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Abstract

This study examines the creation and implementation of a video-based assessment of teacher knowledge of effective teaching called the Video Assessment of Teacher Knowledge (VATK). The VATK was developed with the intention of creating an easily administered, standardised assessment that can potentially provide information on teacher candidate knowledge of teaching at important points during their training programmes and into the teaching field. The theoretical framework upon which the VATK was developed and the process for item creation are described. Classical test theory and item response theory analysis were conducted to determine the measure’s potential for use in future studies. Analyses indicate that after some questions are removed, the measure is sensitive to differences in teachers’ pedagogical knowledge.

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... The local initiative was well-received, the pre-service teachers performed well, but the project was abandoned due to lack of resources and support (McIntyre, Personal communication, September 21 , 2018). More recently, the VATK (Video Assessment of Teacher Knowledge) tool (Wiens, Beck, & Lunsmann, 2020;Wiens, LoCasale-Crouch, Cash, & Romo Escudero, 2020), and the Observer Tool are examples of new types of testing teacher knowledge based on video-recorded classroom situations. These and other studies report good results and represent innovative ways of demonstrating different types of knowledge. ...
... Several methods for improving teacher skills through videos have been tested, for instance the Classroom Video Analysis (CVA) programme (Kersting, Givvin, Sotelo, & Stigler, 2010) and Video Assessment of Teacher Knowledge (VATK) (Wiens, Beck, et al., 2020). Both these projects use video vignettes to identify certain aspects of teaching practice, and it appears that the students are able of coping with the task. ...
... This complexity is not reflected in comparable studies of examinations where the focus tends to be centred on aspects of the innovation. For instance, Wiens, Beck et al. (2020) report on the validity and reliability of a video-based assessment design for teachers, and only briefly mention cost and time aspects in their discussion. In the same vein, Gharib, Phillips and Mathew (2012) compare an alternative examination format with existing ones and examine how the new format has impacted student performance. ...
Thesis
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This thesis is based on the investigation of video examinations in teacher education and serves as a case of an innovation process.
... Researchers, however, emphasized the relation between teacher knowledge and instruction. Knowing about effective instructional strategies and being able to diagnose instructional situations and offer effective instructional alternatives is considered a crucial skill that was found a significant predictor of student learning [57,69]. A first approach can be found by Meschede et al. [38], who assessed pre-service science teachers' situation-specific skill professional vision with regard to the two instructional aspects cognitive activation and structuring learning situations. ...
... As part of their diagnostic competences, pre-service teachers need to know about effective instructional strategies, but they also need to be able to diagnose instructional situations and offer effective instructional alternatives. Being able to apply skills such as diagnostic activities was found a significant predictor of student learning [57,69]. With regard to the aspects of professional vision (description, explanation, prediction), and with regard to the situation-specific skills perception, interpretation, and decision-making that are depicted in the competence as a continuum model, tasks in the video-based assessment tool prompted the use of the diagnostic activities evidence generation, evidence evaluation, and drawing conclusions as relevant situation-specific skills in the context of video analysis and diagnosis of classroom instruction [2,42]. ...
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Teachers' diagnostic competences are essential with respect to student achievement, classroom assessment, and instructional quality. Important components of diagnostic competences are teachers' professional knowledge including content knowledge (CK), pedagogical knowledge (PK), and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), their diagnostic activities as a specification of situation-specific skills, and diagnostic accuracy. Accuracy is determined by comparing a teacher's observation of classroom incidents with subject-specific challenges to be identified from scripted instructional situations. To approximate diagnostic situations close to real-life, the assessment of science teachers' diagnostic competences requires a situated context that was provided through videotaped classroom situations in this study. We investigated the relationship between professional knowledge (PCK, CK, PK) of 186 pre-service biology teachers, their diagnostic activities, and diagnostic accuracy measured with the video-based assessment tool DiKoBi Assess. Results of path analyses utilizing Rasch measures showed that both PCK and PK were statistically significantly related to pre-service teachers' diagnostic activities. Additionally, biology teachers' PCK was positively related to diagnostic accuracy. Considering higher effect sizes of PCK compared to PK, the findings support previous findings indicating the importance of PCK, thus demonstrating its importance in the context of subject-specific diagnosis as well.
