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Stress, anxiety, and depression levels in the initial stage of the COVID-19 outbreak in a population sample in the northern Spain

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Abstract

The SARS-CoV-2 virus reached Spain in March 2020, and a nationwide state of alert was declared on March 14th, leading to the confinement of the entire population. The current study was conducted in the Basque Autonomous Community in northern Spain. The authors analyzed stress, anxiety, and depression with the arrival of the virus and the levels of symptoms according to age, comorbidity, and confinement. Levels of anxiety, stress, and depression were measured in a sample of 976 adults, using the DASS scale (Depression Anxiety, and Stress Scale). Although levels of symptoms were generally low at the start of the alert, younger individuals with chronic diseases reported more symptoms than the rest of the population. The study also detected higher levels of symptoms after the stay-at-home order was issued. Such symptoms are predicted to increase as the confinement continues. The authors propose psychological interventions for prevention and treatment in order to mitigate the pandemic’s psychological impacts.

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... O novo coronavírus SARS-CoV-2 espalhou-se rapidamente para todos os continentes, levando a Organização Mundial de Saúde a declarar uma pandemia global em 11 de março de 2020 (CUCINOTTA; VANELLI, 2020). Em resposta ao avanço do vírus, diversos países determinaram a implementação de medidas restritivas tais como fechamento de serviços não essenciais, fechamento de parques e distanciamento e/ou isolamento social para reduzir a circulação do vírus, taxa de contágio e colapso dos sistemas de saúde (OZAMIZ-ETXEBARRIA et al., 2020). ...
... Vários estudos têm mostrado que a pandemia causada pela COVID-19 resultou em aumento dos sintomas de depressão, ansiedade, transtorno do estresse pós-traumático, sofrimento psíquico e má qualidade do sono em indivíduos infectados e não-infectados (CAO et al., 2020;KISELY et al., 2020;LU et al., 2020;OZAMIZ-ETXEBARRIA et al., 2020;WANG et al., 2020). prospectivos quanto ao desenvolvimento de distúrbios psiquiátricos e psicológicos. ...
... local, quando comparados ao estágio inicial de contaminação no país, onde não havia essa obrigatoriedade(OZAMIZ-ETXEBARRIA et al., 2020). ...
... The prevalence of depression was approximately 46.3%, 70.2%, 33.7%, respectively. These results were higher than those found in other countries [2,10,23]. In China, it was shown that 8.3% of participants had anxiety in the study conducted with affected and unaffected people [16]. ...
... The depression prevalence was also lower than our results in this study. It was also found that severe and extremely severe levels of anxiety and depression in the Spain sample were lower than in this study [23]. Another study was conducted in Malaysia to determine depression and anxiety levels during the 3rd wave of the pandemic. ...
... Contrary to previous research conducted in other countries, there was no relationship between age, anxiety, and depression levels [10,23,29]. To slow the spread of COVID-19, the Turkish government imposed stringent restrictions on individuals under 20 and over 65 years of age which could affect this result. ...
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Background: This paper was the first study comparing levels of anxiety and depression and assessing the affecting factors among the general population, frontline healthcare workers, and COVID-19 inpatients in Turkey during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. We collected data from the general population (n = 162), frontline healthcare workers (n = 131), and COVID-19 inpatients (n = 86) using Individual Characteristics Form, Generalised Anxiety Disorder Scale, and Beck Depression Inventory in this cross-sectional study. Results: An increased prevalence of depression and anxiety were found predominantly in frontline healthcare workers (p < 0.001). COVID-19 inpatients and frontline healthcare workers were more likely to demonstrate anxiety (p < 0.001) than the general population. In the regression analysis, while fear of infecting relatives was a significant predictor of anxiety and depression in the general population, gender and experiencing important life events were associated with anxiety. Fear of infecting relatives and lack of personal protective equipment while providing care were predictors of anxiety and depression in healthcare workers (p < 0.001). Furthermore, the fear of being re-hospitalised due to re-infection was a predictor of depression and anxiety levels of the COVID-19 inpatients. Conclusion: Policymakers and mental health providers are advised to continuously monitor psychological outcomes and provide necessary health support during this pandemic.
... (2) El impacto en la sociedad fue rotundo a tal punto que los primeros niveles de afección en la salud mental se empezaron a evidenciar en China, donde el 53,8 % de su población se vio afectada psicológicamente a niveles moderado y severo, el 16,5 % expresó síntomas depresivos, mientras que el 28,8 % y el 8,1 % mostraron señales de ansiedad y estrés, respectivamente. (3) Posterior al confinamiento y con la finalidad de reactivar las interrelaciones sociales, comerciales, entre otras, los gobiernos de todo el mundo autorizaron la suspensión del confinamiento y dieron paso a que las actividades de la sociedad de a poco se vayan insertando a la normalidad, siempre y cuando se respete el distanciamiento social (4) y que las actividades que puedan desarrollarse vía teletrabajo se continúen desarrollando. (1) A pesar que gran parte del motor comercial de bienes y servicios se ha insertado a la normalidad, el sector educativo amparado en los protocolos determinados por el Comité de Operaciones de Emergencia (COE) del Ecuador aún mantiene la virtualidad, dando paso a que la educación a distancia continúe siendo una alternativa para la continuidad en los procesos de formación de estudiantes de educación primaria, secundaria y superior. ...
... (3) Este nuevo sistema de educación conllevó a que los docentes y estudiantes hayan tenido que reajustar sus estilos de vida y buscar los mecanismos necesarios que les permita continuar con los procesos educativos. Sin embargo, esta adaptación ha generado afecciones en el equilibrio socioemocional de los educadores (4,5) , afectando su salud mental y presentando con frecuencia síntomas depresivos, señales de ansiedad y estrés. (6) Dentro del contexto académico, el estrés se clasifica en laboral y académico; dentro del campo académico esta patología es definida como la relación entre la activación fisiológica, cognitiva, emocional y conductual; mientras que entre los estímulos y las actividades desarrolladas, en el campo académico. ...
... Este problema de tipo emocional presente en la mayoría de los docentes a nivel mundial (5,6) , ha conllevado a la presencia de enfermedades psicosomáticas debido a la resistencia y agotamiento de quienes llegan a padecerla (3) y es, que conforme sigue afectando la pandemia a las actividades educativas, los docentes han pasado a presentar con mayor frecuencia estados de estrés y ansiedad. (4,6,7) En un estudio desarrollado sobre factores psicosociales en docentes de educación básica y superior en América Latina, América del Norte y Europa (8) , se encontró una correlación positiva significativa entre el estrés y factores psicosociales como las condiciones del lugar de trabajo, carga de trabajo, contenido y características del deber, rol académico y desarrollo profesional, interacción social y aspectos organizacionales. ...
Article
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Introducción: el uso de las Tecnologías de la Información y las Comunicaciones (TIC) es herramienta indispensable para el continuo proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje a distancia. El tecnoestrés es la resultante de la incapacidad individual que tiene una persona para adaptarse con normalidad al uso de las nuevas tecnologías dentro de sus actividades laborales. Objetivo: identificar los factores de estrés asociados al uso de las TIC en docentes de educación primaria y secundaria en el contexto de la pandemia COVID-19 (noviembre de 2021 a enero de 2022), en Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas, Ecuador, donde se implementó el cierre completo de escuelas como medida sanitaria. Método: estudio de enfoque cuantitativo de alcance correlacional y diseño transeccional, aplicado a 485 profesores de unidades educativas fiscales y particulares a quienes se les aplicó un cuestionario de 20 preguntas que midieron factores, como: escepticismo al uso de las TIC, fatiga laboral, ansiedad e ineficacia. Los resultados del estudio fueron analizados estadísticamente a través de un Análisis Factorial Exploratorio (AFE), Análisis Factorial Confirmatorio (AFC) y Modelado de Ecuaciones Estructurales (MEE); desarrollados en SPPS 20 y AMOS 24. Resultados: a través de los estimados arrojados en el AMOS Output, se obtuvo: escepticismo (β=0,327), fatiga laboral (β=0,238), ansiedad (β=0,394) e ineficacia (β=0,010). Conclusiones: se pudo evidenciar que el escepticismo, la fatiga laboral y la ansiedad son factores influyentes en la presencia de tecnoestrés docente, mientras que la ineficacia no lo es; dichos aspectos servirán como base para la formulación de estrategias y medidas que permitan la integración efectiva y sostenible de las TIC en el ámbito educativo.
... Die Mehrheit aktueller Studien weist auf eine deutliche Zunahme psychischer Probleme und Symptome während des ersten Lockdowns hin (Sønderskov et al., 2020;Wang et al., 2020;Xiong et al., 2020). Symptome von Angst, Stress, emotionaler Erschöpfung und Depressionen haben ebenso zugenommen wie Gereiztheit, Ärger, Frust und Langweile (American Psychiatric Association, 2020; BMG, 2020; Brakemeier et al., 2020;Brooks et al., 2020;Ozamiz-Etxebarria, Dosil-Santamaria, Picaza-Gorrochategui & Idoiaga-Mondragon, 2020;Sønderskov, Dinesen, Santini & Østergaard, 2020;Techniker, 2020;Universität Basel, 2020;Wang et al., 2020;Xiong et al., 2020). ...
... Die Belastungen und Risiken der COVID-19-Pandemie unterscheiden sich nach Altersgruppe. Psychosoziale Entwicklungsprozesse werden bei Jugendlichen, jungen Erwachsenen (im Alter von 18 -29 Jahren) Erwachsenen (Bzdok & Dunbar, 2020;Ravens-Sieberer, 2020) sowie Erwachsenen mittleren Alters (etwa 30-65 Jahre) (BMG, 2020) während des Lockdowns behindert, was in diesen Altersgruppen mit einer Zunahme von Symptomen wie Angst, Stress und Depressionen einhergeht (BMG, 2020;Ozamiz-Etxebarria et al., 2020;Techniker, 2020;Universität Basel, 2020). Während bei jungen Menschen pandemiebedingt die Ablösung von Herkunftsfamilien und gleichzeitig der Beziehungsaufbau zu Gleichaltrigen deutlich erschwert wird (Brakemeier et al., 2020), bilden im mittleren Erwachsenenalter Aufgabenpluralität (z. ...
