Technical ReportPDF Available

MODELING ICE STUPA VIA ARCHITECTURAL OF PAGODA

Authors:

Abstract

This document is profiling importance of the artificial glacier & molding geometry via pagoda. Artificial glaciation is a practice carried out in the Hindu Kush and Himalaya regions aimed at creating small new glaciers to increase water supply for crops and in some cases to sustain micro hydro power. This is formed by piping mountain stream water into a vertical pipe. The stream water is collected from a source at a higher altitude than the ice stupa site so gravity pushes it down the pipe. Because water will always maintain its level, it will always reach the same height as the source. Apart from solving the irrigation problem, the artificial glaciers help in the recharging of ground water and rejuvenation of springs. They enable farmers to harvest two crops in a year, help in developing pastures for cattle rearing and reducing water sharing disputes among the farmers. Geometrical shape of pagoda is so important to gradually melting event of Artificial Ice Stupa.
A preview of the PDF is not available
Presentation
The knowledge of Martian geology has increased enormously in the last 40 yr. Several missions orbiting or roving Mars have revolutionized our understanding of its evolution and geological features, which in several ways are similar to Earth, but are extremely different in many respects. The impressive dichotomy between the two Martian hemispheres is most likely linked to its impact cratering history, rather than internal dynamics such as on Earth. Mars’ volcanism has been extensive, very longlived and rather constant in its setting. Water was available in large quantities in the distant past of Mars, when a magnetic field and more vigorous tectonics were active. Exogenic forces have been shaping Martian landscapes and have led to a plethora of landscapes shaped by wind, water and ice. Mars’ dynamical behavior continues, with its climatic variation affecting climate and geology until very recent times.
Experiment Findings
Full-text available
Archeoastronomy is essentially a study of the Anthropology of Astronomy and world-views and the role of astronomy and astronomers in their cultures. Following the references of numerous mechanisms used to study past human behavior, including history, oral tradition, and archaeology. Our case study analyzes archaeological factors like sundial & which belong to the Anuradhapura period (377 BC to 1017 AD) Sri Lanka included late period water clock. Therefore research is briefly focusing on evaluating anthropogenic activities regarding sundial & water clocks. As a first step of case study, theoretically we have developed calculation mechanism related to horizontal & vertical sundial's working process relevant to sundial mechanics. The observations of absolute location which correspond to +5.30 GMT (70 29 .417’NN , 810 36. 984’EE) and apply the ruler geometry & euclidean geometry to a 10cm height object that is permanently set in the centralized point of the sundial in Rajagala. . This technique evaluates to measure the variation related to momentum of the shadow of the object which was centralized on sundial. Coordinating structural reading as manual parameters selected L= length of shadow, H= height of object, tan α = angle between sun and horizon. The compatibility analyzing of all data evaluate from “PlanetCalc” software and final results representing the traits way to understanding fundamentals of machines & concepts of Sundial & Water Clock in Sri Lanka.
