44] ...
Article
Full-text available
One element of any organization’s success is its organizational culture that manifests itself through the creation of a value system and emphasis on the well-being of employees. In this context, mobbing is a phenomenon understood as psychological stress experienced by individuals at work as a result of certain actions by another person leading to negative consequences for the individual, the organization and society. Given the fact that mobbing in statutory organizations or in organisations involved in their activities has hardly been studied, this article aims to reveal the peculiarities of mobbing in the Ministry of National Defence of Lithuania and its institutions through the organizational environment and employees’ relationships. Two hundred and one participants responded to the questionnaire. It was found that mobbing exists in the Ministry of National Defence and its institutions, but the number of employees experiencing workplace bullying corresponds to the general trend established by scientific research. The results also revealed that mobbing does not depend on the employee’s length of service, it is most commonly expressed through verbal communication and women experience it more often than men. It can be stated that the prevention of mobbing in the institutions under analysis is very weak and conflicts are solved in a time-consuming manner, concentrating only on local measures.
... In contemporary society, the teaching profession continues in its specific mission, aiming at the development of a harmonious personality, knowledge, wisdom, goodness, and creativity, and thus contributes to the development of education, science, culture, and health for the welfare of society as a whole [44,45]. At the same time, the teaching profession is highly challenging in terms of knowledge, personal skills, empathy, stress management, and the implementation of one's talent, as teachers not only affect students by what they say but also by their personality [46][47][48][49]. Such a profession requires constant professional growth, which also contributes to a teacher's internal satisfaction [49]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Teaching is a specific type of profession with a specific mission. In this study, the motivation level of primary school teachers in Slovakia in the period from 2015 to 2020 was analyzed. A total of 1,189 Slovak teachers with a stratified selection were addressed. Cronbach's Alpha, Tukey's HSD (honest significant difference), and ANOVA were used to analyze the data obtained. The research results confirm that Slovak teachers are motivated most by relationship and financial factors. Other important motivation factors are atmosphere in the workplace, a good work team, a supervi-sor's approach, a fair appraisal system, and a basic salary. The research also confirms that, over the duration of the study, there was a significant change in the average level of motivation factors; however, there was no change in their relative proportion and structure. In relation to gender, significant diachronic differences were confirmed. Research results prove that Slovak teachers have stable requirements in terms of motivation. This study's findings will further help school management create effective motivation programs for primary school teachers. Regarding the fact that no similar research has been conducted in Slovakia in a long time, the research results presented here are original and unique.
Article
Full-text available
This article analyzes the theory of decision-making problems highlighting the diversity of decision-making models and methods which are suggested by the scientific literature, and the importance of variants when making effective management decisions. There is a lack of research in which the implementation of social responsibility is examined in the context of management culture exclusively, thus a problem of actual complex decision-making models is encountered in the primary stages of implementing CSR. The level of difficulty in the process of managerial decision-making requires simplified measures, therefore, the aim of this research is to form the model of establishment of the level of management culture for managerial decision- making with the aim of implementing corporate social responsibility. The model of establishment of the level of management culture for managerial decision- making with the aim of implementing corporate social responsibility is presented which is made up on the basis of theoretical insight and the results of empirical research provided by the authors of the article. The model of establishment of the level of management culture for managerial decision making with the aim of implementing corporate social responsibility proceeds through the stages of organizing, processes, analysis, solutions and changes. The essence of Organizing stage is to highlight the problem, identify the goals and objectives, and also to involve the employees of all levels. At the Processes, diagnostic stage the information is collected while solving the foreseen objectives and in accordance with the methodological requirements. At Analysis stage, the level of management culture and CSR are determined. At Decision-making stage, detailed problems allow preconditions to make specific management decisions. At Changes initiation stage, the plan is confirmed including the implementation of specific changes, control, observation, deadlines and people in charge.
Article
Full-text available
In the light of a long-term rising focus on human resources as the essential for a competitiveness of organizations, human resource management intersects with marketing to help firms attract and retain potential employees. The existing literature, mainly referred to as employer branding, has been concerned primarily with the identification of relevant elements of the proposition of employer value, while several authors have pointed out the need to focus on relative elements. Therefore, the present research attempts to replicate a model by Sivertzen et al. (2013) which investigates factors regarding employer branding strategies, and to verify whether the predominant view of relevant elements might or might not be considered inadequate. We have replicated the model with the extension of different industries, and the paradigm was tested on two larger samples compared to the original paper. An electronic questionnaire was distributed to computer science students (337 responses) and students of economics (290) at universities in the Czech Republic. The findings indicate that several employer attractiveness attributes could have a positive relation to corporate reputation. However, results differ between industries. The validation of the employer attractiveness scale resulted in dimensions which are different than those in the original study, with new dimensions featuring different indicators proposed. A positive relation was found between the use of social media and corporate reputation, the use of social media with the intention of applying for a job, as well as corporate reputation in terms of the intention of applying for a job.
