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Between Worlds. The Enclosed Settlement of the Münchshöfen Culture at Riedling (Lower Bavaria)

The Enclosed Settlement of the Münchshöfen Culture at Riedling (Lower Bavaria)
Márton Szilágyi – ludwig HuSty – daniela HofMann
Hungarian Archaeology Vol. 9 (2020), Issue 1, pp. 12–20,
Our study presents a Late Neolithic enclosed settlement from Lower Bavaria. This site arouses interest not
only regionally but also on a Central European level, as several phenomena emerged during this period
along the Danube in Lower Bavaria that are strongly linked to the Carpathian Basin and other parts of
Central Europe. In our present report, we focus on one phenomenon of the many at Riedling, the so-called
structured deposits. These nd assemblages are probably results of intentional selection of the material
culture deposited deliberately, perhaps related to single ritual events.
Across Central and North-Western Europe, the Late Neolithic introduces fundamental changes in material
culture and human behaviour. In addition, there is an expansion of the Neolithic way of life across the north
European plain, into Great Britain and Ireland, and across the foothills of the Alps. A secondary expansion
is also visible in regions that had been settled long before, where now less favourable soils were exploited
(e. g. Gleser 1995, 331–335; lichardus 1991).
Perhaps the biggest observable change in terms of material culture is the regional fragmentation in
pottery styles. After the period of the culturally rather homogeneous LBK-complex (Linearbandkeramik,
Linear Pottery culture), several cultural units emerged in this area that were distinguished mostly based on
pottery, including the Rössen Group in southwestern Germany and in the Rhineland, the SBK (Stichband-
keramik, Stroked Pottery) in the north and northeast of the region (southern Germany, Czech Republic,
southwestern Poland), and the Lengyel complex in the east (Moravia, Lower and Upper Austria, and the
western Carpathian Basin) (e.g. hofmann & Gleser 2019).
In the second half of the 5th millennium cal BC, this cultural prole becomes even more fragmented, as
does terminology. This period is assigned to the Late Neolithic in Germany, whereas it is called the Early
Copper Age or Aeneolithic in the Carpathian Basin and adjacent areas. The appearance of the Epi-Rössen
Groups (Aichbühl, Bischheim, Schussenried, Schwieberdingen, etc.; more recently the so-called ‛Schulter-
bandgruppen’) in the west were followed by the Michelsberg culture at the end of the period (Gleser 2016).
The SBK is replaced by Gatersleben in Germany and by Jordanów/Jordansmühl in the Czech Republic and
Poland (hofmann & Gleser 2019, g. 1). In the east, the image becomes pixelated too, with the appearance of
the Lengyel III, Balaton-Lasinja, Sava, Ludanice, Bisamberg-Oberpullendorf and Kazianiberg-Lasinja groups
(Pavúk 2001; sraka 2012, 369–371). Nevertheless, these areas remain connected by a series of long-distance
networks, along which (prestige) objects, such as those made of copper and gold, jade and other stone materi-
als that can be knapped, and new technologies and ideas travelled (klassen 2004; chaPman 2013). Connect-
ing these different scales of social action remains a central issue for archaeologists to investigate.
In this brief report, we present one case study, the Bavarian Münchshöfen culture, which illustrates the
complex interplay between local characteristics and a shared world view. While southeastern Bavaria had
been an integral part of the LBK areas, in the rst half of the 5th millennium the region was rather a contact
zone located between the three large cultural blocks mentioned above, leading to a series of contradictory
designations (Biermann 1997, 5–8; eiBl 2011; riedhammer 2016, 128–129). This was followed, from the
5th millennium, by the Münchshöfen culture, a regional grouping centred on the Bavarian Danube valley.
Márton Szilágyi – Ludwig Husty – Daniela HofmannBetween Worlds
Münchshöfen is also dened mainly by its pottery style, characterised by the occurrence of a wide range
of new pottery forms, new decoration techniques and ornamental motifs. It appeared along the Danube and
its southern tributaries (Laber, Isar, Vils) in a fertile plain known as the Gäuboden, and in the Tertiary Hills
area along the river valleys. Outside the core area, sporadic sites along the Lech River, around Salzburg and
Upper Austria are also known (süss 1976, 99–118; meixner 2017, abb 16.). Münchshöfen-type sherds have
also been found further away, such as in Baden-Württemberg, the southern Alps, and the Czech Republic
(ZáPotocky 2016, 25; mottes et al. 2002, 120).