Article
The novel corona virus posed major challenges for Germany in 2020. To contain and combat the pandemic, contact restrictions, mandatory masks and distance regulations, curfews and entry bans were imposed, and state borders were closed (Bundesministerium für Gesundheit, 2021). The reduction of physical contacts and meeting places led to an increased turn to virtual contacts and an online dating boom (Bitkom, 2020). The aim of the present study is to analyze online dating behavior during the first lockdown in Germany and to compare users* of different online dating platforms (online dating agencies, online dating sites, social dating, adult dating, niche providers) in their experience and behavior. In an online survey N = 1805 (online dating users: n = 971, non-users: n = 834) an increased intensity of use was found. During the lockdown, online dating portals were used not only to find a partner, but also to engage in social interaction. According to the respondents, the lack of physical presence was compensated by text-based messages, phone calls, voice messages or video chats; an increase in the quality and quantity of communication was clearly perceived by some users, and physical meetings (dates) were mainly shifted outdoors. The significance of the results is discussed from a theoretical and practical point of view. Keywords: online dating, covid-19 pandemic, lockdown, stress and strain.
... Decreased adherence to the treatments and delayed follow-up screenings can lead to irreversible negative outcomes [10]. In extraordinary situations like pandemic, it is important to know the psychological status of high-risk individuals, as well as of the general population [11]. Since COVID-19 can affect individuals with chronic diseases in multiple ways, it is reported in the literature that providing adequate care and support is a matter that specifically needs attention [8]. ...
... Beyond medical risks, the pandemic has led to enormous psychological and social effects in the whole population [11]. In this study conducted during the pandemic, the mean anxiety and depression scores of the individuals were found to be borderline or above (depending on the study group) and these rates raise attention. ...
Article
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Introduction/Objective The COVID-19 disease, which has turned into an important public health problem, has negatively affected individuals not only physically but also psychologically. The aim of this study is to examine the anxiety and depression status of cancer patients, comparing to individuals with non-cancer chronic diseases and healthy individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic period. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic period between May 8 and June 25, 2020 with 1107 people in Turkey. The mean age of the participants in the study was 36.41 ± 12.80. The sample comprised three groups: cancer group (n = 262), chronic disease control group (n = 250), and healthy control group (n = 595). The data were collected with the Descriptive Characteristics Form and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results The anxiety and depression scores were found to be higher in patients with cancer comparing to the other two groups. Having cancer was predictive of higher anxiety and depression score explaining13% of the anxiety scores variance and 17% of the depression scores variance. Patients with the non-cancer chronic diseases, and healthy participants had anxiety and depression mean scores in the range of the borderline level. Conclusion These findings suggest that depression and anxiety rates among patients with cancer are specifically higher comparing to patients with other chronic diseases and healthy individuals. The levels of anxiety and depression in the latter two groups should also be paid attention to during the pandemic. This study may have important practical implications in terms of the need for psychological screening. This study was registered at the Protocol Registration and Results System (https://www.clinicaltrials.gov) with the registration number NCT04698044.
... It reported a prevalence of 18.7% of anxiety and 27.2% of stress in the Italian general population during COVID-19 pandemic (Mazza et al., 2020). Another study in Northern Spain found that the anxiety rate was 26.02% and the stress rate was 33.5% in the Spanish population during the same period (Ozamiz-Etxebarria et al., 2020). In United Kingdom, it was found that the prevalence of anxiety was 21.63% during the COVID-19 pandemic (Shevlin et al., 2020). ...
... A systematic review of 43 large studies concluded that anxiety was consistently associated with younger age (Santabárbara et al., 2021b). Two studies in Spain (González-Sanguino et al., 2020) and Northern Spain (Ozamiz-Etxebarria et al., 2020) found that the younger participants were more likely to have both stress and anxiety. An Italian study concluded that age and anxiety, but not stress, had an inverse relationship (Mazza et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Background Implementation of quarantine and lockdown to COVID-19 pandemic has created dramatic negative psychological impact mainly the general population’s health worldwide. We aimed to assess the prevalence and predictors of anxiety and stress severity among the Palestinian population. Methods A cross-sectional web-based survey was conducted. An anonymous online questionnaire and snowball recruiting technique were used to target the general public in Palestine between 6 and 16 April, 2020 during COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns. Multivariate logistic regression models were developed for the outcome variables. Results Of the 2819 individuals who completed the questionnaire, more than two thirds of them (72.6%) were females. Nearly (83.5%), were residing at the West Bank. The mean age of participants was 29.47 ( SD = 10.97) years. The anxiety prevalence was (25.15%) with (20.08%) had mild/moderate severity. The stress prevalence was (38.77%) with (22.21%) had mild/moderate severity. The prevalence of both anxiety and stress was (20.3%). In multivariate analysis, exposure to confirmed case of COVID-19, inadequacy of food supply and jobs that acquire leaving home during lockdown were significantly related to higher anxiety degree. As for stress, low monthly income, cohabitation with a person of a high-risk group and inadequacy of food supply were significantly related to higher stress degree. Conclusion Young adults with low socioeconomic status and inadequate food supply were more likely to have a higher degree of stress and/or anxiety. Providing alternative economical sources for those in need, and spreading more awareness regarding the pandemic, supporting the population’s psychological wellbeing, community connection and the availability of specialist mental health services are crucial to overcome the mental impacts of COVID-19 in Palestine.
... Both resilience and chronic disease were found to be significant predictors for depressive symptoms during the initial outbreak of COVID-19 [26]. Another study found that those living with a chronic disease are more likely to report higher levels of stress, anxiety, and depression than those living without a chronic disease, and that promoting psychological interventions to help individuals cope and recover from stressful situations is necessary [28]. Consistent with past resilience literature, recent studies focusing on the mental health of chronic disease patients recognize the need for interventions that improve psychological resilience within these populations [29]. ...
... A respondent's daily experiences, major life events, and/or access to coping resources may account for different levels of stress when compared to another respondent experiencing the same event. Scores are categorized as "low stress" (0-13), "moderate stress" (14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25)(26), and "high stress" (27)(28)(29)(30)(31)(32)(33)(34)(35)(36)(37)(38)(39)(40). ...
Article
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Background The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the physical and mental health of people worldwide including those living with genetic conditions. Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a hematologic chronic disease that causes multisystem damage and morbidity. Individuals living with SCD have had to continue managing their care for their chronic disease while following public health measures to protect against infection with COVID-19. Promoting resilience has been posited as being psychologically protective for those living with SCD. This study examines changes in resilience over time in a SCD population in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods Ninety-seven adults living with SCD completed two parent studies: (1) The INSIGHTS Study, a cross-sectional natural history study conducted from 2014–2019 and (2) The Living with SCD in COVID-19 Pandemic Study, an online survey conducted in 2020. Changes over time in resilience, perceived stress, emotional distress, and physical and mental health were analyzed in multivariable repeated measures model. Results Results showed that the psychological resilience of our study cohort had significantly decreased (0.19, p=0.01) over time. Resilience during the pandemic was associated with better mental health and physical health and lower perceived stress and emotional distress. In addition, results showed that marital status, education level, and employment were significantly associated with the psychological resilience of study participants. Conclusion Resilience declined during the COVID-19 pandemic but was still associated with better physical and mental health outcomes. Future studies should investigate the relationship between resilience and sociodemographic factors.
... To date, the onset of COVID-19 and associated restrictions have been related to reduced general health and increases in neuropsychiatric symptoms, particularly anxiety and depression (Ensel and Lin, 1991;Ozamiz-Etxebarria et al., 2020;Shanahan et al., 2020;Borbás et al., 2021). First longitudinal assessments indicate that stress-related negative symptoms remained elevated during the first year following its onset (Gubler et al., 2020;de Quervain et al., 2020b;Barendse et al., 2021). ...
... First longitudinal assessments indicate that stress-related negative symptoms remained elevated during the first year following its onset (Gubler et al., 2020;de Quervain et al., 2020b;Barendse et al., 2021). Emotional distress tends to be highest in younger individuals, in individuals with chronic diseases or pre-existing health conditions, females and individuals living alone or in socioeconomic adversity (Adams-Prassl et al., 2020;Kwong et al., 2020;Ozamiz-Etxebarria et al., 2020;de Quervain et al., 2020b). Findings of increases in emotional distress are complemented by reports of the opposite pattern: groups of individuals with improved mental well-being, indicating the need to consider interindividual differences (Kuhn et al., 2020;de Quervain et al., 2020b;Achterberg et al., 2021). ...
Article
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Covid-19 and associated restrictions have been linked to negative mental health outcomes across the globe. Cognitive emotion regulation strategies, neurally supported by prefrontal and limbic regions, constitute means to mitigate negative affects resulting from adverse life experiences. Variations in cognitive emotion regulation strategy use, anxiety and depression were assessed in 43 adults (31♀/12♂, age=35.14±9.20y) during the first months following Covid-19 onset and at the end of 2020 (seven assessments). Direct and indirect effects of emotion regulatory brain structures assessed prior to the pandemic and emotion regulation strategy use during the pandemic were assessed in relation to mental well-being. Varying levels of anxiety and depression were observed. While adaptive emotion regulation strategies were most frequently employed, maladaptive strategies explained the highest variation in anxiety and depression scores. The effectiveness of specific emotion regulation strategies varied. Momentary emotion regulation strategy use mediated the association between cortical thickness in right lateral prefrontal cortex assessed prior to the pandemic and mental health during the pandemic. Early mental health measures impacted later mental well-being. Maladaptive strategies have a negative effect on mental health during prolonged stress as induced by pandemics, providing possible targets for intervention.
... However, these are not the only factors that can influence this situation: comorbidities, degree of dependency, exposure to family abuse, loneliness, low educational level, lack of income or insufficient income can contribute to the deterioration of mental health, causing pathologies that are a challenge for public health. [14][15][16][17][18] The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with depression in older adults, under COVID-19 pandemic conditions. It is hoped to characterise the factors that are associated with depression in this vulnerable population in order to generate scientific evidence that will allow the design of more specific interventions that contribute to the improvement of care and quality of life in older adults. ...