Article
Full-text available
Small and medium-sized enterprises constitute a significant part of Slovakia's economy with the greatest potential for growth and the impact on economic stabilization and balanced development of the regions. The employee motivation has a major impact on the performance of employees working in these businesses. Research focused on the exploration of employee motivational preferences was conducted in all regions of Slovakia in 2017 and 2018. The sociological survey method was used through anonymous questionnaires. Overall, 2,646 respondents participated in the research. Based on the research results, it can be stated, that motivational preferences of employees working in small enterprises in Slovakia are changing over time. These are primarily motivational factors relating to the social needs and financial motivational factors.
Article
Full-text available
Research background: At present, it is critical to raise awareness on how global trends of doing business within the framework of sustainable development affect the success of each business unit, integration associations, and apparently contribute to a nation’s prosperity. Thus, a study aimed at measuring the effects of socially responsible strategic partnerships on building brand equity of integrated business structures (IBS) will provide deeper insights into assessing the effectiveness and relevance of disseminating CSR practices. Purpose of the article: The paper attempts to evaluate the degree of effect of socially responsible strategic partnerships on building strong brand equity of integrated business structures. Methods: The participants in the assessment have been selected from the Forbes TOP 200 largest companies in Ukraine (the ranking was based not only on sales, such metrics as companies’ financial performance, total assets and their current assessed value were also considered). The input data on the CSR indices were obtained from the Center for CSR Development Ukraine. The index of loyalty to a certain brand was calculated as an integral ratio of satisfaction and importance to customers (based on online survey results). To analyze the impact of the endogenous variable of CSR on IBS branding effectiveness (customer loyalty index and brand equity) and its cost effectiveness, correlation regression and factor analysis methods were applied. Findings & Value added: This study demonstrates the feasibility and economic justification of the impact of socially responsible strategic partnerships on brand equity development for integrated business structures. The research has significant implications for brand management of integrated business structures by providing empirical evidence that will improve understanding of the need to implement the concept of socially responsible branding that right today resonates with the moral society.
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the scale created by authors for determining employees* attitudes towards changes (employees’ attitude towards changes-EATC) and its psychometric characteristics. The results of the research, which includes staff from three state colleges from three countries (N = 222) are also analyzed. The aim of this research is by comparing the attitudes of employees of different post-Soviet state colleges to identify the main challenges that heads of organizations face. The results of the research show that there is a certain gap between the benefits of changes which employees perceive, and their coworkers expressed perception of changes. It should be emphasized that the internal opposition, created by direct (linear) heads, emerges as a significant organizational problem that should be considered by the organizational leadership implementing the changes. © 2018, Economic Laboratory for Transition Research. All rights reserved.
Article
Full-text available
The existence of social entrepreneurs is beneficial for the establishment of a stable and just society dedicated to serving the needs of individuals and the creation of innovative market solutions. However, social entrepreneurs need an institutional environment of a proper quality to be able to function efficiently. On the one hand, the institutional environment should promote the development of social entrepreneurship, on the other, there is a need for designing direct-action social entrepreneurship institutions that would provide support and ensure the development of socially-oriented businesses, and promote grassroots initiatives in this sphere. Despite the fact that researchers are interested in this issue, there are very few quantitative studies assessing the impact of institutional environments for social entrepreneurs on a global scale. Furthermore, no attempts have been made to look at this phenomenon from an economic development standpoint, by assessing it in developed countries. The subject of the study is social entrepreneurship development and the role of formal institution environment on this process. In this study, the formal institutional environment of social entrepreneurship for developed countries will be investigated econ-ometrically. From this aspect, this study aimed to empirically evaluate whether regulative and normative institutions affect social entrepreneurship growth. As a result of the hypothesis testing, it is determined that a normative institutional environment such as investment freedom or economic growth have a positive influence on the development of social entrepreneurship in developed countries. These findings indicate that social entrepreneurship for its development needs fundamental economic changes and sustainable development. © 2018, Economic Laboratory for Transition Research. All rights reserved.
Article
Full-text available
Moral decision making involves affective and cognitive functions like emotional empathy, reasoning and cognitive empathy/theory of mind (ToM), which are discussed to be subject to age-related alterations. Additionally, sex differences in moral decision making have been reported. However, age-related changes in moral decision making from early to late adulthood and their relation to sex and neuropsychological functions have not been studied yet. One hundred ninety seven participants (122 female), aged 1986 years, were tested with a moral decision making task comprising forced choice "everyday life" situations in which an altruistic option that favors a socially accepted alternative had to be considered against an egoistic option that favors personal benefit over social interests. The percentage of altruistic decisions was analyzed. A structural equation model (SEM) was calculated to test the hypothesis whether age and sex predict altruistic moral decision, and whether relevant neuropsychological domains mediate these hypothesized relationships. A significant relationship between age and moral decision making was found indicating more frequent altruistic decisions with increasing age. Furthermore, women decided more altruistically than men. The SEM showed that both age and sex are significant predictors of altruistic moral decision making, mediated by emotional empathy but not by reasoning. No cognitive empathy and ToM scores were correlated to age and moral decision making at the same time and thus were not included in the SEM. Our data suggest that increasing age and female sex have an effect on altruistic moral decisions, but that this effect is fully mediated by emotional empathy. The fact that changes of moral decision making with age are mediated by emotional empathy can be interpreted in the light of the so-called "positivity effect" and increasing avoidance of negative affect in aging. The mediated sex effect might represent both biological aspects and socialized sex roles for higher emotional empathy leading to more altruistic decisions.