This novel pottery style with its wide range of new pot shapes and decorations is very dissimilar from
the previous period and is the dening characteristic of the Münchshöfen group. Main shapes include shoul-
dered vessels, pots with cylindrical necks, bowls with thickened rims, small conical cups, and S-proled
bowls that often stood on high pedestals (süss 1976, 6–39). Clay spoons or ladles are also common, iden-
tical in shape to those known from across Central Europe (süss 1976, 35).
The decoration of the pots is spectacular, made mostly by using stab-and-drag technique. The motifs are
usually built up from meander patterns that were arranged in panels around the bodies of the pots. These
motifs occur only on certain types of pots, while other types have various plastic ornamentation and notches
on the rim.
Although we know a large number of sites in Bavaria, many are stray nds and small-scale excavations.
Generally speaking, the settlements were small in size, consisting of a few pits, and few traces of houses
or buildings are known so far (Ganslmeier 2009; meixner 2016). Similarly, we do not yet know of any
formal cemeteries, but instead a range of inhumations, partial and secondary burials from various kinds of
sites. In addition, many of the 130 or so individuals known to date cannot be considered regular burials, for
instance those buried in irregular positions in multiple interments (meixner 2009). This is not unusual in
a Late Neolithic context. Similarly, many sites have been discovered that were surrounded by enclosures
or ditch systems, sometimes of substantial extent (hofmann & husty 2019, 945–946), again in line with
broader European trends. Some of these enclosures, but also some settlement sites, see so-called ‘structured
deposits’, i.e. items of material culture thought to be deposited deliberately, perhaps for ritual purposes
(hofmann & husty 2019, 946–948).
There is little agreement on what brought about the development of the Münchshöfen phenomenon. It
seems clear that this is a local group with strong relationships both to the east and the west, which is visible for
example in the pottery style, structured deposits and the construction of enclosures (Gleser 1995, 290–298).
However, this community was not open to all innovations, as neither the boom of copper and gold objects in
the east nor the appearance of Alpine jade in the west had an impact on this area (klassen et al. 2012, 1281).
Our project, generously funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft1, aims to study a single enclo-
sure site with a rich inventory of nds in order to better understand the Münchshöfen culture and its connec-
tions to surrounding areas. Our main aims are to further characterise the network of contacts at the site (both
in terms of objects and of behaviours), and to trace its chronological development. We also want to establish
the role of this enclosure in its regional setting, whether enclosure sites can be said to function within a kind
of settlement hierarchy, and if so, how stable this was. Finally, by drawing the strands together, we will
reect on the position of the Münchshöfen culture in its wider Late Neolithic European context, particu-
larly in relation to narratives of increasing social stratication that are often linked to this period (hofmann,
husty & sZiláGyi 2018, 168–169).
Our case study is the site of Riedling near Straubing in Lower Bavaria, located on a small rise between
the Gäuboden and the Tertiary Hills (husty & meixner 2009; husty 2011). Excavation between 2007 and
2012 took place prior to clay mining and uncovered two intercutting ditches dated to the Münchshöfen
1 Chronology, networks, society: the Münchshöfen culture at the enclosure site of Riedling, Lower Bavaria. Grant number:
Márton Szilágyi – Ludwig Husty – Daniela HofmannBetween Worlds
culture, in addition to a large number of pits mainly
within the enclosures (Fig.1).
The outer ditch is the earlier of the two. It forms
an irregular oval of around 180 m × 110 m, which
is unusually large for the Münchshöfen culture.
The ditch is segmented, but taking into account the
considerable levels of erosion at the site, the circuit
was probably more continuous on the Neolithic
ground surface, with only the larger gaps serving as
entrances. The more recent, sub-rectangular ditch
encloses an area of around 150 m × 160 m. It has not
been completely excavated, but the remainder of its
path has been traced through geophysical surveying.
Overall, 169 Late Neolithic pits were excavated.
Dozens more probably belonged to the same period,
but they did not contain reliably datable nds.
The amount of nds just like the size of the
enclosure – is outstanding compared to other sites.
The number of ceramic fragments is close to 45,000
and there are also thousands of animal bone nds.
The weight of daub and burnt clay exceeds 180 kg,
and there are several hundred chipped and polished
stone tools, as well as a variety of bone and tex-
tile production implements. Based on the ceramic
material and the preliminary absolute dates, the site
belongs to the classical and late Münchshöfen sty-
listic phases, and was in use between approximately
4400–4000 cal BC.
