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High seed quality is essential for optimum stand establishment in Coffee. As a result, it is necessary to have seed physical, germination percent, physiological and health tests that permit rapid, objective and accurate evaluation of seed quality. This study evaluated the effect of storage time on physical, physiological, germination percent and health quality of seed lots of five coffee varieties obtained from research and commercial company. This test is conducted under ideal laboratory conditions and in the nursery site. After sample collected pure, pea-beery, cracked and shriveled seeds were measured before determining standard germination and vigor. The highest pea berry was recorded at JARC on the variety 75227(18.63), and the lowest was at LCP on the variety 74165 (8.81). In parchment coffee seed, the percentage of physical defects during seed processing affects germination and seedling viability. The standard germination test in the moisten-soft paper continues to be the most common measure of seed quality in coffee. In addition, this test requires more than two weeks before a determination of seed germination was possible. Ideally, seed quality tests efficiently differentiate between poor and good seed lots in a short period. There was high germination percent in the first planting time were recorded after one month storage than other two consecutive storage time. Normal germinated seedling reduced with in increases seed storage time and the incidence of seed/ soil -born pathogenic fungi. The germination test of seeds from laboratory under petri-dish with moist soft paper and at the nursery site also had low vigour and did not produce suitable seedlings for planting evaluated after three month storage. If after one month storage time of coffee seeds germinated more than older seeds (as our study indicates), then seedlings derived from younger may have a competitive advantage over seedlings derived from older one. In the present study, pre-emergence seedling mortality (Rotten) was greater in third month storage than in first month old seeds. This mortality partially accounted for the lower germination percentage in three month old seeds because only seeds that emerged above the soil surface were considered to have germinated is an indication of reduced vigor. In my study, in coffee seeds, seedlings from relatively low stored seeds were generally better able to withstand environmental stress than those from old seeds. Coffee seed sample from two sources stored safely to optimize coffee seedling production at the appropriate time and season with ideal climatic conditions for planting in the field.
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Malaysian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
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ISSN: 2313-0008 (Print); 2313-0016 (Online)
Malaysian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Volume 1, No 2 (2014)
Copyright © CC-BY-NC 2014, Asian Business Consortium | MJMBR Page 86
Investigation of coffee seed physical purity, seed
health and effect of storage time on viability
Melkam Anteneh1, Abebe Atilaw2, Taye kufa1
1Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Jimma Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia
2Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Ethiopia
ABSTRACT
High seed quality is essential for optimum stand establishment in Coffee. As a
result, it is necessary to have seed physical, germination percent, physiological
and health tests that permit rapid, objective and accurate evaluation of seed
quality. This study evaluated the effect of storage time on physical,
physiological, germination percent and health quality of seed lots of five coffee
varieties obtained from research and commercial company. This test is
conducted under ideal laboratory conditions and in the nursery site. After
sample collected pure, pea-beery, cracked and shriveled seeds were measured
before determining standard germination and vigor. The highest pea berry was
recorded at JARC on the variety 75227(18.63), and the lowest was at LCP on the
variety 74165 (8.81). In parchment coffee seed, the percentage of physical defects
during seed processing affects germination and seedling viability. The standard
germination test in the moisten-soft paper continues to be the most common
measure of seed quality in coffee. In addition, this test requires more than two
weeks before a determination of seed germination was possible. Ideally, seed
quality tests efficiently differentiate between poor and good seed lots in a short
period. There was high germination percent in the first planting time were
recorded after one month storage than other two consecutive storage time.
Normal germinated seedling reduced with in increases seed storage time and the
incidence of seed/ soil -born pathogenic fungi. The germination test of seeds
from laboratory under petri-dish with moist soft paper and at the nursery site
also had low vigour and did not produce suitable seedlings for planting
evaluated after three month storage. If after one month storage time of coffee
seeds germinated more than older seeds (as our study indicates), then seedlings
derived from younger may have a competitive advantage over seedlings derived
from older one. In the present study, pre-emergence seedling mortality (Rotten)
was greater in third month storage than in first month old seeds. This mortality
partially accounted for the lower germination percentage in three month old
seeds because only seeds that emerged above the soil surface were considered to
have germinated is an indication of reduced vigor. In my study, in coffee seeds,
seedlings from relatively low stored seeds were generally better able to
withstand environmental stress than those from old seeds. Coffee seed sample
from two sources stored safely to optimize coffee seedling production at the
appropriate time and season with ideal climatic conditions for planting in the
field.