Article
Full-text available
This document has been setup to providing fundamentals of Geology in Sri Lanka. More than 90% of Sri Lanka's surface lies on Precambrian strata, some of it dating back 2 billion years. The granulite facies rocks of the Highland Series (gneisses, sillimanite-graphite gneisses, quartzite, marbles, and some charnockites) make up most of the island and the amphibolite facies gneisses, granites, and granitic gneisses of the Vinjayan Series occur in the eastern and southeastern lowlands. Jurassic sediments are present today in very small areas near the western coast and Miocene limestones underlie the northwestern part of the country and extend south in a relatively narrow belt along the west coast. The metamorphic rock surface was created by the transformation of ancient sediments under intense heat and pressure during mountain-building processes. The theory of plate tectonics suggests that these rocks and related rocks forming most of south India were part of a single southern landmass called Gondwanaland. Beginning about 200 million years ago, forces within the Earth's mantle began to separate the lands of the Southern Hemisphere, and a crustal plate supporting both India and Sri Lanka moved toward the northeast. About 45 million years ago, the Indian plate collided with the Asian landmass, raising the Himalayas in northern India, and continuing to advance slowly to the present time. Sri Lanka does not experience earthquakes or major volcanic events because it rides on the center of the plate. The island contains relatively limited strata of sedimentation surrounding its ancient uplands. Aside from recent deposits along river valleys, only two small fragments of Jurassic (140 to 190 million years ago) sediment occur in Puttalam District, while a more extensive belt of Miocene (5 to 20 million years ago) limestone is found along the northwest coast, overlain in many areas by Pleistocene (1 million years ago) deposits. The northwest coast is part of the deep Cauvery (Kaveri) River Basin of southeast India, which has been collecting sediments from the highlands of India and Sri Lanka since the breakup of Gondwanaland
Presentation
Full-text available
A controversial theory that suggests an extraterrestrial body crashing to Earth almost 12,800 years ago caused the extinction of many large animals and a probable population decline in early humans is gaining traction from research sites around the world. The Younger Dryas Impact Hypothesis, controversial from the time, it was presented in 2007, proposes that an asteroid or comet hit the Earth about 12,800 years ago causing a period of extreme temperature variation that contributed to extinctions many species of megafauna. As focusing study for developing onshore Digital Elevation Model (DEM) to predict paleo sea level drop around 12800 years before present in Sri Lankan coastal based on comparative systematic analysis of proxy to indicate Younger Dryas cooling in late Pleistocene. Model of DEM implement from images of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) platform which able to examine the location images of beach rock & eroded cut in an enfield coastal sandy soil along the coastline of Sri Lanka. Resulting of systemic comparison in modern data platform which evaluated from proxy ( pCO2 , SSTMg/Ca, alkalinity), images of UAV in between carbon dating relevant to quaternary research in sri lanka and milankovitch cycle, able to reveled as conclusion, sea level fluctuation (26000ybp ) of 7.5 meters and has been reduced to 2.5 m in Younger Dryas cooling period of late Pleistocene Sri Lanka.