Article
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Background: Mental health problems such as anxiety, depression and their aggravation have been studied extensively in the general population. However, there are few studies on depression in older adults and the few existing results may be contradictory, especially in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this study is to determine the factors associated with depression in older adults in two coastal regions of Peru during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This study uses an analytical cross-sectional design in a population of older adults, who participated in a non-governmental ambulatory social support program in Callao and Ica, two coastal regions of Peru. We administered an on-site structured questionnaire to record sociodemographic data, the Geriatric Depression Scale by Yesavage to measure depression, and the Barthel Index to assess physical function. In order to determine cognitive impairment as an exclusion criterion, the MEC-30 was used. The association between variables was assessed through contingency tables, using the odds ratio (OR) with its corresponding confidence interval (95% CI) and the X2 test. Finally, a binary logistic regression analysis was performed. Results: Out of the 244 older adults surveyed, 39% had depressive symptoms, of which 28.3% (n=69) and 10.7% (n=26) were moderately and severely depressive, respectively. The findings significantly associated with the presence of depressive symptoms were being 76 years old or older [p=0.005, OR: 2.33, 95% CI: 1.29-4.20], not participating in weekly recreational activities [p=0.004, OR: 2.28, 95% CI: 1.31-3.99] and the presence of comorbidities [p=0.026, OR: 1.88, 95% CI: 1.07-3.29]. Conclusion: There are few studies exploring depression in older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic; this research shows the importance of mental health care in this population and, particularly, of those who are 76 or older because they suffer from comorbid conditions and have interrupted recreational activities.
... In other words: there is detailed knowledge about severity levels and correlations but lack of insight into the subjective reality of mental load and emotional burden. Quantitative empirical studies yielded statistically (not necessarily epistemologically) robust data about anxiety, stress and depression in various regions during different COVID-19 phases, e.g. in the initial stage in northern Spain [19], and in different populations and samples such as pregnant women [20], as well as COVID-19 related behavioural changes in physical activities, sleep, tobacco and alcohol use [21] etc. From a broader perspective of medical epistemology, however, taking qualitative data into account is vital and it makes a huge difference whether people are afraid of SARS-CoV-2 or political action -in short, the viral infection itself or the how policies impact on social life and existential stability. COVID-19 is associated with anxiety, students feel worried and have musculoskeletal issues. ...
Article
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Background and objective: During the era of COVID-19 narrative data have given evidence of musculoskeletal discomfort and pain in students and causal connections with modes of distance learning as well as psychosocial stress and despair are likely. This phenomenon appears underrepresented in medical research and efficient support is needed. The present article elucidates complex pathogenic factors and suggests self-regulation techniques for curative and rehabilitative purposes. Methods: On the basis of empirical, psychophysiological and narrative data the present translational systemic meta-synthesis constructs a theoretical framework to elucidate musculoskeletal discomfort and pain in students under COVID-19 distance learning conditions. Results: Remote learning in higher education entails two interconnected risk conditions. Excessive use of non-ergonomic notebook-based participation in classes goes hand in hand with 'poor' posture, neck tension and tight shoulders, muscle stiffness caused by immobility and eye strain headache. In addition to the adverse influence of excessive sedentary academic work on the students' mood and emotional wellbeing, a complex cluster of negative psychosocial conditions affects the musculoskeletal system: COVID-19 related anxieties, mental stress, anger and feelings of helplessness as well as social isolation and loneliness. Taking these pathogenic factors and previous studies on sports-based self-regulation techniques to modulate musculoskeletal pain into account, a curative and rehabilitative model for affected and/or at-risk students is suggested. Discussion: Mono-causal and inflexible study designs of evidence based medicine seem to be unable to adequately represent the complex COVID-19 phenomenon and advanced techniques of dynamic systemic simulation gain momentum. This requires a new awareness of epistemology in medical and public health areas alongside enhanced translational research. From a practical perspective universities should enhance heath promoting and rehabilitative support which is tailored to control prevalent pathogenic conditions in students. This also brings challenges of post-COVID-19 issues and future pandemics into play. Controversial political and medical views as well as conflicting arguments about the suitability of measures and multifarious 'collateral damage' call for ideology-free and science-based collaboration.
... Study findings related to the presence of at least mild psychological discomfort (i.e., depression, anxiety, and/or stress) are similar to those of previous studies, using the same questionnaire, and carried out in other countries at the initial phase of the pandemic [40][41][42][43][44][45][46]. In this study, about 30% of the sample showed levels of psychological discomfort above normal. ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic is a stressful long-lasting event with an increasingly negative impact upon individuals. This study aimed at assessing the magnitude of depression, anxiety, and stress among adults living in Portugal during the first mandatory lockdown of 2020, and the psychosocial and health-related factors associated with these symptoms. A sample of 484 adults (73% women) with an average age of 40 years old (Standard Deviation, SD = 14.03) responded to an online survey. The survey included measures of depression, anxiety, stress, social support, COVID-19 interference in daily life, attitudes towards COVID-19, and health perception. The impact of the lockdown on psychological well-being was large, with up to 36% of the participants showing signs of at least mild psychological discomfort (i.e., depression, anxiety, and stress). Social support, COVID-19 interference on daily life, health perception, and age, explained all the dependent variables. Education level, income, attitudes towards COVID-19, and gender explained some of the dependent variables. These results suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic has a serious impact on the psychological health of Portuguese adults. The role of the procedures to control the pandemic on the mental health of Portuguese adults should not be underestimated.
... During the first days of the COVID-19 outbreak, a moderate to severe psychological impact of depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms was reported in the general population in China [28]. Studies in Spain reported that younger people showed elevated levels of depression, anxiety, and stress [29], as well as an emotional impact reflected in the fear of coronavirus infection, illness, and death [30]. Additionally, high school, undergraduate, and graduate students in Mexico presented a greater presence of anxiety and depression during confinement [31]. ...
Article
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In the face of the psychological crisis of fear caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, it is relevant to know the positive impact of hope and resilience during this context. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between hope and resilience with fear of COVID-19 in young people. The design was non-experimental, cross-sectional, and correlational. The sample consisted of 192 young people living in Metropolitan Lima, Peru. We used the Hope-Despair Questionnaire, the Resilience Scale, and the COVID-19 Fear Questionnaire. The results show that there is a significant correlation between hope, resilience, and fear of COVID-19 in young people. On the other hand, a significant difference was found in resilience according to gender. Likewise, it was found that the variables hope and resilience explain 81% (R2 adjusted) of the fear of COVID-19 (F test = 21.53; p < 0.01). Hope and resilience are protective factors that have a positive impact when facing the fear of COVID-19. Thus, policies, programs, and public health strategies related to positive mental health should be promoted, with emphasis on hope and resilience.
... Certainly, in the last two years many individuals have appeared to be frightened by fear of their own risk of being infected or dying, fear of the possibility that a family member will be infected, fear of separation from or loss of loved ones, feelings of uncertainty, feelings of being isolated and, therefore, helpless (Orrù et al., 2021;Schimmenti et al., 2020a;Wang et al., 2020). Some studies reported high anxiety levels during the COVID-19 pandemic also among young individuals (Moghanibashi-Mansourieh, 2020;Ozamiz-Etxebarria et al., 2020). In fact, although they were generally not considered at risk of developing a severe form of infection, their COVID-19-related fears could depend on a subjective perception of risk and a sense of vulnerability: according to the aforementioned model (Schimmenti et al., 2020b), the interrelation between the bodily, interpersonal, cognitive, and behavioral domains may affect how people experience fear based on their own personal characteristics and experience. ...
... To promote mental health support both during and after the pandemic, it may be helpful to use instruments capable of tracing transdiagnostic symptoms on a large scale. Even though instruments such as the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21; e.g., Ref. Alkhamees et al., 2020;Ozamiz-Etxebarria et al., 2020), the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ; e.g., Ref. Ettman et al., 2020), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS; Özdin & Bayrak Özdin, 2020) have been widely used to assess people's psychological symptoms during the pandemic, they are not pandemic-specific. Other instruments have been created to address this demand, such as the COVID-19 Anxiety Syndrome Scale (C-19ASS;Nikčević & Spada, 2020), the Corona Disease Anxiety Scale (CDAS; Alipour et al., 2020), and the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CAS; Lee et al., 2020), but they only assess anxiety. ...
Article
The Mental Impact and Distress Scale: COVID‐19 (MIDc) was constructed and validated by one of the first pandemic‐impact research teams in February 2020 and aims to assess psychosocial impacts of the COVID‐19 pandemic. The purpose of the present research was to determine the psychometric properties of the MIDc's Brazilian form and outline a sociodemographic profile of the pandemic's psychosocial impact in a Brazilian sample. Altogether, 1004 Brazilians living in different regions of Brazil completed an online survey. The adapted Brazilian version presented significant validity and reliability as assessed by exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, Cronbach alpha and Spearman‐Brown coefficients, and associations with related psychological measures. Even though the Brazilian version differs from a previous (Macau) version, it contains both anticipation (i.e., the mental engagement processes of managing the unknowns) and modulation (i.e., the mental processes of insulation being activated to maintain a sense of normalcy) factors. Findings indicate greater vulnerability to modulation among younger and female participants. Black participants and those with lower family income were more prone to be economically impacted. Participants living in isolation were more vulnerable to anticipation. Thus, the COVID‐19 pandemic was found to differentially affect gender, ethnic, and social groups in Brazil.
... We showed that younger respondents (aged 26-40) experienced more hyperarousal symptoms and anxiety than older patients (aged 56-75). These results replicate recent evidence by Brivio et al. (2021a) and are consistent with previous literature showing that younger age groups tend to have higher levels of PTSS than senior respondents (Ozamiz-Etxebarria et al., 2020;Romito et al., 2020), and experience greater cancerrelated distress compared to older patients (Burgoyne et al., 2015). During the pandemic, this group had to delay major life milestones, such as buying a home, planning a family, or making a career move. ...
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The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic had a negative psychological impact on the population at scale, yet it is possible that vulnerable patient populations may experience a heavier burden with increased feelings of anxiety and distress. Cancer patients have to trade-off between the fear of exposing themselves to the virus and the need to continue life-saving medical procedures. The present study investigated the prevalence of generalized anxiety and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in a population of Italian cancer patients and healthy participants in the months following the COVID-19 outbreak. Using standardized measures of PTSS (impact of event scale revised; IES-R) and generalized anxiety (generalized anxiety scale; GAD-7), we found that patients experienced higher levels of adverse mental health outcomes. Several variables were found to negatively affect PTSS and anxiety in this population, including the younger age of respondents, having children, and the impossibility to attend regular medical check-ups. These findings stress the importance of maintaining a clear and regular communication with patients throughout future waves of the pandemic and ensure continuity of care in this vulnerable population. Furthermore, this study indicates the need to establish psychological interventions aimed at patients with cancer, targeting especially younger generations who are more likely to experience adverse psychological outcomes.