Key words: Coffee seed, germination percent, physical quality, physiological quality, storage
time and seed health
Malaysian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Volume 1, No 2 (2014)
Copyright © CC-BY-NC 2014, Asian Business Consortium | MJMBR Page 87
INTRODUCTION
Coffee (Coffea Arabia L.) is a significant agricultural product of economic and social importance
for Ethiopia and is important in world agribusiness. Coffee trees are propagated using
seedlings derived from seeds. However slow and uneven germination and poor storage
potential slows coffee seedling development at the time and season when ideal climatic
conditions exist for planting in the field in the principal coffee producing regions. Therefore, it
is highly desirable that coffee seeds be stored safely to optimize coffee seedling production.
Coffee beans are the seeds from the fruit of the coffee tree. Typically, each fruit contains two
seeds which face each other on their flat sides. However, a small percentage of the fruits
actually contain a single, rounded seed, referred to as a pea berry (J.Martinez and Campany).
The intermediate storage category has been proposed for coffee seeds based on the fact that
coffee seeds survived storage for about ten months at 15°C and at 10 or 11% fresh weight basis
(f.w.b.) moisture content and decreased germination was obtained with progressive reductions
in seed moisture content and storage temperature (Ellis et al., 1990; 1991). Coffee is an export
commodity for Ethiopia, contributing 41% of the country‟s total foreign exchange earnings
(IMF, 2006) and about 10% of the gross domestic product. Over 25% of the populations of
Ethiopia, representing 15 million people are dependent on coffee for their livelihoods (LMC,
2000). This includes 8 million people directly involved in coffee cultivation and 7 million
processing, trading, transport and financial sectors (Charveria, 2001; Oxfam, 2002). There is
high demand for coffee both in the local and foreign market, although coffee production in
Ethiopia is constrained by a number of factors, such as lack of quality seed supply, which is
mainly dominated by the informal seed sector.
Although the effect of coffee seed storage method has been studied under different
conditions, variations exist among seed sources (variety, ecology etc.) in seed quality. In
Ethiopia, with the outbreak of CBD in 1960s, a number of disease resistant and high
yielding selections have been developed by JARC (Jimma Agricultural Research Center).
The demand for improved coffee seeds has been very high and, thus, the supply could not
satisfy the increasing demand. Besides, problems associated with physical quality and
germination of improved coffee seeds are repeatedly reported by the users. The purpose of
this study was to assess the effect of seed storage on seed vigor in coffee arabica L. seeds
using seeds dry-stored under room temperature and humidity. Tested potential was
influence on storage on each of the following parameters: seedling viability and vigor,
percent germination, percent pre-emergence seedling mortality (rotten), and seedling dry
weight. In addition there was assessed coffee seed heath and physical quality. In other
words, this study was conducted to compare the physical attributes of coffee seeds and
parameters against percentage germination within three different storage months.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The trial was conducted at Jimma Agricultural Research Center (JARC), located at latitude
of 70 40 North and longitude of 360 47East with an elevation of 1753masl. The area
12/27/2014
Source of Support: Nil, Conflict of Interest: None Declared
How to Cite: Anteneh M, Atilaw A and Taye k. 2014. Investigation of coffee seed physical purity, seed health and
effect of storage time on viability Malaysian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 1, 86-96.
Malaysian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Volume 1, No 2 (2014)
Copyright © CC-BY-NC 2014, Asian Business Consortium | MJMBR Page 88
receives an annual rain fall of 1594.5mm. For thirty years average minimum and
maximum temperature was 13.3 and 26.5 0C, respectively. Seed moisture content was
determined before storage on seeds without parchments (i.e after removal of the endocarp,
the remnant of the fruit). Seeds were stored with their parchment in waterproof packages
at 10°C for three months to test the potential of the seeds to produce coffee seedlings in a
favorable climatic season.
Determination of physical quality:- Analytical physical purity indicates the proportion of
pure seed of the species concerned in a seed lot. The laboratory analysis also identifies and
quantifies impurities (pea berry, cracked, shriveled and others) that may occur in a seed
lot. A sample of 1kg seed was drawn from the research center (JARC) and commercial
seed producing companies (Limu Coffee Plantation) intended for planting purpose to
make laboratory seed quality analysis. Quantities of submitted sample were 0.5kg and
working sample was 0.25kg. Seed samples of 0.25kg from different sources were obtained
for laboratory tests including purity, germination percent, physiological and health
quality, then each was replicated by divided into 0.125kg. Each sample was sorted to four
components that include (i) pure seed, (ii) pea berry (iii) cracked and IV) others (soil,
sheathes...). The components were weighed on precision balance to the nearest two
decimal places and the percentage of each component was determined (ISTA, 1996).
Germination: four subsamples of 40 seeds each (with manual removal of parchment) per
plot were used for this test. The seeds of each subsample were then evenly arranged sheets
of soft paper towels, moistened with water, in a proportion equivalent to 2.5 times the
mass of dry substrate and subsequently placed into a 9cm petri-dish on seed germinator.
The counting was performed 15days after test installation, according to Rules for Seed
Analysis (Brasil, 2009), considering germinated, healthy and dead seed.