Presentation
Full-text available
සුවිශේෂී භූ විද්‍යාත්මක පසුබිමක් සහිත ශ‍්‍රී ලංකාවේ භූ විද්‍යාත්මක පුරාණ නිර්මාණ පරිසරය ආකීය යුගය (Archean Eon-4000 Mya–2500 Mya) දක්වා විහිදී යයි. නියෝප්‍රොටෙරොසොයික (Neoproterozoic–1000 Mya–541 Mya) වකවානුව තුළ ශ‍්‍රී ලංකාවේ භූ පිහිටීම ආශ‍්‍රිතව ක‍්‍රියාත්මක වූ ද්‍රවමය අවස්ථාවේ වූ ආග්නේය පාෂාණ වල ක‍්‍රියා හා ප‍්‍රතික‍්‍රියා (Igneous processes) හේතුවෙන් භූ කොටස් ඉලාස්ටික් භු තැටි (Sparse tectonic) තත්ත්වයට පත්වීම සිදුවිය. එම නිසා ශ‍්‍රි ලංකාව ආශ‍්‍රිත භූ පරිණාම ක‍්‍රියාවලිය දුර්වල වුවද නියෝප්‍රොටෙරොසොයික පර්වතකාරක තීරුවල (Orogenic belts) ක‍්‍රියාකාරිත්වය හේතුවෙන් ක‍්‍රමානුකූලව ස්ථාවර තත්ත්වයකට පත්විය. නැගෙනහිර ගොන්ඞ්වානා හි (East Gondwana - 550 Mya සිට 180 Mya) ආංශික කොටසක්ව පැවති ශ‍්‍රී ලංකාව ආශ‍්‍රිත භූ කොටස් (ස්කන්ධ) තව දුරටත් ප‍්‍රචාරණය (Tectonic dispersal) වීම අන්තර් මහද්වීපික ද්‍රෝණි විවෘත වීමත් සමග ආරම්භ විය. ශ‍්‍රී ලංකාවේ දකුණුදිග මුහුදු තීරයේ බොහෝ භූ විෂමතා ඉහත ක‍්‍රියාවලියේ ප‍්‍රතිඵලයක් ලෙස ඇතිවිය. ඉන්දියන් සාගරයේ මූලික ආරම්භයත් සමග තවදුරටත් උතුරු දෙසට චලනය වූ ශ‍්‍රී ලංකාව හා ඉන්දියාව තනි කොටසක් (ඒකකයක්) ලෙස කැඞී ගිය අතර, වසර මිලියන 50 කට පෙර ඉන්දියාව හා යුරේෂියාව ගැටී ඇතිවූ විස්ථාරණය වීම් මන්දගාමී තත්ත්වයට පත්විය. එම නිසා ශ‍්‍රී ලංකාව වර්තමානයේ දක්නට ලැබෙන මහද්වීපික දුපත් පිහිටීමකට පත්වීමත් ආශ‍්‍රිත මුහුදු පත්ල පිරිහීයාමත්, මුහුදු භූ දර්ප උච්චාවචනයත් (Uplift)විය. ශ‍්‍රී ලංකාවේ භූ ගර්භ ආශ‍්‍රිත වූ මූල පතුල් පාෂාණමය දත්ත (Basement rock data) හා පාෂාණ ස්ඵඨීකරණ දත්ත (Crystallization data), සමස්ථානික විශ්ලේෂණය (Isotopic analysis [A]), භූ කාල විශ්ලේෂණය (Geochronological analysis [B]), භූ රසායන විශ්ලේෂණය (Geochemical analysis [C])" ඛණිජ විද්‍යාත්මක විශ්ලේෂණය (Petrological analysis [D]) හා තාපගතික විශ්ලේෂණය (Thermochronology analysis [E]) වැනි ක‍්‍රමවේද හරහා අධ්‍යයනයන්ට ලක්කිරීම තුළින් ශ‍්‍රී ලංකාව භූ විද්‍යාත්ම සංකීරණ කිහිපයකට බෙදා වෙන්කර ඇත. එම කොටස් නම්: උස්බිම් සංකීරණය (HC-3000 Mya – 2200 Mya)" වන්නි සංකීර්ණය (WC-2000Mya - 1000Mya)" විජයන් සංකීර්ණය (VC-2000 Mya – 1000 Mya)" කඩුගන්නාව සංකීර්ණය (VC-2000 Mya – 1000 Mya)" හා මයෝසීන හා චාතූර්ථික තැම්පතු වේ. ශ‍්‍රී ලංකාවේ පතුල් පාෂාණ වලට ඉහළින් වූ අවසාදිත පාෂාණ දත්ත සහ සාගර කබොල උච්චාවචන දත්ත භූ විද්‍යාත්මකව ගවේෂණය කිරීමේ දී ශ‍්‍රී ලංකාව ආශ‍්‍රිතව ජුරාසික (Jurassic-201Mya-145 Mya), මයෝසීන (Miocene-23.05 Mya-5.3 Mya) ප්ලයිටොසීන (Pleistocene-2.58 Mya - 0.012 Mya) භූ වකවානු වලට අයත් ජෛවීය සාධක රැසක් පොසිල වශයෙන් හමුවෙයි. ශ‍්‍රී ලංකාවේ ප‍්‍රාග් ඓතිහාසික මානව ක‍්‍රියාකාරකම් සහිත ප්ලයිටොසීන යුගයේ චාතුර්ථික කාල වකවානුව, රත්නපුර තැම්පතු (Ratnapura Formation)=, ඉරණමඩු තැම්පතු (Iranamadu Deposits)= හා තෙත් කලාපීය ගුහා/ විවෘත මානව වාසස්ථාන (Wetland caves/Open habitats) හරහා නිරූපණය වන අතර, A,B,C,D,E හදුන්වා දුන් ක‍්‍රමවේද ඔස්සේ අධ්‍යයනය තුළින් භූ විද්‍යාත්මකව ලඝු කොටගත් පුරාතණ පාරිසරික දත්ත (Multi-proxy climate data in palaeo) රැසක් අනාවරණය කරගත හැකිය (පුරාතන දේශගුණික තත්ත්වල නෂ්ඨ වීම්, සුනාමි තත්ත්ව). එසේම ප‍්‍රසස්ථ ජීවයක් (Harbor Life ) සදහා වූ ඛගෝලීය (Celestial Sphere) බලපෑම් පෘථිවි පූර්වායනය (Earth Precision) හරහා තවදුරටත් අධ්‍යයනය කළ හැකිය. මෙම ක‍්‍රියාවලීන්ගේ ප‍්‍රතිඵලයක් වශයෙන් පුරාතන පරිසරය නැවත ප‍්‍රතිනිර්මාණය කළ හැකි අතර, එය තිරසාර සංවර්ධනයට උචිත පරිදි භාවිතා වන ආකාරය Ein Pro Scanning & Reconstruction - 3D Printing& තාක්ෂණය ඔස්සේ හොදින් පෙන්වා දෙයි.