... While we are not aware of any study that examined the association between chronic physical conditions and depression/depressive symptoms among healthcare workers during this pandemic, our findings were consistent with those reported in previous studies that examined the association among general populations [17,18]. For example, a recent systematic review [17] of three cross-sectional studies [19][20][21] concluded that individuals with chronic physical conditions were more likely to have mental illness (e.g., depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms) than those without any chronic physical condition during the COVID-19 pandemic. ...
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Objective This study aimed to investigate the cross-sectional association between the presence of chronic physical conditions and depressive symptoms among hospital workers at a national medical institution designated for COVID-19 treatment in Tokyo, Japan. We also accounted for the combined association of chronic physical conditions and SARS-CoV-2 infection risk at work in relation to depressive symptoms, given that occupational infection risk might put additional psychological burden among those with chronic physical conditions with risk of severe COVID-19 outcome. Methods The study sample consisted of 2,440 staff members who participated in a health survey conducted at the national medical institution during period between October 2020 and December 2020. Participants who reported at least one chronic physical condition that were deemed risk factors of severe COVID-19 outcome were regarded as having chronic physical conditions. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the patient health questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). We performed logistic regression analysis to assess the association between chronic physical conditions and depressive symptoms. Results Our results showed that the presence of chronic physical conditions was significantly associated with depressive symptoms (odds ratio (OR) = 1.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.10–2.02). In addition, the prevalence of depressive symptoms was significantly higher among healthcare workers with chronic physical conditions who were at a higher occupational infection risk (OR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.04–3.16). Conclusion Our findings suggest the importance of providing more assistance to those with chronic physical conditions regarding the prevention and control of mental health issues, particularly among frontline healthcare workers engaging in COVID-19-related work.
... Supporting this, recent studies have shown that individuals with chronic diseases develop more psychiatric symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. 17 We have shown that patients with CD and UC seem to be reacting the same way to the pandemic, revealing similar levels of anxiety, fear of contracting COVID-19, and adherence to medications. This finding is not surprising because CD and UC patients tend to react similarly to difficult situations and have similar mental health profiles prior to the COVID-19 pandemic era. ...
Article
Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic was expected to have traumatic effects and increase the anxiety levels of inflamma- tory bowel disease patients. Methods: We aimed to investigate the psychosocial effects of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic on patients with inflammatory bowel disease by revealing the risk perception for present disease, coping strategies, follow-up characteristics, and treatment adher- ence. This is a cross-sectional, web-based survey study including 798 inflammatory bowel disease patients who were followed at our outpatient clinic and 303 volunteer who did not have any known chronic diseases and were not health professionals were included as the control group. Results: In this study, 281 of the patients were diagnosed with Crohn's disease and 215 with ulcerative colitis. The mean age of patients with Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and the control group were 40.9 ± 13.1, 42.3 ± 12.7, and 39.9 ± 11.6, respectively. Here, 119 (42%) of the Crohn's disease cases, 116 (54%) of the ulcerative colitis cases, and 170 (56%) of the control group were male. Among the 3 groups, coronavirus disease 2019-related post-traumatic stress disorder rates (Impact of Event Scale-Revised > 33) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory of current status of anxiety-related anxiety rates were not statistically different while State-Trait Anxiety Inventory of anxiety tendency-related constant anxiety was higher in inflammatory bowel disease patients than the control group (P < .017). Conclusion: Inflammatory bowel disease patients with anxiety have a lower quality of life, and this may worsen the clinical course of the disease. Coronavirus disease 2019 is a major source of stress for such a vulnerable population. During the pandemic, psychological support and mental health awareness should be made accessible to all individuals.
... Studies have shown that COVID-19 has caused a psychological crisis in the public that urgently needs to be addressed (Choi et al., 2020;Dong and Bouey, 2020;Gao et al., 2020;Gómez-Salgado et al., 2020;Huang and Zhao, 2020;Wang et al., 2020;Yang et al., 2020). The COVID-19 pandemic has triggered a psychological crisis among the public because of the increased prevalence of mental illness, including anxiety and depression (Asmundson and Taylor, 2020;González-Sanguino et al., 2020;Kola, 2020;Ozamiz-Etxebarria et al., 2020;Ahn et al., 2021). The public's positive psychological response to COVID-19 has played a crucial role in reducing anxiety. ...
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Objective We conducted the following cross-sectional study to comprehensively assess the anxiety among Chinese international students who studied online during the COVID-19 pandemic and its influencing factors. Methods Questionnaires were distributed through “Sojump,” and a total of 1,090 valid questionnaires were collected. The questionnaire was divided into two parts: general situation and anxiety assessment of students. The former used a self-made questionnaire, and the international general GAD-7 scale was used to measure anxiety. Chi-square test was used to analyze the differences between groups, and logistic regression analysis was performed for the factors with differences. Results Anxiety was found in 707 (64.9%) of 1,090 international students. Chi-square test and multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that the incidence of anxiety was higher in the group under 22 years of age than in the group over 22 years of age (68% vs. 61%, p = 0.015; OR = 1.186, 95% CI 1.045–1.347, p = 0.008); International students living in big cities had a higher incidence of anxiety than those living in rural areas (67% vs. 60%, p = 0.022; OR = 1.419, 95%CI 1.038–1.859, p = 0.011); international students who socialized 3 times or less monthly had a higher incidence of anxiety than those who socialized more than 3 times per month (68% vs. 58%, p = 0.003; OR = 1.52, 95%CI 1.160–1.992, p = 0.002); international students who expected purely online teaching had a higher incidence of anxiety than those who expected purely offline teaching or dual-track teaching (72% vs. 64%, p = 0.037; OR = 1.525, 95%CI 1.069–2.177, p = 0.02); international students with a subjective score of online learning experience of 6 or less had a higher incidence of anxiety than those with subjective scores of more than 6 (70% vs. 60%, p = 0.001, OR = 1.25, 95%CI 1.099–1.422, p = 0.001). However, gender, emotional status, BMI, major of study, vaccination status, and degree type had no significant difference in the incidence of anxiety among international students who studied online during the COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusion During COVID-19, international students who were younger, came from big cities, had low social frequency, expected purely online teaching, and had poor experience of online classes were risk factors for anxiety during online classes.
... A study in Canada found that one-third of 1,354 Canadian adults were concerned about the coronavirus and 7% were "very worried" (26). In Spain, while the signs of depression, stress, and anxiety were low in the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic, these symptoms levels increased after quarantine (27). Restrictive prevention and isolation can be confusing, and not well understood for children (15). ...
Article
Aim:The aim of study was to determine the anxiety and related factors in parents about new Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19).Materials and Methods:The sample of the descriptive study consisted of 494 parents with children aged 0-18. The data were collected during April-May 2020 with tools that were prepared via Google Docs, an online study. The link to the questionnaires was shared via social media. The volunteers were agreed to participate in the survey.Results:In the study, 94.5% of the parents participating are mothers, 69.5% are between the ages of 31-40 and 59.6% have one child. 31.8% of the parents stated that they worked during the COVID-19 pandemic, 90.3% applied social isolation or quarantine. The most frequent feeling that 83.6% of the parents was concern/anxiety, 69.0% used kitchen activities such as cooking and baking cakes as coping mechanisms, 68.4% used games, and painting activities with children.Conclusion:In this study, it was determined that parents’ anxiety levels were mild. It is recommended that social and health initiatives be created to prevent and alleviate the psychosocial effects of the pandemic, and to develop programs that will reduce parents’ anxiety.
... Pérez-Rodrigo et al. (17) reported that stress was the major factor in the onset of alcohol abuse during the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic also provoked or exacerbated individual psychological problems, especially when receiving alarming information from news and social media related to COVID-19 (31). In addition, Stanton et al. (19) stated that negative changes in alcohol consumption among Australians were due to factors of depression, anxiety, and stress during MCO. ...
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Introduction Like many other countries, the federal government of Malaysia took the initiative to implement nationwide home confinement as a preventive measure in response to the pandemic COVID-19 outbreak, better known as Movement Control Order (MCO). Many have suffered economically, which led to poor states of well-being. This study investigates the relationship between lifestyle, psychological factors affecting eating habits, and physical activity among government servants in states with the highest cumulative cases during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods A cross-sectional online survey was conducted among 210 government servants from four states (Selangor, Sabah, Kuala Lumpur, and Johor) from May 2021 to June 2021. Three validated questionnaires were used, namely, Emotional-Eater Questionnaire (EEQ), and Malay International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-M) from López-Moreno et al. ( 1 ). Results There were significant gender differences ( P < 0.001) for supplement intake, with 30.4% among men and 62.3% in women. Almost half (49.1%) were classified as emotional or very emotional eaters. Also, a significant difference ( P < 0.005) was found in the perception of boredom and apathy between men (35.7%) and women (31.8%). A majority (56.2%) stated that their mood positively affected their eating habits. The total metabolic equivalent of task (MET) for 132 subjects was 3495.8 ± 3862.7 min/week for physical activity. Significant differences were observed between MET and gender (Mann–Whitney U -test: P = 0.019), with men showing higher MET value (5001.4 ± 5354.0 min/week men, 2864.3 ± 2754.3 min/week women). A significant difference was observed among women for body weight and body mass index (BMI) before and during MCO ( P < 0.001). For the emotional eater, there were correlations with eating habits before the MCO for quantity of food intake ( P = 0.003), frequency of mealtime (P < 0.001), changes of food habits ( P = 0.005), cooking methods ( P = 0.016), and frequency of food intake ( P = 0.020). There is no correlation ( P = 0.577) between psychological factors affecting eating habits and physical activity during COVID-19. Conclusion Changes were reported before and during MCO on lifestyle, eating habits, and physical activity. Such information will help design strategies to improve the economic and health status among government servants in Malaysia during the implementation of MCO or something similar.
... The current literature corroborates the evidence that the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in elevated and long-lasting emotional distress; however, it is unclear whether people with chronic disease or ACHD have experienced greater distress compared with the general population. 15,22,23 Interestingly, although the daily case rates in British Columbia increased over the 2 studied pandemic time points, participants reported less stress compared with the beginning of the pandemic, at similar levels to baseline before the pandemic. Patients also reported feeling better in December 2020/ January 2021 compared with their recalled mental state in March 2020/April 2020. ...