... In teacher education, the number of recently designed video-based instruments for assessing professional vision or similar constructs with general or domain-specific perspectives is growing (e.g., Gold & Holodynski, 2017;Kersting et al., 2010;König & Kramer, 2016;Meschede et al., 2017;Michalsky, 2014;Seidel et al., 2010;Wiens et al., 2020). These video-based tools have in common that skills such as professional vision are captured using task prompts. ...
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A key challenge for teachers is the evaluation of teaching and learning situations in the classroom. Video-based instruments are considered as effective tools for measuring teachers' skills for evaluating classroom situations. This article reports the development and validation of a video-based assessment tool for measuring biology teachers' professional vision. Analyses of interviews using think-aloud protocols with in-service biology teachers showed that they perceived the staged videos in the video-based assessment tool as authentic. Furthermore, they identified biology-specific dimensions of instructional quality in the videos, and used aspects of professional vision while reasoning about the identified situations. Thus, results indicate the suitability of the video-based assessment tool for capturing professional vision with the potential to be used in further interventions within teacher education programs.
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jMetrik is a computer program for implementing classical and modern psychometric methods. It is designed to facilitate work in a production environment and to make advanced psychometric procedures accessible to every measurement practitioner. Applied Measurement with jMetrik reviews psychometric theory and describes how to use jMetrik to conduct a comprehensive psychometric analysis. Each chapter focuses on a topic in measurement, describes the steps for using jMetrik, and provides one or more examples of conducting an analysis on the topic. Recommendations and guidance for practice is provided throughout the book.
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Background The increasing focus on education as an evidence-based practice requires that educators can effectively use data to inform their practice. At the level of classroom instructional decision making, the nature of the specific knowledge and skills teachers need to use data effectively is complex and not well characterized. Being able to characterize this requisite knowledge and skills supports definition and measurement of data literacy. Evolving from empirical analyses, an emergent conceptual framework of knowledge and skills is proposed for the construct, data literacy for teaching. The framework is based on a domain analysis, which is the first step of an evidence-centered design process for data literacy. The framework is contextualized in existing research, with an objective of having it ground future work in the development of instruments to measure data literacy. Purpose This article reports on work to develop a conceptual framework to undergird research, development, and capacity building around data literacy for teaching. The emergent nature of the framework is intended to inform the discussions around data literacy so that continued refinement of operational definitions of the construct will emerge. Without such operational definitions, measurement of progress toward teacher data literacy is not possible. Research Design The conceptual framework is based on a sequence of qualitative studies that sought to determine the nature of knowledge and skills that are required for teachers to be considered data literate. A first study examined the ways that the knowledge and skills around the use of data were characterized in practical guides, books, and manuals on data use, formative assessment, and related topics. These characteristics were integrated with definitions of data literacy elicited from experts. A second study examined the licensure and certification documents required by states for teacher candidates for their treatment of data- and assessment-related knowledge and skills. The synthesis of these studies and their components have yielded an evolving conceptual framework for a new construct: data literacy for teachers. Conclusions The conceptual framework described in this article reflects an evolving effort to understand what it means for teachers to be data literate—that is, what knowledge and skills are required for teachers to use data effectively and responsibly set within an iterative inquiry cycle. The work posits that the construct comprises three interacting domains (data use for teaching, content knowledge, and pedagogical content knowledge), six components of the inquiry cycle (identify problems, frame questions, use data, transform data into information, transform information into a decision, and evaluate outcomes), and, finally, 59 elements of knowledge and skills embedded within those components. However, the complex construct requires additional discussion from policy, research, and practitioners to refine and reorganize it and to expand it beyond a cognitive focus on knowledge and skills to include beliefs/values, identity, and epistemic elements. Next steps will include structuring an ongoing discussion about the nature of the framework and expansion beyond domain analysis through the evidence-centered design process to the development of a suite of instruments to measure the construct.