Article
Full-text available
Permafrost is a key element of the cryosphere and an essential climate variable in the Global Climate Observing System. There is no remote-sensing method available to reliably monitor the permafrost thermal state. To estimate permafrost distribution at a hemispheric scale, we employ an equilibrium state model for the temperature at the top of the permafrost (TTOP model) for the 2000–2016 period, driven by remotely-sensed land surface temperatures, down-scaled ERA-Interim climate reanalysis data, tundra wetness classes and landcover map from the ESA Landcover Climate Change Initiative (CCI) project. Subgrid variability of ground temperatures due to snow and landcover variability is represented in the model using subpixel statistics. The results are validated against borehole measurements and reviewed regionally. The accuracy of the modelled mean annual ground temperature (MAGT) at the top of the permafrost is ± 2 °C when compared to permafrost borehole data. The modelled permafrost area (MAGT < 0 °C) covers 13.9 × 106 km2 (ca. 15% of the exposed land area), which is within the range or slightly below the average of previous estimates. The sum of all pixels having isolated patches, sporadic, discontinuous or continuous permafrost (permafrost probability > 0) is around 21 × 106 km2 (22% of exposed land area), which is approximately 2 × 106 km2 less than estimated previously. Detailed comparisons at a regional scale show that the model performs well in sparsely vegetated tundra regions and mountains, but is less accurate in densely vegetated boreal spruce and larch forests.
Presentation
Full-text available
Introduction to Petrology and Mineralogy to Implement Fossilization is for describe process of the fossilization & their factors,including geology . Fossilization is the process by which a plant or animal becomes a fossil. This process is extremely rare and only a small fraction of the plants and animals that have lived in the past 600 million years are preserved as fossils. This may be surprising, considering the millions of fossils that have been collected over the years, and the many billions still in the rocks. Those plants and animals that do become fossils generally undergo, with some exceptions, several key steps
Article
Full-text available
Does elevation-dependent warming hold true above 5000 m elevation? A combination of model- and observation-based evidence over the Tibetan Plateau suggests an absence of elevation-dependent warming (EDW) at high elevations. EDW, which is closely linked to snow-albedo feedback, has important implications for the hydrology of the headwaters of most of Asia’s major rivers, which head in the high elevations mountains of the Tibetan Plateau. Most previous studies of EDW over the Tibetan Plateau have been based on low elevation observations. Above 5000 m elevation, where observations are essentially nonexistent, model-based evidence indicates no EDW. An international team of researchers led by Yanhong Gao at the Key Laboratory of Land-surface Process and Climate Change in Cold and Arid Regions, Chinese Academy of Sciences in Lanzhou conducted the study, which concludes that EDW above 5000 m over the Tibetan Plateau is not occurring, nor is it likely to occur by the end of the century.