Due to the complexity of the site, and the quan-
tity and signicance of the nds, it stands out from
other known Münchshöfen complexes. While a
more comprehensive interpretation is still in pro-
gress, in this publication we intend to present only one aspect in more detail, the structured deposits at
Riedling and the role of pottery in them.
Riedling has revealed a large number of special assemblages, dened on the basis of the quantity, com-
pleteness and composition of the material. Although the denitional boundaries of any category such as
‘special’ deposit must remain fuzzy, 25–30 pit assemblages have been provisionally identied as unusual.
These were mostly recovered in segments of the older earthwork and some of the pits, and each assemblage
appears to have been deposited over a very short period of time. They usually consisted of large amounts of
fragmented pottery, animal bones, and in many cases human remains. In what follows, we will present four
examples of structured deposits found in Riedling. They have been chosen to illustrate the diversity within
this category, especially the variability of their nd assemblages.
Human remains and large quantities of pottery in ditch segment 26
Feature 26 is located on the west side of the earlier enclosure, near its southwest corner. The segment is 4.2 m
long, 1.4–1.7 m wide and only 40 cm deep. In the northern half of the oblong ditch segment, a human skeleton
Fig. 1. The location of Riedling in southeastern Bavaria
(above). Map of the Late Neolithic settlement (below). The
segments of the earlier enclosure are coloured in light grey,
the segments of the more recent enclosure are in dark grey,
and features mentioned in the text are marked with red dots
Márton Szilágyi – Ludwig Husty – Daniela HofmannBetween Worlds
was found beneath a thick layer of fragmented
pottery (Fig. 2 A). Charcoal and a small amount
of daub were also deposited. The total weight of
the pottery was more than 71 kg, and the total
amount of sherds ran to 1,773 pieces belonging
to a maximum of 1152 vessels. In practice, this
means that a relatively large number of cohesive
fragments have been deposited here, proportion-
ally more than the site average. Therefore, the
pottery deposited here was in a less fragmented
state than in most other features. However, the
proportion of diagnostic sherds is lower than one
would expect under these circumstances, mostly
because the assemblage contains many large
base and side fragments of otherwise undiagnos-
tic pots. Among the identiable pots are classic
Münchshöfen forms (Fig. 2 B/6–9), but also rar-
ities otherwise not found on the site or only spo-
radically. These include a small, shouldered tum-
bler, a bell-shaped pedestal and a short-necked
spherical bowl (Fig. 2 B/3–5). It is also impor-
tant to mention two miniature vessels, which are
unusual in the site assemblage (Fig. 2 B/1–2).
Broken vessels in ditch segment 110
Feature 110 is a short ditch segment, 2.5 m long, 0.9 m wide and only 20 cm deep. It is located at the south
side of the earlier enclosure, near its southwest corner. An intact layer at the base of the feature contained
a large amount of pottery, a few animal bones and daub (Fig. 3 A). The total amount of sherds ran to 901
fragments that belonged to a maximum of 454 pots. The total weight reached nearly 27 kg. As in the previ-
ous example, the degree of fragmentation was lower than the average at the site, and the photographs show
the large pieces of vessels at the base of the ditch.
The form and decoration of the vessels t well into the classic Münchshöfen pottery style, with shoul-
dered vessels, pots with cylindrical necks and bowls with thickened rims (Fig. 3 B/4–6). Some rare types
were also found, such as a short-necked, semi-spherical bowl, a spherical jar with a narrowing neck, and a
Fig. 2. A.: steps of uncovering ditch segment 26
(photograph: ArcTron);
B.: compilation of the pottery material from ditch segment 26
Fig. 3. A.: ditch segment 110 (photograph: ArcTron); B.: compilation of the pottery material from ditch segment 110
Márton Szilágyi – Ludwig Husty – Daniela HofmannBetween Worlds
bowl with handles (Fig. 3 B/1–3). Further fragments of the latter were found in a similar assemblage in the
neighbouring ditch segment No. 109.
Human skulls and broken ne wares in pit 675
Feature 675 is a rounded pit with
straight sides and a at base, and
is a part of a relatively small pit
complex. Its diameter is 2.8–3 m,
its depth is 1.3 m, making it larger
than most other rounded pits at
the site. A thin layer of charcoal
was found at the base of the pit, on
top of which was a large quantity
of pottery and daub, three human
skulls and other human bones,
animal bones, a perforated bone
tool and other nds (Fig. 4 A).
The total number of sherds was
1280, belonging to a maximum of
1219 pots. The total weight of the
pottery was as much as 25 kg.