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Research on the evaluation of the professional knowledge of mathematics teachers (comprising for example mathematical content knowledge, mathematics pedagogical content knowledge and general pedagogical knowledge) has become prominent in the last decade; however, the development of video-based assessment approaches is a more recent topic. This paper follows the call for more situated and performance-related ways to assess teacher competence. We discuss the theoretical and methodological challenges connected to the development of such instruments and exemplify these by an instrument developed within the follow-up study of the international “Teacher Education and Development Study in Mathematics (TEDS-M)”, called TEDS-FU. Drawing on the novice-expert framework from cognitive psychology allows analysing the structure and development of mathematics teachers’ professional competence. More recent concepts on teacher noticing of classroom situations and students’ activities are incorporated into this video-based evaluation instrument, which is described in detail in this paper, by assessing perceptual, interpretative and decision-making skills. Reliability and validity concerns remain an issue of such assessments for which solutions are proposed. Overall, the paper shows that a more comprehensive evaluation of teachers’ competence comprising cognitive-affective and situated facets is possible and has been achieved.
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Contemporary education reforms focus on assessing teachers’ performance and developing selection mechanisms for hiring effective teachers. Tools that enable the prediction of teachers’ classroom performance promote schools’ ability to hire teachers more likely to be successful in the classroom. In addition, these assessment tools can be used for teacher training and preparation that contributes to improved student performance. This article summarizes the theoretical and empirical support for a direct assessment of teachers’ skill in detecting and identifying effective classroom interactions—the Video Assessment of Interaction and Learning (VAIL). Findings from a study of 270 preschool teachers suggest that the VAIL reliably measures teachers’ interaction detection and identification skills. Teachers who can accurately detect effective interactions on video exemplars tend to have more years of education and display more effective interactions with the students in their classroom. Findings are discussed in terms of the implications for teacher selection, preparation, and training.
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This unique and ground-breaking book is the result of 15 years research and synthesises over 800 meta-analyses on the influences on achievement in school-aged students. It builds a story about the power of teachers, feedback, and a model of learning and understanding. The research involves many millions of students and represents the largest ever evidence based research into what actually works in schools to improve learning. Areas covered include the influence of the student, home, school, curricula, teacher, and teaching strategies. A model of teaching and learning is developed based on the notion of visible teaching and visible learning. A major message is that what works best for students is similar to what works best for teachers - an attention to setting challenging learning intentions, being clear about what success means, and an attention to learning strategies for developing conceptual understanding about what teachers and students know and understand. Although the current evidence based fad has turned into a debate about test scores, this book is about using evidence to build and defend a model of teaching and learning. A major contribution is a fascinating benchmark/dashboard for comparing many innovations in teaching and schools.
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We examine how the declarative-conceptual general pedagogical knowledge (GPK) assessed via a paper-and-pencil test can be understood as a premise for early career teachers' ability to notice and interpret classroom situations assessed via video-vignettes. Longitudinal data from TEDS-M conducted in 2008 at the end of teacher education and a follow-up study in Germany in 2012 is used. Teachers' skills to notice and interpret differ. Interpreting correlates with the current level of GPK, whereas noticing does not. GPK at the end of teacher education neither predicts noticing nor interpreting, which suggests teachers' cognitions are reorganized during the transition into teaching.
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For more than two decades, three components of teacher knowledge have been discussed, namely, content knowledge (CK), pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), and general pedagogical knowledge (GPK). Although there is a growing body of analytic clarification and empirical testing with regard to CK and PCK, especially with a focus on mathematics teachers, hardly any attempt has been made to learn more about teachers’ GPK. In the context of the Teacher Education and Development Study in Mathematics (TEDS-M), Germany, Taiwan, and the United States worked on closing this research gap by conceptualizing a theoretical framework and developing a standardized test of GPK, which was taken by representative samples of future middle school teachers in these countries. Four task-based subdimensions of GPK and three cognitive subdimensions of GPK were distinguished in this test. TEDS-M data are used (a) to test the hypothesis that GPK is not homogenous but multidimensional and (b) to compare the achievement of U.S. future middle school teachers with future middle school teachers from Germany and Taiwan. The data revealed that U.S. future teachers were outperformed by both the other groups. They showed a relative strength in one of the cognitive subdimensions, generating strategies to perform in the classroom, indicating that in particular they had acquired procedural GPK during teacher education.
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The Video Assessment of Interactions and Learning (VAIL), a video-based assessment of teacher understanding of effective teaching strategies and behaviors, was administered to preservice teachers. Descriptive and regression analyzes were conducted to examine trends among participants and identify predictors at the individual level and program level. Results from this study demonstrate that a standardized assessment used previously with in-service teachers can be implemented in a teacher education program. Analysis shows variability in preservice abilities to detect effective teaching strategies and behaviors that is partially explained by teacher education program factors.