Determination of Standard germination (StG) test:- was done for all seed samples
obtained from different sources (treatments). Thirteen seeds of the pure seeds component
were divided into three replicates of ten seeds which were then sown on a recommended
media (forest soil) collected from the research center, was air dried, manually crushed and
passed through 2mm sieve to remove clods, plant roots and other foreign materials (Yakob
et al., 1998). The sieved soil was filled to black polythene bag of 10cm wide and 20cm
length. One seed was sown per polythene bag. Every routine nursery activity was applied
uniformly to all experimental units as per the recommendation. In order to determine the
germination percentage seedlings were grouped into (i) normal seedlings (ii) abnormal
seedlings (iii) un-germinated and (iv) Rotten and/ or dead seeds (germination did not
occur; were not either hard or dormant; were generally flabby and/or infected with
microorganisms; and have not presented any signal of germination).
Seedling vigor index (SVI) data was taken to determine the variation in vigorosity among
seedlings of different treatments using the formula described by Abdw-Baki and
Anderson (1973) as follows:
SVI = SH X G X TRL X E%
Where, SH is sample seedling height, G is girth of the sample seedling, TRL is tap root
length of the sample and E% is emergence percent of the treatment. The quality of coffee
seedlings produced from the stored seed was assessed in the nursery by the following:
emergence percentage (final stand) and seedling developmental parameters (number of
pairs of true leaves, stem diameter, seedling height, leaf area, root and canopy dry matter).
The total number of emerged seedlings after sowing in each experimental plot of 30 coffee
Malaysian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Volume 1, No 2 (2014)
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seedlings at the “jaguar ear” stage was expressed as a percentage. Means of six seedling
height from each sample were calculated and the result expressed in centimeters per
seedling. Length and width of one leaf of each pair of true leaves were measured and the
leaf area of each pair of leaves obtained by multiplying the width × length × 0.667 × 2 (pair
of leaves) proposed by Barros et al. (1973).
Figure 1: Coffee seedling at the nursery site
Root and canopy dry weight determinations for the coffee seedlings were obtained by
removing the coffee seedlings from the bags, washing the root system in running water
and the roots were separated from the canopy by cutting the stem at the Culm; the weights
of the root system and canopy were obtained after drying in a forced air chamber at 60°C
to constant weight and the mean results expressed in gram per coffee seedling.
Seed-borne pathogens were assessed by subjecting all samples to surface-sterilization with
agar plate method. Ten seeds were plated on a 9cm petri-dish, and then incubated at a
temperature of 22oC for twenty three days in potato dextrose agar (PDA). Colonies color
and diameter, Probable species, adage/shape, texture, margin and elevation with six
consecutive days were identified using compound microscopes.
Figure 2: Placement of Coffee seed using agar plated on petri-dish.
Data Analysis: The treatments were laid out in complete randomized design (CRD) for the
laboratory and germination percent. Collected data of physical purity from the laboratory were
subjected to analysis of variance as per the design of the experiments using SAS and the
treatment means were separated using Least Significant Difference (LSD). The treatments
assigned randomly and each treatment was replicated three times for laboratory germination
Malaysian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Volume 1, No 2 (2014)
Copyright © CC-BY-NC 2014, Asian Business Consortium | MJMBR Page 90
and seed health test. Standard germination and physiological quality parameters of collected
data at the nursery were calculated results were expressed in percentage.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Analytical physical purity
The highest percentage of pure seed was recorded at JARC on the variety 74110 than LCP.
The lowest percentage of pure seed component was measured at LCP on the variety 74110.
Other important seed components were Pea berry, cracked and others {soil particle, coffee
ruminates “geleba” recorded all seed collected from research center and commercial coffee
seed production sites. Pea berry measure the higher seed components than cracked and
others. For instance, the highest pea berry was recorded at JARC on the variety
75227(18.63), and the lowest was at LCP on the variety 74110 (9.14). Seed samples from
LCP on the variety 74110 had the heights cracked seed (17.82) the lowest was recorded at
JARC on the variety 744. Other seed contaminates like coffee physical defects, sheathes
and soil particles was recorded at JARC on the variety 75227 i.e. 0.54 than others (Table 1).
In contrasted to other crops coffee seed not have other noxious weed. The coffee seed
preparation process may cause damage and lower the quality of the seeds, since it is
generally carried out with humid seeds in apparatuses, in which the exocarp and
mesocarp were removed from the fruit through friction and attrition. Coffee seed drying
the most case sensitive, silk part of seed removed or cracked by direct sun light.