Article
Full-text available
The enhancement of warming rates with elevation, so-called elevation-dependent warming (EDW), is one of the regional, still not completely understood, expressions of global warming. Sentinels of climate and environmental changes, mountains have experienced more rapid and intense warming trends in the recent decades, leading to serious impacts on mountain ecosystems and downstream. In this paper we use a state-of-the-art Global Climate Model (EC-Earth) to investigate the impact of model spatial resolution on the representation of this phenomenon and to highlight possible differences in EDW and its causes in different mountain regions of the Northern Hemisphere. To this end we use EC-Earth climate simulations at five different spatial resolutions, from \(\sim\) 125 to \(\sim\) 16 km, to explore the existence and the driving mechanisms of EDW in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, the Greater Alpine Region and the Tibetan Plateau–Himalayas. Our results show that the more frequent EDW drivers in all regions and seasons are the changes in albedo and in downward thermal radiation and this is reflected in both daytime and nighttime warming. In the Tibetan Plateau-Himalayas and in the Greater Alpine Region, an additional driver is the change in specific humidity. We also find that, while generally the model shows no clear resolution dependence in its ability to simulate the existence of EDW in the different regions, specific EDW characteristics such as its intensity and the relative role of different driving mechanisms may be different in simulations performed at different spatial resolutions. Moreover, we find that the role of internal climate variability can be significant in modulating the EDW signal, as suggested by the spread found in the multi-member ensemble of the EC-Earth experiments which we use.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The study chronicles a series of landmark events of Polonnaruwa Arnaganwila, dry zone of Sri Lanka carbonaceous meteorites that impacted on 29 th December 2012. The main objective of this study was to compile the citied articles for creating a plausible corresponding model to possess the sedimentation of Micro Fossils (Fosil diatoms) found in carbonaceous meteorites. As such, the sampling data of Polonnaruwa stones were investigated using diverse tools and methods. i.e., ICP-OES, GC-MS, SEM, EDAX, CHN, FTIR, Raman Spectroscopy, XRD. The Optical Spectroscopy was adapted as a second major objective to interpret the physical, chemical, mineral properties of stone including oxygen isotope, crystalline and biological composition. Geologic age of the stones was determined by N/C atomic ratio depletion (N/C ARD) technique. Results showed that the Polonnaruwa stone comprised of high porous minerals including Si-K-rich, Al-depleted, amorphous melt enclosing trace (commonly <1μm) anorthoclase, albite, anorthite and quartz. Additionally, it was recognized that bound H 2 O < 0.03wt% originated from hypervelocity impact. SEM analysis revealed that several fossil microorganisms similar to acritarchs, hystricho spheres and diatoms were represented. Geologic age of the stones was recognized as at least ~300 Ma by N/CARD. Triple oxygen isotope analysis provided the value s of Δ17O =-0.335 with δ17O = 8.978 ± 0.050 and δ18O = 17.816 ± 0.100 which indicated constituents of non-terrestrial sources. To conclude, our model was significantly supportive for providing a gradual series of meta-metamorphic to sedimentation that has processed the numerous of condition for stability of microfossil in carbonaceous meteorites.
Presentation
#Eco Astronomy is the scientific study of extreme environmental conditions, effecting to the Harbor Life . The life origin, evolution existence of life in the universe related to harbor life concepts, means safe place providing refuge ,comfort and sustainable harbor environment to any object. Eco Astronomical research has implemented focusing -“Comparative systematic analysis of extreme environmental conditions of planet earth, which based on Paleontological & Petrological factors. Therefore this disciplines representing as a kin subject to interpreting comparative model for any Harbor Life.