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Abstract

Audiences are hostile to advertising on the Internet, so ad-supported video streaming services have experimented with new interactive formats to make viewers more receptive to advertising. This lab study investigated explanations for the effectiveness of one of these new formats, advertisement choice, and potential variations of this format. The results confirm that advertisement choice increases arousal, consistent with the greater attention and involvement explanations offered by prior studies. However, after controlling for individual differences, we found no significant positive effects of advertisement choice on measures of advertising effectiveness. We also tested a range of current and potential advertisement-choice formats but found none that were better than a choice between two ads for the same brand. A harder choice between three ads had a negative effect, compared with no-choice ads. Choices between different brands had positive effects on ad liking, but competitive interference effects on recognition and recall. These results suggest that advertising choice at least does no harm, and offers viewers the benefits of choice, and advertisers the ability to reach streaming video viewers.

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... It is worth mentioning that some studies used neuromarketing techniques to support their results, such as eye-tracking (Lu et al., (Bellman et al., 2012(Bellman et al., , 2018(Bellman et al., , 2020, heart rate (Bellman et al., 2012), electroencephalography (Belanche et al., 2017a(Belanche et al., , 2020a, and galvanic skin response (Vermeulen et al., 2019). Analyzing the content of those marketing studies, we were able to bring sub-classifications. ...
... There is evidence that females watch in-stream ads for a longer time (Belanche et al., 2017b), are less able to remember the advertised brand (Belanche et al., 2020a), and present more visual attention (Lu et al., 2018) than males. However, there is also evidence that gender does not affect ad effectiveness (Bellman et al., 2020). ...
... There were also studies about affective characteristics (Campbell et al., 2017), skipping characteristics (Joa et al., 2018), possibility of choosing (Bellman et al., 2020), and differences between age, gender and education level (Belanche et al, 2017b(Belanche et al, , 2020aBellman et al., 2020;Sabuncuoglu-İnanç et al., 2020). Therefore, we present in Table 3 a summary of the content present in every study regarding in-stream ads. ...
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