Fagundes et al. (2009) observed that coffee seeds mechanically damaged by the use of
peeling machine present impaired germination, and that significant lower germination
values are found when they are compared to the germination achieved by the unharmed
seeds. Similarly, a high level of contamination with dirt, stones, and weed seeds would
greatly reduce the value of the seed to farmers (Nicholas et al., 2007). In parchment coffee
seed the percentage of physical defects during processing it affects germination and
seedling viability. So, analytical physical separation of all unnecessary material like
deformed seed shape, large or small and addition of unripe fruits during picking time is
case sensitive before seed preparation or processing time.
Regarding the final product all seed before distribution to farmers and other stakeholders
full fill all the pure seed component and must be uniform in seed size (cleaning by
mechanical or hand), uniform in seed color (take care of during harvesting by picking only
red cherries, adjusting machineries during processing for removing of any type of defects.
Thus, defected type of coffee seed influence the growth and development of seedlings.
Contamination might have been occurred during pre-harvest and post-harvest activities of
seed production, harvesting, threshing, or poor storage conditions.
Generally, the incidence of the pea beery, cracked and others in terms of their presence in some
of the samples is more important than the crude results of analytical purity. Hence, those were
the most important factor that influenced the physical purity of the coffee seed in the
germination and other physiological coffee seed quality. Carvalho and Nakagawa (2000) and
Bewley and Black (1994) define the mechanical damage as the damage caused by physical
agents during the harvest, processing, storage, transport and planting procedures, producing
attrition, cracks, cleavage and breakage in the seeds, with a direct correlation with the
reduction of germination, emergence and vigor, as well as the storage potential of the seeds.
Malaysian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Volume 1, No 2 (2014)
Copyright © CC-BY-NC 2014, Asian Business Consortium | MJMBR Page 91
Table 1: Analytical physical purity test
Figures followed by in the same
latter in the same column are not
significantly different among
each other. J = Seed samples
from JARC, L = seed sample
from Limmu coffee plantation.
Hassan (1995) found that 82.3%
of the wheat seed samples were
contaminated with barley seed
in Jordan. Zewdie (2004) found
significant differences in
physical purity, other crop seed
and weed seed contamination of
wheat seed samples collected
from different sources in
Ethiopia attributed to the different ways that farmers used to produce, select, save and
acquire wheat seeds.
Percent germination
From the first planting time of coffee seed after storage the higher germination was
recorded at JARC on the new improved varieties of coffee seed 7576 (97%), the lowest at
LCP seed supply on the variety 744 (70%). The result indicated that, standard germination
test with moist soft paper the total average mean 89.94% from different coffee varieties at
the first planting time after one month storage was higher than other two consecutive
months. The first month planting of coffee seed after storage time were increases by 3.8%
than the next second planting time (Table 2). The second planting time of coffee seed was
increased by 4.09% as compared to the third planting time after storage. Typically, freshly
harvested green coffee seeds take about months to germinate
(http://www.ehow.com/how_7710576_grow-green-coffee-seeds.html).
Figure 3: Coffee seed germination on
petri-dish
The value of germination percent,
abnormal seedlings, un-germinated
and rotten or dead seeds in a working
sample during germination at the
nursery site was also recorded with in
a time interval (Figure 1). The first
planting time after one month storage
there was high germination percent
than other two consecutive months.
Normal germinated seedling reduced
with in increases seed storage time. As the result indicated sample collected from JARC,
normal germinated seedlings decreases by 18% within increases the storage time by one
month (Appendix Table 1).
Seed
sample
Composition by weight %
Pure seed
Pea beery
Cracked
Others
J744
79.75cd
17.27ab
2.5f
0.47ab
J74158
88.72a
10.57c
0.45g
0.26de
J74110
90.27a
9.14c
0.36g
0.23de
J74165
83.58bc
15.72b
0.26g
0.43abc
J75227
74.23fgh
18.63a
6.6cd
0.54a
74165L
86.79ab
8.81c
4.1e
0.27de
744L
76.43efg
15.43b
7.85b
0.29de
74158L
79.69cd
15.0b
5.02e
0.25de
75227L
77.46def
14.81b
7.36bc
0.35bcd
74110L
71.0h
10.7c
17.82a
0.47ab
Mean
79.41
14.67
5.57
0.35
CV %
2.47
12.2
7.67
16.99
Malaysian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Volume 1, No 2 (2014)
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Therefore, when stored beyond two months, they reveal a decline in percentage
germination give variable and poorly developed seedlings. According to Marcos-Filho
(2005) the seed deterioration is a process induced by a series of physiological, biochemical,
physical, and cytological changes, which initiates starting from the physiological
maturation and occur in a progressive manner leading to reduction of their quality.