Article
Background This study sought to better understand the experiences of adults with congenital heart disease throughout the pandemic. Objectives were to determine (1) psychological distress before and throughout the pandemic; (2) changes in day‐to‐day functioning; and (3) the percentage of adults with congenital heart disease who experienced COVID‐19 related symptoms, underwent testing, and tested positive. Methods and Results This was a cross‐sectional study paired with retrospective chart review. A web‐based survey was distributed to patients between December 2020 and January 2021. Patients reported on psychological distress across 5 categories (Screening Tool for Psychological Distress; depression, anxiety, stress, anger, and lack of social support), whether they experienced symptoms of COVID‐19 and/or sought testing, and changes to their work and social behavior. Five hundred seventy‐nine survey responses were received, of which 555 were linked to clinical data. Patients were aged 45±15 years. The proportion of patients reporting above‐threshold values for all Screening Tool for Psychological Distress items significantly increased during the early pandemic compared with before the pandemic. Stress returned to baseline in December 2020/January 2021, whereas all others remained elevated. Psychological distress decreased with age, and women reported persistently elevated stress and anxiety compared with men during the pandemic. A consistent trend was not observed with regard to American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association anatomic and physiologic classification. Fifty (9%) patients lost employment because of a COVID‐19–related reason. COVID‐19 symptoms were reported by 145 (25%) patients, 182 (31%) sought testing, and 10 (2%) tested positive. Conclusions A substantial proportion of adults with congenital heart disease reported clinically significant psychological distress during the pandemic.
... Social isolation and lockdown measures have impacted the routine of the entire population 11 . Smoking habits can be directly affected by pandemic-related factors, such as financial crisis, changes in work dynamic, fears of contamination, and worsening of depression and anxiety [12][13][14] . ...
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Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic may have changed smoking habits. For the smoking population, information regarding smoking habits and the pandemic could potentially aid COVID-19 prevention and control measures. Our study aimed to analyze the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on tobacco consumption, nicotine dependence levels, and motivation for smoking cessation. We also collected information from smokers regarding their awareness of the consequences of tobacco use and the increased risks smokers have for severe complications from COVID-19. Methods: In the survey for this observational cross-sectional study, 122 smokers responded to an online form. The participants provided general data about their smoking history, their smoking habits in the months of April and May 2020, and the effect of the pandemic on their smoking habits. They also completed a Fagerström test and were measured by the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale. Results: When compared to pre-pandemic levels, the majority of smokers reported increased tobacco consumption of between 1 and 10 cigarettes per day (37.7%). Their motivation to quit smoking (59.8%) and desire to smoke (53.2%) were unchanged by the pandemic. Most participants demonstrated an awareness of the increased risks smokers have for severe COVID-19-related complications (p<0.001). We identified the following correlations: cigarettes/day before pandemic and motivation for smoking cessation (r=0.19; p=0.030), cigarettes/day and nicotine dependence level (r=0.61; p<0.001), and load consumption and nicotine dependence level (r=0.69; p<0.001). No significant correlations were observed between load consumption and motivation to quit (r=0.13; p=0.120). Conclusions: Most smokers are well aware of their increased risks for severe COVID-19-related complications. In the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil, most smokers reported increased cigarette consumption. In addition, motivation to quit and desire to smoke were unchanged for the majority of smokers.
... The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated perceptions of isolation for all these population groups and increased barriers to accessing support, particularly through reduced access to face-to-face contact with health professionals and increased demand for psychological therapy and welfare benefits. People with long-term conditions report more psychological symptoms than the general population [100], with social isolation further exacerbating symptoms and potentially adversely impacted pain-related treatment outcomes [101]. ...
Article
Background: Critiques of public involvement (PI) are associated with failing to be inclusive of under-represented groups, and this leads to research that fails to include a diversity of perspectives. Aim: The aim of this PI project was to understand the experiences and priorities of people from three seldom-heard groups whose musculoskeletal pain may have been exacerbated or treatment delayed due to COVID-19. Engaging representatives to report diverse experiences was important, given the goal of developing further research into personalised and integrated care and addressing population health concerns about access and self-management for people with musculoskeletal pain. Methods: The project was approved via Sheffield Hallam University Ethics but was exempt from further HRA approval. A literature review was conducted, followed by informal individual and group discussions involving professionals and people with lived experience of (a) fibromyalgia pain, (b) those waiting for elective surgery and (c) experts associated with the care home sector. Findings from the literature review were combined with the insights from the public involvement. Resulting narratives were developed to highlight the challenges associated with persistent pain and informed the creation of consensus statements on the priorities for service improvement and future research. The consensus statements were shared and refined with input from an expert steering group. Results: The narratives describe pain as a uniformly difficult experience to share with professionals; it is described as exhausting, frustrating and socially limiting. Pain leads to exclusion from routine daily activities and often resigns people to feeling and being unwell. In all cases, there are concerns about accessing and improving services and critical issues associated with optimising physical activity, functional wellbeing and managing polypharmacy. Exercise and/or mobilisation are important and commonly used self-management strategies, but opportunity and advice about safe methods are variable. Services should focus on personalised care, including self-management support and medication management, so that people's views and needs are heard and validated by health professionals. Conclusions: More research is needed to explore the most effective pain management strategies, and public involvement is important to shape the most relevant research questions. Health and care systems evaluation is also needed to address the scale of the population health need. The pandemic appears to have highlighted pre-existing shortcomings in holistic pain management.
... Our survey shows that overall, our participants reported more negative subjective and affective experiences during this period than before. This finding converges with other studies conducted worldwide during the lockdown of Spring 2020 that showed that people experienced an increase in stress and depression symptoms in Italy (Roma et al., 2020), Spain (Ozamiz-Etxebarria et al., 2020), New Zealand (Every-Palmer et al., 2020), Kuwait (Burhamah et al., 2020), and Croatia (Ðogaš et al., 2020). Interestingly, we found a significant mediation effect of SCC on the relationships between BFI-O and the first principal component (reflecting affective changes). ...
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COVID-19 took us by surprise. We all had to face the lockdown and pandemic that put us in a new context, changing our way of life, work conditions, and habits. Coping with such an unprecedented situation may have stimulated creativity. However, the situation also restricted our liberties and triggered health or psychological difficulties. We carried out an online survey (n = 380) to examine whether and how the COVID-19 related first lockdown period was associated with creativity changes in French speaking population. Despite a global negative subjective experience of the situation, participants reported that they were more creative during the lockdown than before. Positive changes were linked with more time availability, more motivation, or the need to solve a problem while negative changes were related to negative affective feelings or a lack of resources or opportunities. This study documents the effects of the first lockdown period on creativity and the factors that influenced it.
... [12,13] Well-documented benefits to health and wellbeing from exposure to green and blue spaces, including mental health. [12,[14][15][16][17][18][19] Urgent need to invest, reclaim, innovate in the "realm" of green infrastructure as a response to the pandemic. [2,13,[20][21][22] Access to urban greenery, a matter of environmental justice, social equality, and so on [2,5,15,23] New designs, practices, ideas, and potential to accelerate real change with existing but not implemented (or slowly implemented ideas) as a result of the pandemic and associated quarantine and lockdown practices. ...
Article
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The novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak and its extensive variants have caused drastic changes to people’s habits and routines in many countries worldwide, including Aotearoa—New Zealand. The levels of lockdown and/or movement limitations affected how people used outdoor spaces, often keeping them away from nature’s benefits. The COVID-19 pandemic and the measures adopted to control it provide an interesting experiment investigating the links between nature exposure, recreational use of outdoor spaces, and people’s health and wellbeing under extreme conditions. Using an online survey distributed during lockdown and based on 212 responses, this article explores the different typologies of the outdoor spaces that people had access to during lockdown and the associated physical activities practised. It investigates how outdoor space affects our emotional response and how such space and related activities can help us cope with confinement. The results of this study enable us to better understand those spatial elements and characteristics of outdoor spaces that are essential to people’s wellbeing, especially in unusual circumstances where access is restricted. View Full-Text
... Stres, anksiyete ve depresyon semptomlarının, evde kalma devam ettikçe artacağı tahmin edilmiştir. Çalışmada, pandeminin psikolojik etkilerini azaltmak, önlemek ve tedavi için psikolojik müdahaleler yapılması önerilmiştir (28) . ...
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Yeni koronavirüsün (COVID-19) neden olduğu enfeksiyon Çin'de başlamış ve tüm dünyaya yayılmıştır. Dünya Sağlık Örgütü tarafından bu durum pandemi olarak ilan edilmiştir. COVID-19, tüm dünya için ruh sağlığı dahil olmak üzere yaşamın her alanında zorluklar ortaya çıkarmaktadır. Hastalığın verdiği stres dışında, evde kalma, damgalama, sosyal mesafe, karantina ve izolasyon durumları ruh sağlığının bozulmasına neden olmaktadır. COVID-19 salgını; bireylerde anksiyete, stres, depresyon, post travmatik stres bozukluğu ve korkuya yol açmaktadır. Pandemilerde her birey için ruh sağlığı bakımı farklı düzeylerde (koruma, yükseltme ve klinik bakım) olmaktadır. Bireyler, aileleri ve sağlık profesyonelleri aracılığı ile duygusal desteğe ihtiyaç duyabilmektedir. İzolasyon durumlarında online hizmetlerle ruhsal sağlık hizmetlerinin sürdürülmesi gerekmektedir. Ayrıca medya, COVID-19'da ruh sağlığı için bir tehdit oluşturmaktadır. Bu sebeple güvenilir kaynaklardan güncel bilgiler edinilmelidir. Ayrıca hastanede ön cephedeki sağlık çalışanları enfekte olma ve virüsü ailelerine yayma korkusu yaşayabilmektedir. Sağlık çalışanlarının, ailelerine bulaştırma korkusunu azaltmak için kalacak yer, yeterli koruyucu ekipman; COVID-19'lu hastaların tedavisi, bakımı ve psikolojik sorunları için eğitim ve sağlık personeline psikolojik destek verilerek ruh sağlığı korunabilir. Bu derlemede, COVID-19'un ruh sağlığına olası etkilerinin açıklanması ve ruh sağlının korunması için yapılması gerekenler amaçlanmıştır.
... The prevalence of anxiety among college students was stated to be as great as 41.6% followed by depression at 36.4% (Mistler et al. 2012). Additionally, according to a study that investigated levels of stress, anxiety, and depression in the initial stage of COVID-19 outbreak in north Spain, college students (aged 18-25) showed higher mean levels than any other age groups, which was suggested to be due to the stress students experienced in the sudden move from face to face classes to virtual classes and the urge to cope rapidly with the online learning environment (Ozamiz-Etxebarria et al. 2020). Moreover, a study in China that explored anxiety levels among Chinese university students during COVID-19 outbreak showed that medical students compared to other college students experienced higher rates of anxiety . ...