A characteristic of the pottery
assemblage recovered here was
its high degree of fragmentation.
The material consisted of mostly
small fragments, so that relatively
few types could be identied. The proportion of decorated fragments was unusually high, almost 10% of all
fragments were decorated with stab-and-drag motifs (Fig. 4 B). Large quantities of daub were also found;
the total weight of the 381 fragments exceeded 13.5 kg. Interestingly, one third of this material showed
architectural imprints, again an unusually high number.
Grinding stones, potsherds and traces of re in pit 801
Feature 801 is an irregularly shaped, rounded pit in the southeastern part of the site, a few meters from the
inside edge of the earlier ditch. The pit has a diameter of 1.3 m, which is larger than similar pits. At 1.6
Fig. 4. A.: steps of uncovering pit 675 (photograph: ArcTron); B.: compilation of
the pottery material from pit 675
Fig. 5. A.: pit 801 (photograph: ArcTron); B.: compilation of the pottery material from pit 801
Márton Szilágyi – Ludwig Husty – Daniela HofmannBetween Worlds
m, its depth differs signicantly from the average of 0.3–0.6 m for similar features. A nd concentration
right at the base of the pit consisted of pottery, burnt earth, a few animal bones and daub, and fragments of
grinding stones (Fig. 5 A). The amount of pottery (240 fragments from 193 vessels at most, total weight 5.8
kg) is not very large, but still far exceeds the quantities usually found in similar pits. Among the identia-
ble pots are classic Münchshöfen forms, with shouldered vessels, pots with cylindrical necks, bowls with
thickened rims and bowls with an S-shaped prole (Fig. 5 B). The assemblage also contained a relatively
large proportion of ne wares. The amount of animal bones and daub is low or average, but the number of
grinding stones is very high.
The examples presented here clearly show the duality that characterises structured deposits. On the one
hand, there is a high degree of similarity of form. These assemblages were placed in the ground during a
single event or over a very short time, as indicated by a compact layer or nds at the base or within the
bottom third of the features. This suggests that the act of deposition was a single, conscious event. The
selection of the locations might also have been deliberate, with most of the examples recorded in segments
of the older ditch or in rounded, deep pits. It is also clear that the number of nds is much larger than for
average settlement features. In all the cases cited here, pottery is a central element in the rituals. There also
seems to be a deliberate selection of objects, which is indicated by rarer pottery forms and the fact that
composition patterns differ from the average of all assemblages. Some of the pottery forms and decorations
became generally used in the later phases of the settlement, thus the appearance of these objects can be seen
as presenting novelties in a special context. However, some of the innovations dated to this period do not
occur either elsewhere at Riedling or at other sites of the Münchshöfen culture.
On the other hand, there are also clear differences. The composition of the assemblages can vary consid-
erably in terms of both type and condition of the nds. Human remains do not appear in all assemblages,
and the range and quantity of animal bones, daub and stone artefacts show tremendous variety. Similarly,
the precise characteristics of the pottery are highly variable. Rare shapes are common, the proportion of
ne, decorated ceramics is many times higher than in average pits, and the level of fragmentation often
suggests vessels in better condition. However, these principles cannot be considered exclusive, and are not
always valid. The precise categories of vessels differed, sometimes placing more stress on exotic or care-
fully produced forms, and sometimes on sheer mass. In addition, some vessels were deposited almost com-
plete and/or smashed in situ, while in other cases it seemed important to have as many different containers
as possible represented, even if in small quantities.
In this short study, we have highlighted some examples of a typical phenomenon of the site at Riedling,
namely structured deposits. Overall, and even on the basis of such a small, preliminary selection, it is clear
that structured deposits were an important arena for the consumption of wealth and innovation in ritual dis-
play. The role of pottery is central in this endeavour. Vast quantities of carefully produced and extensively
decorated vessels were destroyed at such events, alongside rare and exotic forms and a huge number of
more mundane containers for storage and food preparation. It is likely that in addition to any long-decayed
organic vessels, we are also missing the former contents of these objects, food and drink for human con-
sumption. Together, these represent an important part of this society’s surplus production. It is possible that
presenting food and drink to large gatherings of people in appropriately chosen containers was a socially
valued activity that could have played a similar role as the deposits of prestige items such as metalwork in
other contemporary cultures.