Table 2: Coffee seed germination test with in petri-dish (soft - paper)
Location
Variety
Planting date
Date 1
Date 2
Date 3
Jimma
744
84
81.83
78
Jimma
74158
95
89.65
84
Jimma
74110
94.25
93.54
90
Jimma
74165
96
93.75
91
Jimma
75227
82
78.125
73.75
Jimma
7576
97
92
90
Jimma
7514
94
90
84
Gera
7576
89
85
81
Gera
7514
93
89
85
Limmu
744
70
62.5
60
Limmu
74158
90
82.76
76
Limmu
74110
85
80
74
Limmu
74165
95
94.74
92
Limmu
75227
95
93.1
90
Average
89.94
86.14
82.05
Date one, day two and day three = days of coffee seed stored after one month, two month
and three month.
The sample collected from LCP normal germinated seedlings reduced by a month about
22% (Appendix Table 2). Coffee seed viability and vigor reduced within the increases of
the storage time. Normal germinated seedlings more in the first month than the last two
but the reverse was true in rotten seeds and also normal germinated seedling was larger
the first months of planting time as compared to in seed samples from LCP seed sources
(Appendix Table 1 & 2). Even though coffee seeds are capable of germinating as soon as
harvested due to absence of dormancy, they lose their viability quickly (Coste, 1992).
Ab-normal germinated seedlings increases after two months and three month storage period.
There were four varieties from JARC and all variety of Limmu coffee plantation had un-
germinated seedlings with in the first month of planting time. The last two months which
indicated that, there was no un-germinated seed but there was higher number of rotten seed
recorded. Ub-normality there was recorded with in the second and third storage time but there
was little difference between the two seed samples. The higher rotten seed was recorded in the
last two storage time in all seed samples.
Furthermore, seed samples from JARC the third storage time greater than by 10% rotten seed
than second storage time; LCP the third storage time was higher than the second by 23%
(Appendix Table 1 and 2). Coffee seed planted recommended planting season in JARC
(November - December) slow, non uniform germination, difficult to obtain easily normal
germinated seedlings at a time. From sowing to time of transplanting Arabica coffee requires 6
to 8 months at nursery in warm regions and even 12 months in higher altitudes (Cambrony,
1992).
Malaysian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Volume 1, No 2 (2014)
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The average normal germinated seedlings were greater than 90% in all coffee seed
varieties in the first months of storage time than others storage time. The first storage time,
from JARC seed samples there was no ub-normal, un-germinated and rotten seeds, the
reverse were true seed sample from LCP (Figure 4).
Figure 4: The effect of different storage time on
coffee seed germination
Seed vigor test
Leaf number and root dry weight were not
significantly different between varieties. Vigor of
coffee seed was height on the variety 74158 and
three varieties of coffee seeds was lower (744,
75227 and 74165); other three varieties medium
values was recorded. Coffee seed vigor was
significantly different between storage times.
The heights vigor was recorded at the first planting time than others.
Coffee seed viability it depends on seed size, physical quality, seed health, storage time
and materials. Shoot length was not significantly different between planting time. The
heights shoot length, leaf number and area of leaf width was recorded on the last planting
month (Table 3). Growth rate differences in the seedling stage may have a profound effect
on survival and fecundity due to asymmetric competition between plants of different sizes
(Leverich and Levin 1979; Silvertown and Lovett Doust 1993).
Seed Health Testing
Processed coffee seeds from two seed sample were assessed for the presence of
Penicillium, Aspergillus and Fusarium species after surface sterilization with agar. Coffee
bean fungal colony character was recorded on the two coffee seed sample (LCP and
JARK). The most probable species was identified with colony diameter by time interval.
Colony diameter increases with the increases the number of days, for instance, on the
varieties 74158 from LCP Aspergilus niger was observed after 7days diameter was also
3.5-7.6cm (Appendix Table 3). Most of fungal colony was circular and irregular in
shape/edge. Elevation was also as indicated on the appendix table was flat on most of the
probable species others were raised. Margin of the collected coffee seed sample was also
recorded entire, undulated, fliform and curled.
Figure 5: Coffee seed born-diseases.
Almost all the observed probable species (some indicated on figure 5) have rough texture
others was smooth and powdery. The most frequent probable fungal colony was Fusarium
Malaysian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Volume 1, No 2 (2014)
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spps, Aspergilus (Niger and Flavos) spps and Pencillium spps from the two seed sample.
Colony colors on most of the probable spps were from the upper parts of the petri-dishe
was white, light grey, blue black, dark grey and grey further more colors of colony on the
reverse was white, gery, creamy, dark-grey, white creamy, dark and light creamy and
deep dark (Appendix table 3). Unlike most Aspergillus and Penicillium, Fusarium species
grows in crops before harvest only at high levels. Mycotoxins were therefore usually and
only produced before or immediately after harvest
(www.fao.org/docrep/x5036e/x5036e07.htm).
Table 3: The effect of different storage time and variety on coffee seedling vigour
Figures followed by the same letter in the some column were not significantly different
from each other.