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In light of the outbreak caused by the COVID-19 and its impact on the physical and mental wellbeing, we explored the consequences of this pandemic on the mental health among pre-professional health sciences students and their awareness regarding the virus. A descriptive observational cross-sectional study was conducted at King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences (KSAU-HS) in Jeddah and Riyadh campuses. Data was collected from 770 participants using an online questionnaire, and statistical analysis was performed using SPSS. The majority of the participants (87.5%) considered governmental authorities as their main source of information, and therefore, they were up to date on the general information regarding COVID-19. For findings on mental health, it was found that 61.9% were exhibiting variant degrees of depression, as well as 50% expressing signs of extremely severe anxiety. However, 50.9% of the participants expressed no signs of stress during this pandemic. An association was found between gender and mental health showing females to have higher tendencies to express signs of extremely severe depression, anxiety, and stress. An association was also found between parents’ marital status and anxiety. Analysis revealed that participants with separated parents were the least among the participants to show no signs of anxiety, as well as reporting the highest numbers in the “extremely severe” anxiety category. With the increased awareness and higher than normal levels of the investigated mental illnesses, we advise that proper action should be considered to address this issue.
Article
This study aimed to describe the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the social situation, self-perceived health status, and mental well-being of adolescents in Catalonia during home confinement, and to evaluate factors that are associated with poor overall mental well-being. An online cross-sectional study among a cohort of students (14–18 years old) of central Catalonia (DESKcohort) was performed during June–July 2020. Poisson regression models with robust variance were used to identify variables associated with “poor overall well-being,” measured by the short version of the Warwick–Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale. Out of 303 participants, 42.1% reported a decrease in family income, and 32.8% a loss of parental employment due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and these percentages were higher among people living in low socioeconomic neighborhoods (53.3% and 43.2%, respectively). Overall, 56.8% presented a poor overall well-being. Participants reporting a decrease in their family’s income (aPR = 1.33) and those knowing a close person or family who died of COVID-19 (aPR = 1.42) were more likely to report a poor overall well-being. This study highlights the patterns of inequality and social vulnerability for COVID-19 pandemic outcomes. Considering social inequalities, interventions are needed to mitigate the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the physical and the psychological wellbeing of children and their families.
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in unprecedented changes in the functioning of the health care system, which were connected with the occurrence of new challenges for both the health care system’s employees and for the patients. The purpose of the present article is to analyze the needs of persons with oncological diseases. Taking into account the multiple aspects of the term health, psychological, social, and existential needs of the patients were analyzed. This article is directed mainly at persons who remain in a direct therapeutic relation with a patient. It is to facilitate recognizing the needs of ill people and to increase sensitivity to the issue of maintaining or improving the well-being of patients which requires paying special attention to their psychological, social, and existential needs during the period of hindered access to the health care system. This systematic review takes advantage of quantitative and qualitative methods of text analysis with phenomenological analysis factored in. The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in the appearance of new problems in the population of oncological patients or it made the existing problems more severe. As a consequence, it made it significantly more difficult to meet their needs on various levels and sometimes it even made it impossible. It seems necessary to determine and introduce strategies to ensure that patients with oncological diseases have access to psychological and spiritual support in the period of the pandemic.
Article
The purpose of the study is to analyze the relationship between the habit of outdoor cycling activities and the level of depression during the COVID-19 pandemic among the members of the bicycle community in Malang City. Materials and methods. This research is correlational, with a cross-sectional study approach. A total of 125 subjects from the bicycle community in Malang City voluntarily participated to become respondents in this study. The measurement of cycling physical activity habits was carried out using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), while the measurement of the level of depression used the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). Measurements of physical activity habits and depression levels were performed at the same time. The data analysis used the Pearson product-moment model using statistical software package for social science (SPSS) version 17.0 with a set significance level (p ≤ 0.05). Results. The results showed that there was a negative correlation between the habit of outdoor cycling activities and the level of depression (r = –0.604; p ≤ 0.001) and showed a strong correlation between the two variables. Conclusions. Based on the results of the study, there is a negative correlation between the habit of outdoor cycling activities and the level of depression during the COVID-19 pandemic among the members of the bicycle community in Malang City.
Article
The aim of this study was to test whether resilience and life satisfaction (two traditional protective factors) mediate between COVID‐19 related worries and the development of symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress in adolescents and young adults. Participants involved 392 adolescents and young adults (70.20% female) aged between 12 and 25 years (M = 17.05 years, SD = 3.08). Participants completed the COVID‐19 related worries scale, the CD‐RISC to analyse resilience, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales‐21 to study emotional symptoms. Descriptive analyses and Pearson correlations were conducted, together with a structural equation modeling testing a mediational model and multigroup invariance. Results show that resilience and life satisfaction play a mediating role in the relation between the COVID‐19 related worries and emotional symptoms (depression, anxiety, and stress). This study highlights the role of protective factors on adolescents' and young adults' emotional symptoms during the COVID‐19 pandemic.
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Cognitive-behavioral coping among teachers is an important issue of investigation due to the reported high prevalence of anxiety associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. Whereas several studies have assessed COVID-19 awareness of individuals as a predictor of anxiety, the moderating role of awareness in anxiety and coping mechanisms remains unclear. The study primarily examined the nexus between awareness of COVID-19 and (a) anxiety and (b) coping strategies, including the interaction effect of COVID-19-related awareness in the link between anxiety and coping strategies among senior high school teachers. A descriptive cross-sectional survey design was adopted to conveniently select 184 teachers from senior high schools in the Cape Coast Metropolis. Questionnaires were administered to the participants and data were analyzed with means, standard deviation, Pearson correlation, and linear regression statistical procedures. Summarily, the results revealed a negative relationship between COVID-19 awareness and anxiety levels of teachers. COVID-19-related anxiety significantly predicted coping mechanisms of teachers. Further, COVID-19 awareness significantly moderated the relationship between anxiety and coping strategies adopted. These findings imply that the public health education and mass awareness campaign programs on COVID-19 could act as buffers against the spread of COVID-19, its associated comorbidities, and help improve the mental health of teachers. Promoting adaptation to COVID-19 through the use of functional management strategies such as active coping and emotional support should be encouraged in the Cape Coast Metropolis among teachers.
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Background Health professionals (HPs) coping with the coronavirus pandemic are at risk of working under stressful conditions impacting their professional well-being. The aim of this paper was to explore HP’s professional quality of life and occupational stress during the COVID-19 pandemic in Greece. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted (from October to December 2020) in a COVID-19 reference hospital, one of the biggest in Attica. The method of convenience sampling has been used. Data collection was carried out through an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire including, apart from HPs’ demographic and occupational characteristics, Professional Quality of Life Scale (ProQoL) and Job Stress Measure. A total of 250 questionnaires were distributed to physicians and nurses. One hundred eighty-six questionnaires were fully completed (response rate = 78.8%). The analysis was based on descriptive and inductive statistics, using SPSS v25. Results Participants’ mean age was 41.5 ± 10.4 years; 75.3% were women and 62.4% was nursing staff. ProQoL analysis showed that the majority had moderate compassion satisfaction (74.2%) and burnout (78.5%), while 48.8% had moderate level of secondary post-traumatic stress. The mean value of occupational stress was estimated at 2.76, showing a moderate level of stress. HPs’ demographic and occupational characteristics seemed to affect both work stress and ProQoL ( P ⩽ .05). Occupational stress was positively correlated with both burnout ( r = 0.461, P = .001) and secondary post-traumatic stress ( r = 0.596, P = .001), indicating that an increase in health professionals’ stress at work corresponds to a simultaneous increase in ProQoL. Conclusions HPs’ professional quality of life and occupational stress seemed to be moderate during the COVID-19 pandemic in Greece. In order to achieve an improvement in HPs’ overall professional well-being, priority should be given to the strengthening of the capacity of the healthcare system as well as to supporting HPs in both stress management and psychological resilience.
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Objetivo: la pandemia por el COVID-19 está generando un importante impacto emocional en la población general y, en especial, en los pacientes crónicos, como los oncológicos. Además, ha supuesto cambios en la atención sanitaria. El presente estudio pretende conocer este impacto, en la población oncológica y, desde su propia experiencia, explorar sus estrategias de afrontamiento así como conocer su opinión sobre la atención sanitaria recibida. Metodología: participaron 118 pacientes pertenecientes a 5 centros hospitalarios de la provincia de Barcelona. Los datos fueron recogidos a través del cuestionario HADS y de un cuestionario ad-hoc para valorar el malestar emocional, las estrategias de afrontamiento, la percepción de riesgo de contagio, el apoyo social y los cambios ocurridos en la atención sanitaria. Resultados: el 51,4% de los participantes puntuaron alto en la escala de ansiedad y un 36% en la de depresión. La preocupación (73,7%), el miedo (72,8%), la ansiedad (56,1%) y la tristeza (56,1%) fueron las emociones más frecuentemente expresadas. El 74,1% se sintieron muy satisfechos con la atención sanitaria recibida y el 94,6% refirieron haberse sentido acompañados por su equipo sanitario. Respecto a la valoración de la telemedicina, un 40,7% manifestaron no estar a favor de esta alternativa mientras que el 33,7% consideraron que era una buena opción. Conclusiones: los pacientes oncológicos consideran que la pandemia ha afectado negativamente a su estado emocional y su calidad de vida. Conocer la opinión que tienen los pacientes sobre la telemedicina nos puede ayudar a definir más adecuadamente el uso de este tipo de asistencia.
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Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the psychological impact on nursing students at the end of period of confinement during the first wave of the COVID-19 outbreak in Spain. Design: A cross-sectional study reported in line with the STROBE guidelines. Methods: Nursing students were invited to complete an online questionnaire at the end of the 2019-2020 academic year using convenience sampling. The questionnaire collected data on sociodemographic factors, work, and life experiences in relation to COVID-19, habits and lifestyle using the World Health Organization Five Well-Being Index (WHO-5) and the Generalized Anxiety disorder-7 scale. Variables related to anxiety were analysed using multiple lineal regression analysis, RESULTS: The prevalence of low psychological well-being in the 203 students was 44.3% and of anxiety 55.7%. In the multivariate analysis the variables associated with anxiety were having worked in the pandemic, having had symptoms of COVID-19 and having been afraid of getting infected. Conclusions: The levels of anxiety due to the COVID-19 pandemic in nursing students have been high, and levels of psychological well-being have been low. The fact of having worked during the pandemic, having had symptoms compatible with COVID-19 or being afraid of getting infected are associated with the highest scores for anxiety. Relevance to clinical practice: This study gives more evidence on the psychological impact on nursing students during the first wave of the pandemic in Spain. This can be used to design anxiety management programmes for inclusion into teaching syllabuses. It also gives arguments for the setting up of psychological and emotional support services for these students and other healthcare professionals working during the pandemic.