In this very short essay, we could only present a preliminary snapshot of our material. However, the
issue will be further investigated, for example by testing the pots for their former contents and by further
detailed comparison of the inventories of each deposit. We also hope to further contextualise the tradition of
Márton Szilágyi – Ludwig Husty – Daniela HofmannBetween Worlds
structured deposits as a whole. The Münchshöfen phenomenon has strong eastern connections, with many
characteristics linking it to eastern Central Europe, including the western Carpathian Basin. This system
of contacts has recently been referred to as the “Late Lengyel Interaction Zone”. The westernmost section
of this is southeastern Bavaria and the easternmost is the Carpathian Basin (cZerniak & PyZel 2016, 111;
Jeunesse 2019, 122–125). Thus, understanding the Late Neolithic in Bavaria may also be a crucial puzzle
piece to understanding this wider sphere, including the Transdanubian Early Copper Age and the variety of
new social forms that could exist within it.
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... The enclosure at Riedling in Lower Bavaria belongs to the Münchshöfen culture, a regional group dated between c. 4450 and 4000 cal BC (Meixner, 2017), and is located in a side valley of the Danube, on one of the first hills above the fertile Gäuboden plain. Characteristic for this culture is a pottery style with shapes and decorations indicating long-distance contacts (Szilágyi and Hofmann, 2020). Although many settlement sites are known, formal burial sites are lacking and highly varied inhumations, namely primary, secondary, multiple and partial human burials, are evidenced instead (Meixner, 2009). ...
... A total of 169 pits has been dated to the Münchshöfen culture. Exceptionally, up to 30 pits and ditch sections have received unusually large amounts of (intentionally) fragmented pottery, animal and also human remains obviously deposited in single events (Szilágyi and Hofmann, 2020). ...
... It is possible that these trends already began in the Münchshöfen culture. At Riedling, contacts across the Bavarian Forest are also suggested by characteristics of the pottery (Szilágyi and Hofmann, 2020), the use of actinolite-hornblende schist (likely from Jistebsko) for polished stone axes (Ramminger, forthcoming) and the identification of a nodule of so-called Baltic flint Table 3 Protein biomass contribution of food end-members. (Kegler-Graiewski, forthcoming). ...
The Neolithic Münchshöfen culture in southern Germany (5th mill. BC) lacks formal burial sites. Primary, secondary and partial burials are evidenced instead. Using the enclosure at Riedling, the largest burial collective known in the area to date, we gained more information on subsistence strategy, population structure and admixture by stable isotope analysis of the human skeletons. The remains of 39 individuals were discovered in the enclosure and the osteological investigation indicates burial of selected individuals. Radiogenic ⁸⁷Sr/⁸⁶Sr isotope ratios revealed that nine out of 20 individuals were not local to the site and that some of them had even migrated during childhood. The nearest possible place of origin is found across the Danube river, which obviously did not constitute a geographical obstacle. Isotopic sourcing of collagen δ¹³C and δ¹⁵N ratios revealed marked sex differences in the daily diet and showed that at least some of the non-locals had lived on different diets. Diet and isotopic provenance did not correlate with burial rite and no clear social hierarchies could be inferred. Morphology combined with stable isotope analysis revealed a dynamic Neolithic population with a multi-resource subsistence economy and interaction across a topographical boundary.
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Es ist weniger denn je möglich, ein schlüssiges chronologisches Gesamtmodell für die erste Hälfte des 5. Jahrtausends in Mitteleuropa zu entwickeln ("Mittelneolithikum" nach der Terminologie in Südwestdeutschland). in Anbetracht der naturwissenschaftlichen Datierungen und der dadurch immer deutlicher erkennbaren Regionalität mit unterschiedlicher Geschwindigkeit der keramischen Stilentwicklungen zeichnen sich Möglichkeiten zur ordinalen und metrischen Skalierung der archäologischen Kulturen derzeit nur für die zweite Hälfte dieses Jahrtausends in Ansätzen ab ("frühes Jungneolithikum" nach der Terminologie in Südwestdeutschland). Am Beispiel des Kulturenkomplexes Hinkelstein-Großgartach-Rössen-Epi-Rössen in Südwestdeutschland wird aufgezeigt, dass in den Siedlungsgebieten dort die mittelneolithischen Keramikstile zu unterschiedlichen Zeitpunkten gefertigt worden sein müssen. Kürzlich publizierte Serien von AMS-Daten für die Lengyel-Kultur in Niederösterreich sowie zahlreiche bislang entworfene Chronologiemodelle, mit deren Hilfe versucht wird, Synchronismen zwischen Süddeutschland und dem mittleren Donauraum aufzuzeigen, erscheinen dabei in neuem Licht. Im direkten Vergleich dieser Periodisierungen sind Unterschiede bei der absoluten Datierung bestimmter Stufen und Phasen von zum Teil mehreren Jahrhunderten festzustellen. Es fällt auf, dass die Forschung in West-und Südwestdeutschland teilweise sehr frühe Datierungsansätze für einzelnen Stufen des postlinearbandkeramischen Kulturenkomplex am Rhein bevorzugt und dass beim direkten Vergleich mit den Stufen der östlich anschließenden Kulturareale (Stichbandbandkeramik, Lengyel) spürbare Diskrepanzen der jeweils für möglich gehaltenen Synchronismen auftreten können. Die damit verbundene Problematik ist über "Kontaktfunde" nicht aufzulösen.