CONCLUSIONS
The crop and dirt admixture was not easily picked out by hand; no machine can select and
clean. The dominance of those varieties of coffee was both interesting and worrying. Those
seed samples were very good variety with many desirable attributes and widely accepted.
The results showed that the physical quality of seed from JARC was equal or comparable to
the seed from the LCP. The purity analysis test showed that almost all of the five varieties of
collected seed samples including pea berry and cracked, were greater and which was not
meet minimum national certified seed standard. So, should try to avoid all the detrimental
factors such as harvesting immature seeds, faulty processing and storage techniques, can be
detected even by mechanical and visual examination, the various tests done according to the
international seed testing rules. Coffee seed viability and vigor reduced within the increases
of the storage time. In the present study, pre-emergence seedling mortality (Rotten) was
greater in third month storage than in first month old seeds.
High seed quality was essential for optimum stand establishment in Coffee. As a result, it was
necessary to have seed physical quality and germination percent tests that permit rapid,
objective and accurate evaluation of seed quality. The standard germination test continues to
be the most common measure of seed quality in coffee. In addition, ideal laboratory test
requires more than two weeks before a determination of seed germination was possible.
Ideally, seed quality tests in the laboratory efficiently differentiate between poor and good seed
lots in a short period. Seed quality refers to genetic purity, germination percentage, vigour,
mechanical integrity, disease and pest infection, size and appearance of seeds.
A major strength in having large and small-scale seed enterprises at all level was the
effective link that could form integration between variety selection, seed multiplication,
distribution and use, with all stages involving the participation of all workers themselves.
Main recommendation was correct site selection, good crop establishment and
Seed sample
Lno
SL
RL
RN
SThic
LFW
LDW
SFW
SDW
RFW
RDW
ALL
ALW
Lar1
SVI(0000.0)
74158
9.88a
20.19a
20.73a
35.72b
3.75a
8.52abc
2.33ab
2.68ab
0.91a
1.64b
0.56a
9.08b
4.38ab
26.73bc
13.32a
74165
9.88a
19.39ab
18.14ab
38.61b
3.70a
7.74c
2.29ab
2.62ab
0.82ab
1.61b
0.57a
8.94bc
4.29ab
25.69bc
10.25b
7514
9.63a
20.77a
18.94ab
40.61ab
3.55a
9.94a
2.66a
3.01a
0.81ab
1.96ab
0.55a
10.06a
4.67a
31.54a
11.58ab
744
9.44a
20.18a
18.41ab
36.25a
3.53ab
9.14abc
2.43ab
2.77ab
0.84ab
1.75ab
0.55a
8.89bc
4.63a
27.83abc
10.01b
74110
9.17a
18.82ab
20.96a
37.08b
3.63a
8.03bc
2.38ab
2.70ab
0.85ab
1.79ab
0.60a
8.86bc
4.22ab
25.25bc
11.82ab
7576
8.94a
19.5ab
20.52a
36.25b
3.59a
9.15ab
2.50ab
2.98a
0.90ab
2.31a
0.57a
9.35ab
4.57a
28.65ab
12.04ab
75227
7.77a
17.59b
16.81b
39.15b
3.2b
7.52c
2.19b
2.32b
0.72b
1.54b
0.53a
8.00c
3.94b
24.12c
9.46b
LSD (0.05)
1.06
2.45
2.96
6.81
0.34
1.69
0.45
0.54
0.16
0.61
0.10
0.95
0.49
4.15
2.58
03/08/05
7.34c
19.27a
20.11a
44.34a
5.38a
4.82c
1.25c
1.46c
0.39c
1.21b
0.31c
9.72a
4.39a
28.72a
18.59a
15/09/05
9.31b
20.05a
19.94a
39.76b
2.93b
11.23a
3.32a
4.14a
1.28a
2.68a
0.87a
8.91b
4.39a
26.98ab
9.73b
02/10/05
11.09a
19.15a
17.61b
33.86c
2.39c
9.83b
2.62b
2.59b
0.84b
1.5b
0.49b
8.45b
4.38a
25.64b
5.31c
LSD (0.05)
0.69
1.60
1.93
4.45
0.22
1.1
0.29
0.35
0.11
0.39
0.07
0.62
0.32
2.71
1.69
CV (%)
17.39
19.02
23.29
26.19
14.64
29.66
28.47
29.92
30.62
51.31
29.62
16.06
16.95
23.16
34.85
Malaysian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Volume 1, No 2 (2014)
Copyright © CC-BY-NC 2014, Asian Business Consortium | MJMBR Page 95
management, together with careful harvest and storage of the seeds were essential to
ensure seed quality. Attempts have to be made by concerned institutions to popularize
and disseminate other improved coffee varieties.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors acknowledge Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Jimma Agricultural
Research Center for financial support of this work. I would like to thank technology
multiplication co-ordination and plant protection experts for the technical support during
data collection.