Article
Research background: The relevance of the research on corporate culture in the conditions of changes is substantiated and its elements, which are important for effective transformations, are defined. The influence of corporate culture on the company performance and its elements is identified. The article deals with hierarchical levels of corporate culture which identify elements of corporate culture and "hidden" factors that allow establishing relationships with the outside world and promote productive work. Purpose of the article: The objective of the article is to identify the elements of the organizational culture at the enterprise level, which influence the effectiveness of its activities under the changes and generalization of its components that determine its ability to transform the existing state in accordance with the established world experience and practice. The research is based on the experience of gas transportation companies in Ukraine. Methods: The McKinsey 7S model was used to describe the enterprise to assess the state of the proposed levels of formation and to change its corporate culture. The McKinsey 7S Framework used in this study as analytical tool to explore a system of interrelated elements which improve the organization's work, raising the level of employee culture and generating common values. The expert method was used to assess the qualitative indices of enterprise internal environment, including "style/culture" and "common values", based on the questionnaire of the experts' group. The survey was conducted at three levels of management for the gas transportation companies, located in different regions of Ukraine. The three levels of management for the mentioned above enterprises — top, middle and low managers were taken into account. The use of the fuzzy logic method makes it possible to investigate the influence of the corporate culture elements on the results of the enterprises and to identify those elements which are important for the implementation of changes at the enterprise and without which it is impossible to achieve effective transformations. Findings & Value added: Taking into account the results of the assessment of corporate culture elements at the investigated companies, the directions of corporate culture development for enterprises that are in a state of changes are pointed out, namely: use of different management styles; support of employees in making innovative decisions; development of cooperation and elimination of conflicts between workers; formation of general corporate values; creating trust between employees and top managers; promoting the development of young workers; use of the mechanisms of education and maintenance of a high level of morality and culture of workers.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to combine the theory of planned behavior variables with norm activation model to predict the behavioral intention to build eco-friendly houses among adult house owners of Kerala. It was hypothesized that the moral obligation will mediate the relationship of both attitude and subjective norm toward the intention to build eco-friendly houses. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected from 269 adult house owners from Kerala with the help of structured questionnaires. Attitude toward eco-friendly houses was measured using semantic differential scale, subjective norm was measured using items adapted from Ajzen and Jansson and Dorrepaal, personal norm was measured using 7 items adapted from Jansson and Dorrepaal and behavioral intention to build eco-friendly house was measured using 14-item measures which probed the various characteristics of eco-friendly buildings. Data were analyzed using mediation analysis with the help of PROCESS macro plug-in of IBM SPSS. Findings The study revealed that the relationship between subjective norm and behavioral intention to construct eco-friendly houses was fully mediated by personal norm, and the relationship between attitude and behavioral intention was partially mediated by personal norm. Research limitations/implications Eco-friendly houses or sustainable architecture is the requirement of the time. Psychology can play a major role in increasing the choice to opt an eco-friendly alternative. The present study tries to develop a green marketing strategy by understanding the influential psychological variables. The study points to the importance of personal moral obligation of the people in the choice of the eco-friendly houses. The study is limited in itself because it failed to consider any situational factors that may be influential in the intention to build an eco-friendly house. Originality/value Considering the immediacy and potency of global climate change and the role green architecture can play to reduce the impact of the blow, eco-friendly architecture is inevitable. Many psychological studies have been instrumental in shaping and changing individual behaviors. Considering these facts the present study aims to identify the role of psychological variables in determining the intention to build eco-friendly houses. This study will help in identifying the relevant personal variables that can promote eco-friendly construction.
Article
Bullying is now recognised as a significant issue in the workplace, in Ireland as elsewhere. Research has shown that the implications for both individuals and organisations can be considerable. In Ireland, the importance of addressing workplace bullying has been recognised by Government, with the establishment of the Taskforce on the Prevention of Workplace Bullying in 1999 and the Expert Advisory Group on Workplace Bullying in 2004, whose report recommended that an up to date survey be carried out. This report, on behalf of the Department of Enterprise, Trade and Employment, presents the results of two national surveys relating to workplace bullying, one of individuals at work, the other of employers in both the public and private sectors.