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Previous research and clinical practice have shown that people with history of chronic diseases are more likely to develop certain mental health difficulties during pandemic. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between chronic health conditions and mental health indicators during COVID-19. The data were collected as part of a broader research project of the Zagreb Child and Youth Protection Center. The study involved 1482 healthy individuals and 205 having a chronic disease. The assessments included sociodemographic data, the Hope for the Future and the Depression-Anxiety and Stress Scale-21. Results have shown statistically significant differences aspects of mental health in relation to living with chronic disease, in anxiety, stress and depression. In all scales, people with chronic disease achieved worse outcomes. Furthermore, chronic diseases lead to significant moderating effect on the relationship between hope for the future and anxiety. The negative correlation between hope for the future and mental health indicators is greater in people who have a chronic illness.
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Objective To evaluate the impact of COVID-19 pandemic exposure on changes in alcohol use and mood from years 1 to 2 after traumatic brain injury (TBI).Methods We used a difference-in-difference (DiD) study design to analyze data from 1,059 individuals with moderate-to-severe TBI enrolled in the TBI Model Systems (TBIMS) National Database. We defined COVID-19 pandemic exposure as participants who received their year 1 post-injury interviews prior to January 1, 2020, and their year 2 interview between April 1, 2020 and January 15, 2021. Pandemic-unexposed participants had both year 1 and 2 follow-up interviews before January 1, 2020. We measured current alcohol use as any past month alcohol use, average number of drinks per drinking occasion, and past month binge drinking. We measured depression symptoms using Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and anxiety symptoms using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7.ResultsWe found persons with TBI exposed to the pandemic had greater increases in the average number of drinks per occasion from year 1 to 2 post-injury compared to pandemic-unexposed individuals (β = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.16, 0.57, p = 0.001), with males, adults
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Tourism is a crucial economic sector in the Balearic Islands (Spain). COVID-19 pandemic might severely impact hotel housekeepers (HHs) due to their already precarious employment situation. The purpose is to assess the evolution of the concern about employment status, anxiety, and depression of HHs. This is a longitudinal study conducted with a subset of participants from a primary care, health promotion intervention study. Two additional visits were added (March–April and October–December 2020) for the purpose of this study. We recruited 290 HHs in March–April 2020; 237 were again interviewed during October–December 2020. In the first visit, high level of concern about employment was associated with age under 50, temporary contracts and external locus of control (LOC). Moderate–severe anxiety was associated with low social support and external LOC; moderate–severe depression was associated with low social support. Regarding the second visit, age, years working as HH, type of contract, social support, and LOC were not associated with concern about employment status, anxiety, and depression. There was a larger proportion of HHs with moderate–severe anxiety and depression among HHs with high degree of concern. Concern increased significantly among HHs: over 50 years of age; with more than 15 years in the job, a recurring seasonal contract and normal social support. After adjusting by age, type of contract, LOC, and social support, we found a statistically significant increase (12.0%) of HHs highly concerned about their job situation: compared to the first visit, HHs were 2.3 more likely to have a high degree of concern in December 2020. In contrast, increases in moderate–severe anxiety (0.3%) and depression (4.3%) between the two periods were not significant. In HHs, the COVID-19 pandemic has caused significant concern about employment status and symptoms of depression and anxiety. In the uncertain times of the pandemic, mental wellbeing benefits from variables that confer stability, such as internal LOC, perception of social support, and a stable job. Longitudinal results point at long lasting effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health. It is crucial to allocate additional resources in primary care to adequately address the anticipated influx of needs.
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Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the psychological and financial distress reported by citizens and permanent residents stranded abroad due to international travel restrictions introduced in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Design: An international cross-sectional study. Setting: A primary analysis of data collected between July and September 2021 through an online survey targeting individuals stranded abroad and unable to return to their country of residence due to international travel restrictions. Respondents: A total of 1054 individuals aged 18-84 years. Data analysis: Multivariable logistic regression models were used to explore the relationship between higher levels of depression, anxiety and stress and participant variables. Outcome measures: The survey answered questions regarding COVID-19 travel restriction-related impacts: personal stress, anxiety and depression (using the validated 21-item Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) tool), as well as impacts on housing and financial security and demographic data. Results: A total of 75.4% of respondents reported wanting to return to the Oceania region (75.4%), with 45% stranded in Europe. 64.2% reported financial distress while stranded abroad. 64.4% (x̄=9.43, SD=5.81) reported moderate-to-extremely severe (based on the DASS-21 classification) levels of depression, 41.7% for anxiety (x̄=5.46, SD=4.74), and 58.1% for stress (x̄=10.64, SD=5.26). Multivariable analysis indicated that financial stress, an employment change, being <30 years, having a high perceived risk of contracting COVID-19 abroad and being stranded for >2 months were significantly related to scores of moderate-to-extremely severe depression, anxiety and stress. Conclusion: The study is among the first to explore the psychological and financial distress-related impacts associated with being stranded abroad due to COVID-19 travel restrictions. It highlights a range of unintended consequences that arise from pandemic-related travel restrictions, identifies the health and social needs of a particularly vulnerable population, and provides clues as to the types of support that may be adopted to best support them.
Thesis
Creativity is a high-level cognitive function at the basis of various domains of human activity. However, this human capacity, while essential to face the challenges of our society as well as our daily lives, is still poorly understood. Previous research indicates that individual differences in semantic memory structure and processes contribute to individual’s creative abilities. In this thesis, we aim to better understand the relationships between semantic memory and creativity and the underlying brain correlates. In the first part of this thesis, we performed two studies to explore how the properties of semantic memory and brain networks relate to creative behavior. First, in a behavioral study, we investigated the relationships between semantic memory organization and creative thinking. By means of network-based methods, we built individual semantic networks as a proxy of the semantic memory structure and explored their properties in relation to creative abilities. We found that individual differences in semantic network properties correlated to divergent thinking and to creative behavior in real life. Then, in a second study, we replicated these findings and explored the brain functional connectivity underlying the semantic network properties predicting real-life creativity. We found that unique brain functional connectivity patterns underlying the modularity of individual semantic networks predicted individual differences in real-life creative behavior. In the second part, we examined the cognitive processes of semantic memory search that allow higher creative abilities and explored their brain correlates. We found two components that reflected 1) attentional focus allowing persistent search behavior and 2) the flexibility in memory. The first component related to divergent thinking while the second one related to convergent creative thinking. Finally, in the last part, by means of the semantic priming approach, we explored the different types of relationships that participate in the organization of semantic memory. We specifically investigated whether the implicit retrieval of a thematic and taxonomic category is facilitated by two words belonging to this category more than by a single exemplar. We found larger and additive priming in the double priming compared to the single priming condition at the behavioral and electrophysiological level. Our findings improved the actual knowledge on the organization of semantic memory into categories and how related concepts implicitly associate to each other in memory. Altogether, these findings shed light on several neurocognitive mechanisms related to semantic memory structure and processes involved in creativity. This work may also provide new tools that could be useful in future research on creativity.
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The COVID-19 outbreak significantly impacted people’s lives. Within the education system, the teaching mode drastically changed to adapt to the social distancing restrictions due to the pandemic. Consequently, teachers have been facing challenges associated with remote learning in addition to those of the pandemic. The aim of the present study was to assess the psychological state among teachers at two stages: prepandemic (November 2019) and during the pandemic (June-July 2020 and June-July 2021). Information regarding demographic data, depression, anxiety, and stress (DASS-21), and burnout syndrome (MBI-ES) was collected using validated questionnaires. Results showed a significantly higher scores as well as a higher prevalence in the DASS-21 and the MBI-ES scales, on the second measurement taken during the pandemic compared to the pre-pandemic period and the first evaluation during the pandemic. During the second evaluation on pandemic stage, female teachers of ≥45 years of age with a college-level of education, 11 years of teaching experience, and currently teaching at preschools and primary schools were significantly associated with higher anxiety, stress, EE, and burnout scores. In addition, female teachers aged ≥45 years reported higher PD and PA scores. Finally, an association between burnout syndrome and depression was identified in the evaluations carried out during the pandemic considering both the total sample and the analysis per gender. The study shows that teachers’ mental health has been negatively affected by the pandemic. Efforts from the education system and health authorities are crucial to design and implement strategies to improve teachers’ mental health during the fight against COVID-19.
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Objective. – Frontline workers have been distinctively impacted by the rapid spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. Teachers, as frontline employees in the educational system, had to contend with unprecedented changes to their work role, as well as new job demands coupled with insufficient resources and the effects of the pandemic on their personal lives. While some teachers struggled to cope and reported intense levels of fear of COVID-19 and burnout, others were able to adapt and experienced a sense of growth and accomplishment. Therefore, the current study aimed to examine the role of resilience in the relationship between fear of COVID-19 and burnout among South African school teachers using a survey design. Materials and Methods. – School teachers in South Africa (N=355) were administered the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Fear of COVID-19 Scale, and the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale-10. Results. – The results showed a positive relationship between fear of COVID-19 and emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Moreover, structural equation modeling confirmed a health-sustaining role for resilience as it had a significant direct effect on burnout. Resilience also partially mediated the impact of fear of COVID-19 on depersonalization as well as emotional exhaustion, and fully mediated the impact of fear of COVID-19 on personal accomplishment. Conclusions. – Our findings underscore that promoting individual- and institutional-level strategies to support teachers is necessary to build resilience, especially in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.
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Background: Most universities around the world have been heavily affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, as declared by the World Health Organization (WHO) in March 2020. Many students were isolated at home and underwent a forced transition from face-to-face learning to e-learning, at least in the first few months. The subsequent months and years were typically characterised by a slow return to normal learning under COVID-19 protocols and restrictions. A potential consequence of the lockdowns, social restrictions and changes to learning is the development of PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder) in university students, affecting their health and well-being (SDG3) and quality of education (SDG4). Materials and Methods: Medline was searched through PubMed for studies on the prevalence of PTSD in university students from 1 December 2019 to 31 December 2021. The pooled prevalence of PTSD was calculated with random-effects models. Results: A total of six studies were included, across which the prevalence of PTSD among university students was 23%. Meta-regression showed that the prevalence of PTSD was significantly higher with older age, but independent of the percentage of women in a study or its methodological quality. Conclusions: Our results suggest that students suffer from PTSD at a moderate rate. Measures are needed to address the mental health issues of university students that have arisen during COVID-19 all around the world.