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Appendix Table 1: Effect of germination percent on coffee after three consecutive months
storage time (JARC, seed source)
Variety
Normal
Ub-normal
Un-germinated
Rotten
After
one
month
After
two
month
After
three
month
After
one
month
After
two
month
After
three
month
After
one
month
After
two
month
After
three
month
After
one
month
After
two
month
After
three
month
74158
96
73
63
0
13
10
0
0
0
3
3
30
75227
100
73
43
6
7
13
16
0
0
0
16
17
74165
90
86
76
0
0
6
10
0
0
0
30
20
744
98
70
63
0
0
13
23
0
0
0
13
32
74110
95
83
53
0
17
3
7
0
0
0
20
33
96
77
60
0
7
9
11
0
0
~3
16
26
Appendix Table 2: Effect of germination percent on coffee after three consecutive months
storage time (Limu coffee plantation, seed source)
Variety
Normal
Ub-normal
Un-germinated
Rotten
After
one
month
After
two
month
After
three
month
After
one
month
After
two
month
After
three
month
After
one
month
After
two
month
After
three
month
After
one
month
After
two
month
After
three
month
74158
86
10
10
3
0
20
3
0
0
0
3
30
75227
93
96
43
0
0
2
13
0
0
43
16
65
74165
96
63
60
0
6
0
3
0
0
0
30
35
744
96
63
63
0
23
10
3
0
0
0
13
32
74110
90
76
63
0
3
3
10
0
0
0
20
33
92
60
48
~3
6
7
6
0
0
8
16
39
Appendix Table 3: Coffee bean Fungal Colony Character Recording sheet: Date of Culture
on 9cm PDA 26/02/2006
Probable spps
Variety with
location
Colony Colour
Colony diameter(cm) with in
day
Edge /
shape
Elevation
Margin
Texture
7
10
13
16
21
23
Fusarium spps
744 Limmu
Up =white
1.8
2.1
3.7
4.3
5
5.4
Circular
Flat
Entire
Smooth
Aspergillus spps
Black
Re=Creamy
Powdery
Pencillium spps
75227 Limmu
Up=Light gray
1.5
2.5
3.4
3.9
4.4
5.9
Irregular
Flat
Undulated
Rough
Re=Dark & light creamy
deep dark
Aspergillus niger
74158 Limmu
Up=Blue black
3.5
5.1
5.2
5.9
6.5
7.6
Filamentous
Flat
Fliform
Powdery
Re=White creamy
Fussarium spps
74110 Limmu
Up= white
3.9
5.1
6
6.4
6.4
6.8
Irregular
Raised
Undulated
Rough
Re=Creamy
Fusarium Spps
74165 limmu
Up=White
2.1
3
3.6
4.8
4.9
5.3
Irregular
Flat
Undulated
Smooth
Aspergillus Spps
Re=Creamy
Fusarium Spps
74158 Jimma
Both=Creamy
1.5
1.9
2.5
4.3
4.8
6.1
Circular
Flat
Entire
Smooth
Pencillium Spps
74165 Jimma
Up= Blue black
2.8
3
3.7
3.9
5.8
5.8
Circular
Raised
Entire
Rough
Fusarium Spps
Re=White creamy
Aspergillus flavou
Creamy
Pencillium Spps
744 Jimma
Up=Dark grey RE=Creamy
2
2.6
3.1
3.8
5.3
5.8
Circular
Flat
Curled
Rough
Pencilium spps
75227 jimma
Both=Grey
1.5
2
3
3.3
3.4
5
Irregular
Flat
Entire
Rough
Pencillium spps
74110 jimma
Both=Grey
1.67
2.5
3.2
4
4.2
6.5
Circular
Flat
Fliform
Rough
Fusarium spps
7576 jimma
Up=White Re= creamy
3.5
4.5
5
5.5
5
5.7
Irregular
Raised
Undulated
Rough
Fusarium &
pencillium spps
7514 Gera
Both=Grey + White
2
4
5.5
6.2
7
7.3
Circular
Raised
Entire
Rough
Pencillium spps
7576 Gera
Both=Gery + creamy
1.6
1.8
2
2.3
3.2
3.2
irregular
Flat
undulated
Rough
Malaysian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Volume 1, No 2 (2014)
Copyright © CC-BY-NC 2014, Asian Business Consortium | MJMBR Page 97
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Article
Full-text available
Coffee pea berry is a unique feature of coffee seed as the result of the berry producing a single bean instead of the normal two during fertilization at the field. This might happen due to three major factors i.e. failure in one of the two ovules in the ovary to be fertilized and set seed, failure in the further development of the endosperm and incompatibility of the two parents during pollination. Different coffee seed sources, types and stages were evaluated and compared with pea berries for germination and seedling growth and field performance of seedlings produced from pea berries. For most Ethiopian known coffee varieties, the potential occurrence of pea berry was also recorded for two consecutive seasons at the Jimma National Coffee Research Center with the objectives to evaluate coffee pea berry as a potential seed source and see variability among Arabica coffee varieties in terms of producing pea berries. The relevant data were statistically analyzed and treatments means were compared using SAS software. The results depicted that there was no significant variations between pea berries and normal bean with regard to germination, emergence and subsequent growth of the seedlings and yield potential yield performance under field conditions. Significant variations were observed among pre-sowing seed treatments for the parameters considered at early stage. Likewise, the coffee varieties were found to significantly differ in producing pea berry proportion with a mean value of 7% for pure lines and 16% for hybrid variety. In general, the hybrid coffee variety showed two fold higher than the pure line coffee varieties. Pea berry may not be predominantly a heritable character, because seeds produced from coffee trees raised from pea berries will not develop all in to pea berries.