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The fifth millennium is characterized by far-flung contacts and a veritable flood of innovations. While its beginning is still strongly reminiscent of a broadly Line-arbandkeramik way of life, at its end we find new, interregionally valid forms of symbolism, representation and ritual behaviour, changes in the settlement system, in architecture and in routine life. Yet, these interregional tendencies are paired with a profusion of increasingly small-scale archaeological cultures, many of them defined through pottery only. This tension between large-scale interaction and more local developments remains ill understood, largely because interregional comparisons are lacking. Contributors in this volume provide up-to-date regional overviews of the main developments in the fifth millennium and discuss, amongst others, in how far ceramically-defined 'cultures' can be seen as spatially coherent social groups with their own way of life and worldview, and how processes of innovation can be understood. Case studies range from the Neolithisation of the Netherlands, hunter-gatherer-farmer fusions in the Polish Lowlands, to the Italian Neolithic. Amongst others, they cover the circulation of stone disc-rings in western Europe, the formation of post-LBK societies in central Europe and the reliability of pottery as an indicator for social transformations.
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The Brześć Kujawski culture emerged in the Polish Lowlands in the second half of the 5th millennium BC. It shares many characteristic features with Chalcolithic cultures of the Carpathian Basin indicating that BKK communities belonged to the wider ‘late Lengyel interaction sphere’. However, there are very striking regional distinctions in the material culture of these communities, which appear to reflect a conscious attempt to emphasize local identity, incorporating both innovation and conservatism. This article focuses on one of the most distinctive features of this culture – trapezoidal longhouses, presented here in the context of astonishingly various and hierarchical settlement system of the BKK. In this respect the iconic character of houses expressed by the uniformity of their form and size, seems to be a deliberate decision that stressed local identity in reference to the LBK heritage as well as other contemporary communities inhabiting the Polish Lowlands in the 5th millennium BC.
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In the paper, Bayesian analysis of 14C dates implemented in the OxCal program is used to develop calendric time-scale chronologies of individual sites and archaeological cultures of the 5th millennium calBC in Slovenia and Croatia. Case studies are presented in which 14C dates are analy- sed and reinterpreted with the aid of contextual archaeological data. At the site level, stratigraphic sequences are used in models to constrain and then precisely date activities within them. At the re- gional level, the results of the chronological modelling of archaeological cultures are used to present them on a calendric time-scale and within a broader spatial framework of Central and Southeastern Europe. Special emphasis is placed upon critical comparison of modelled calendar and cultural se- quences. On the basis of this comparison, some inconsistencies and contradictions in the relative chronological schemes of periods and archaeological cultures are presented.
From Varna to Brittany via Csőszhalom -Was there a »Varna Effect«?
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Chapman, J. (2013). From Varna to Brittany via Csőszhalom -Was there a »Varna Effect«? In A. Anders, G. Kulcsár, with G. Kalla, V. Kiss & G. V. Szabó (eds.), Moments in Time. Papers presented to Pál Raczky on his 60th birthday (pp. 323-335). Budapest: ELTE -L'Harmattan.
Die Bayerische Gruppe der Stichbandkeramik und die Gruppe Oberlauterbach -zum Stand der Forschung
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Lost villages: Wallerdorf -ein Weilerhof der Münchshöfener Kultur. Bemerkungen zu terrestrischen Siedlungen der frühen Kupferzeit
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Ganslmeier, R. (2009). Lost villages: Wallerdorf -ein Weilerhof der Münchshöfener Kultur. Bemerkungen zu terrestrischen Siedlungen der frühen Kupferzeit. In L. Husty, M. Rind & K. Schmotz (eds.), Zwischen Münchshöfen und Windberg. Gedenkschrift für Karl Böhm (pp. 109-130). Rahden: Leidorf.