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Responding to the scarcity of suitable measures of teacher knowledge, this article reports on a novel assessment approach to measuring teacher knowledge of teaching mathematics. The new approach uses teachers' ability to analyze teaching as a proxy for their teaching knowledge. Video clips of classroom instruction, which respondents were asked to analyze in writing, were used as item prompts. Teacher responses were scored along four dimensions: mathematical content, student thinking, alternative teaching strategies, and overall quality of interpretation. A prototype assessment was developed and its reliability and validity were examined. Respondents' scores were found to be reliable. Positive, moderate correlations between teachers' scores on the video-analysis assessment, a criterion measure of mathematical content knowledge for teaching, and expert ratings provide initial evidence for the criterion-related validity of the video-analysis assessment. Results suggest that teachers' ability to analyze teaching might be reflective of their teaching knowledge.
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* more information about writing items that match content standards;
Article
Lee S. Shulman builds his foundation for teaching reform on an idea of teaching that emphasizes comprehension and reasoning, transformation and reflection. "This emphasis is justified," he writes, "by the resoluteness with which research and policy have so blatantly ignored those aspects of teaching in the past." To articulate and justify this conception, Shulman responds to four questions: What are the sources of the knowledge base for teaching? In what terms can these sources be conceptualized? What are the processes of pedagogical reasoning and action? and What are the implications for teaching policy and educational reform? The answers — informed by philosophy, psychology, and a growing body of casework based on young and experienced practitioners — go far beyond current reform assumptions and initiatives. The outcome for educational practitioners, scholars, and policymakers is a major redirection in how teaching is to be understood and teachers are to be trained and evaluated. This article was selected for the November 1986 special issue on "Teachers, Teaching, and Teacher Education," but appears here because of the exigencies of publishing.
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A year-long study was conducted to address questions concerning student teachers' concerns and the development of those concerns over time. Journals kept by 19 elementary student teachers during their 1-year education program showed that these students: (a) evidenced a broad range of concerns, (b) developed toward independence from student to teacher as they progressed through their education program, and (c) reflected over educational aims and practices when given opportunities and support to do so. This study suggests that teacher educators may enhance student teachers' learning and professional development by encouraging their inquiry and reflection.
is Assistant Professor of Teacher Education in the Department of Teaching and Learning at the University of Nevada
  • D Peter
  • Ph D Wiens
Peter D. Wiens, Ph.D., is Assistant Professor of Teacher Education in the Department of Teaching and Learning at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. His research focuses on the assessment of teacher education outcomes and preservice teacher learning including the lasting effects of teacher preparation on instructional outcomes.
is an Assistant Professor of Secondary Education in the Department of Teaching and Learning at Old Dominion University. Her research interests focus on clinical teacher preparation broadly with emphases in Third Space partnerships, data literacy for teaching
  • Jori S Beck
Jori S. Beck, Ph.D. is an Assistant Professor of Secondary Education in the Department of Teaching and Learning at Old Dominion University. Her research interests focus on clinical teacher preparation broadly with emphases in Third Space partnerships, data literacy for teaching, and equity.
is the Program Coordinator for the University of South Carolina, Sumter's teacher education program through USC Aiken. Her work focuses on teacher preparation with specific attention to democratic teaching practices, constructivism, and mentorship
  • Christina J Lunsmann
Christina J. Lunsmann, Ph.D., is the Program Coordinator for the University of South Carolina, Sumter's teacher education program through USC Aiken. Her work focuses on teacher preparation with specific attention to democratic teaching practices, constructivism, and mentorship. ORCID Peter D. Wiens http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1138-5079
Measuring What Matters: A Stronger Accountability Model for Teacher Education
  • E Crowe
Crowe, E. 2010. Measuring What Matters: A Stronger Accountability Model for Teacher Education. Washington, D.C.: Center for American Progress.
Enhancing Professional Development: A Framework for Teaching. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development
  • C Danielson
Danielson, C. 1996. Enhancing Professional Development: A Framework for Teaching. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Teacher Evaluation to Enhance Professional Practice. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development
  • C Danielson
Danielson, C., and T. L. McGreal. 2000. Teacher Evaluation to Enhance Professional Practice. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Evaluating Teacher Effectiveness: How Teacher Performance Assessments Can Measure and Improve Teaching
  • L Darling-Hammond
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