Article
Complete survivorship and fecundity schedules were constructed from observations of a natural population of the winter annual Phlox drummondii. The data were collected through the complete generation of a cohort of individuals, including the dormant seed phase of the life cycle. Survivorship is shown to approach type II during the period of seed dormancy and to approach type I for the population after germination. Reproduction was found to be unevenly distributed among individuals, the majority of offspring being produced by a small fraction of the cohort. Estimates of the net reproductive rate R0 and the intrinsic rate of increase r are compared with those of other organisms. The rates are lower than those expected of colonizing or r-selected species. It is suggested that certain annual plants like P. drummondii may have acquired a shortened generation length, but lack the further demographic specialization of many annuals as fugitives or weeds.
Article
Seeds of four cultivars of arabica coffee (Coffea arabica L.) received from three continents survived desiccation to between 7-2% and 11-3% moisture content (wet basis), i.e. to seed water potentials of –90 MPa to –150 MPa, but further desiccation reduced germination (criterion, normal seedling development) in all seed lots. Only a few individuals from four of the lots germinated after being dried to 4–5% moisture content. Differences in desiccation sensitivity were apparent among lots within each cultivar. Desiccation sensitivity in these lots was similar to that observed in seeds of orthodox species which have begun to germinate. Seeds extracted from fruits of intermediate maturity (yellow) were able to tolerate greater desiccation than those from either ripe (red) or immature (green) fruits. Imbibed storage increased desiccation sensitivity. The results are compatible with the view that arabica coffee seeds are unable to tolerate extreme desiccation because germination has been initiated before harvest.
Article
Seeds of four cultivars of arabica coffee (Coffea arabica L.) were tested for germination following hermetic storage for up to 12 months at several different combinations of temperatures between −20 °C and 15 °C and moisture contents between 5% and 10% (wet basis). Most of the seeds from one cultivar withstood desiccation to between 5% and 6% moisture content, a seed water potential of approximately −250 MPa, but those of the remaining three cultivars were much more sensitive to desiccation damage. Moreover, in all four cultivars, seed longevity at cool and sub-zero temperatures, and at low moisture contents did not conform with orthodox seed storage behaviour: viability was lost more rapidly under these conditions than at either warmer temperatures or higher moisture contents. The results confirm that coffee seeds fail to satisfy the definitions of either typical orthodox or recalcitrant seed storage behaviour. These results, therefore, point to the possibility of a third category of storage behaviour intermediate between those of orthodox and recalcitrant seeds. One of the main features of this category is that dry seeds are injured by low temperatures.
Article
BRADEN et al.1 have shown that the zona pellucida of mammalian eggs changes after fertilization so that penetration of further spermatozoa is greatly reduced. Austin and Braden2 inferred that this zona reaction was due to the action of the cortical granule material which is released from the egg into the perivitelline space shortly after sperm entry into the egg cytoplasm. We wish to present experimental evidence to support this inference.
Regras para análise de sementes. Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento. Secretaria de Defesa Agropecuária
  • Brasil
  • Ministério Da Agricultura
  • Pecuária E Abastecimento
Brasil. Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento. Regras para análise de sementes. Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento. Secretaria de Defesa Agropecuária. Brasília: MAPA/ACS, 2009. 395p.http://www.bs.cca.ufsc.br/publicacoes/regras%20analise%20sementes.pdf
  • H R Cambrony
Cambrony,H.R. (1992). TheTropicalAgriculturist.Coffeegrowing.Published by CTA Macmillan, Malaysia. Pp.1-2.
Sementes: ciência, tecnologia e produção. 3.ed. Campinas: Fundação Cargill
  • N M Carvalho
  • J Nakagawa
Carvalho, N.M.; Nakagawa, J.2000 Sementes: ciência, tecnologia e produção. 3.ed. Campinas: Fundação Cargill, 424p.