Article
Introduction: In the COVID-19 context, university teachers have had to face the most complex educational demands, psychosocial risks, and the anxiety of responding to limitations in terms of connectivity and fulfillment of academic objectives . To identify the levels of Burnout and anxiety in the COVID-19 context and determine how these levels are manifested in the participating teachers. Methods : This was an analytical non-experimental, cross-sectional study. The population was 150 teachers of the Human Medicine Program of the University of San Martín de Porres, Chiclayo, Peru, and the sample was 66 teachers. The survey consisted of three sections: 1. Informed consent, 2. Maslach's Burnout Inventory, 3. Beck's Anxiety Inventory. Data processing was performed using the SPSS V.27 statistical software and all citations and bibliographical references were processed using Mendeley Desktop 1.19.8. Results: In the variable burnout syndrome, 25% of the participants were in the high level downwards; they present anxiety in 30.30% of the total. It was found that 50% of teachers presented mild to moderate anxiety. Conclusions: the largest number of teachers surveyed present anxiety due to burnout syndrome in the COVID-19 context. Finally, it is found that there is a correlation between anxiety and the sociodemographic variables sex, age, and marital status.
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The purpose of this article is to analyze the dependence of the emotional state of Russian residents in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and their perception of this pandemic on various socio-demographic characteristics, and to describe the relationship of these psychological characteristics using a path model. The study sample consisted of 1192 people (36.511.0) from all regions of Russia. The survey was conducted online in April and May, 2020. The study methods included a Socio-demographic questionnaire, the Russian version of the Perceived Stress Scale, the State Scale from the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the modified version of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire. The path analysis procedure was performed using the EQS 6.2 program. Significant differences were found in the parameters of gender, age, employment, daily routine during self-isolation and infection-related stigma expectation. Psychological distress had a strong correlation with income and was subjected to change during the observed month. This may be due to the influence of mass media information within the country. If the respondents assessed the danger of coronavirus as understated, they felt better psychologically, but paid less attention to controlling the virus. However, if the respondent had relatives who had contracted COVID-19, they perceived the pandemic as more threatening, less understandable, and controlled it more. We found that psychological distress has a direct and mediated influence on pandemic control through assessing the threat and fear of an unknown disease. The results will help to formulate sound psychological recommendations for maintaining psychological well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic.
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Background: The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic is a public health emergency of international concern and poses a challenge to psychological resilience. Research data are needed to develop evidence-driven strategies to reduce adverse psychological impacts and psychiatric symptoms during the epidemic. The aim of this study was to survey the general public in China to better understand their levels of psychological impact, anxiety, depression, and stress during the initial stage of the COVID-19 outbreak. The data will be used for future reference. Methods: From 31 January to 2 February 2020, we conducted an online survey using snowball sampling techniques. The online survey collected information on demographic data, physical symptoms in the past 14 days, contact history with COVID-19, knowledge and concerns about COVID-19, precautionary measures against COVID-19, and additional information required with respect to COVID-19. Psychological impact was assessed by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), and mental health status was assessed by the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Results: This study included 1210 respondents from 194 cities in China. In total, 53.8% of respondents rated the psychological impact of the outbreak as moderate or severe; 16.5% reported moderate to severe depressive symptoms; 28.8% reported moderate to severe anxiety symptoms; and 8.1% reported moderate to severe stress levels. Most respondents spent 20–24 h per day at home (84.7%); were worried about their family members contracting COVID-19 (75.2%); and were satisfied with the amount of health information available (75.1%). Female gender, student status, specific physical symptoms (e.g., myalgia, dizziness, coryza), and poor self-rated health status were significantly associated with a greater psychological impact of the outbreak and higher levels of stress, anxiety, and depression (p < 0.05). Specific up-to-date and accurate health information (e.g., treatment, local outbreak situation) and particular precautionary measures (e.g., hand hygiene, wearing a mask) were associated with a lower psychological impact of the outbreak and lower levels of stress, anxiety, and depression (p < 0.05). Conclusions: During the initial phase of the COVID-19 outbreak in China, more than half of the respondents rated the psychological impact as moderate-to-severe, and about one-third reported moderate-to-severe anxiety. Our findings identify factors associated with a lower level of psychological impact and better mental health status that can be used to formulate psychological interventions to improve the mental health of vulnerable groups during the COVID-19 epidemic.
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Effective risk communication in public health requires the development of social skills such as active listening and empathy. Communicative and social skills were evaluated in third-year medical students (n = 917) using the Active Listening Test and the Test of Cognitive and Affective Empathy. The results obtained revealed that our participants had equal or better-than-norm communication skills. Women scored higher in active listening whereas men scored higher on the General Empathy Scale. The students who preferred a clinical specialty obtained higher scores in active listening and empathetic abilities, as compared to students who chose a surgical specialty. In conclusion, the medical students who participated in the study exhibited good communicative and social skills. An association was observed between gender and specialty preference, and empathy and active listening skills.
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The Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) is one of the most widely used self-reports for the measurement of emotional symptoms. However, some controversy remains concerning its factor structure. Additionally, more data of the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the DASS-21 are needed. The aim of this study was to explore the hierarchical factor structure of the DASS-21 and to further analyze its psychometric properties in Spain and Colombia. Four samples with a total of 2980 participants completed the Spanish version of the DASS-21. Two of the samples were composed of undergraduates of each country and the other two samples were recruited online. The results strongly supported a hierarchical factor structure of the DASS-21 consisting of three first-order factors (depression, anxiety, and stress) and one second-order factor (emotional symptoms). Initial evidence of measurement invariance was found for country (Spain vs. Colombia) and sample (undergraduates vs. online). The DASS-21 showed good psychometric properties in all samples. The DASS-21 seems to be a good option to measure emotional symptoms in Spain and Colombia, and its hierarchical factor structure indicates that it provides general and specific measures of emotional symptoms that are theoretically meaningful.
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Based on the Social Representations Theory (SRT) applied to the social construction of risk and the role played by group identities, this study examines the construction of risk created by the mass media in health epidemics. An experimental design with split-ballot questionnaire and 319 participants was used in which message framing (human interest vs. attribution of responsibility) and proximity (high vs. low) were manipulated for a high invulnerability identity (youth) vs. a low invulnerability identity (elderly) population. Results showed that the human interest framing increased the perception of risk, especially when the proximity of the epidemic was high; this effect was explained by people’s emotional response. Furthermore, youth projected the risk towards ‘the other’ in order to protect their invulnerability identity. Finally, we stress the importance of the SRT on a theoretical and applied level for risk communication in health crises.
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The high rate of anxiety disorders, depression and stress detected in Chilean university students requires a standardized instrument of diagnosis, enabling timely intervention for these disturbances. The aim of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the Abbreviated Scales of Depression, Anxiety and Stress (DASS-21) for Chilean university students, thus validating the scale. The sample consisted of 484 students of Universidad Austral de Chile selected through random sampling using a cross-sectional correlation design. Construct validity was verified by exploratory factor analysis which yielded a three-factor structure, explaining 49.99% of total variance. Concurrent and divergent validity was verified by the BAI, BDI-II and SCL-90. Adequate reliability and internal consistency of DASS-21 was found using Cronbach's Alpha.
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The factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS; S. H. Lovibond & P. F. Lovibond, 1995) and the 21-item short form of these measures (DASS–21 ) were examined in nonclinical volunteers ( n = 49) and patients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) diagnoses of panic disorder ( n =  67), obsessive-compulsive disorder ( n = 54), social phobia ( n = 74), specific phobia ( n = 17), and major depressive disorder ( n = 46). This study replicates previous findings indicating that the DASS distinguishes well between features of depression, physical arousal, and psychological tension and agitation and extends these observations to the DASS–21. In addition, the internal consistency and concurrent validity of the DASS and DASS–21 were in the acceptable to excellent ranges. Mean scores for the various groups were similar to those in previous research, and in the expected direction. The implications of these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Using social representations theory this paper casts light on the pattern of content that characterises the public response to emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases (EID). The pattern is: distancing the disease from the self/ one's in-groups; blame of particular entities for the disease's origin and/or spread; and stigmatisation of those who have contracted it and/or who are represented as having intensified its spread. This pattern is not unique to EID but extends to many risks, making EID fruitful events for understanding public apprehension of potential dangers. This process may be driven by worry, fear and anxiety since when levels of these are low, as has arguably been the case with the 2009/10 "Swine Flu" pandemic, the pattern transforms. The distancing-blame-stigma pattern may also be transformed by growing reflexivity, a feature of late modern societies, as well as material features of the epidemic and "EID fatigue".
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In a pandemic young adults are more likely to be infected, increasing the potential for Universities to be explosive disease outbreak centres. Outbreak management is essential to reduce the impact in both the institution and the surrounding community. Through the use of an online survey, we aimed to measure the perceptions and responses of staff and students towards pandemic (H1N1) 2009 at a major university in Sydney, Australia. The survey was available online from 29 June to 30 September 2009. The sample included academic staff, general staff and students of the University. A total of 2882 surveys were completed. Nearly all respondents (99.6%, 2870/2882) were aware of the Australian pandemic situation and 64.2% (1851/2882) reported either "no anxiety" or "disinterest." Asian-born respondents were significantly (p < 0.001) more likely to believe that the pandemic was serious compared to respondents from other regions. 75.9% (2188/2882) of respondents had not made any lifestyle changes as a result of the pandemic. Most respondents had not adopted any specific behaviour change, and only 20.8% (600/2882) had adopted the simplest health behaviour, i.e. hand hygiene. Adoption of a specific behaviour change was linked to anxiety and Asian origin. Students were more likely to attend the university if unwell compared with staff members. Positive responses from students strongly indicate the potential for expanding online teaching and learning resources for continuing education in disaster settings. Willingness to receive the pandemic vaccine was associated with seasonal influenza vaccination uptake over the previous 3 years. Responses to a pandemic are subject to change in its pre-, early and mid-outbreak stages. Lessons for these institutions in preparation for a second wave and future disease outbreaks include the need to promote positive public health behaviours amongst young people and students.
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El estrés es hoy en día, una problemática a la que se está prestando una atención creciente. Sin embargo, el estrés académico o estrés del estudiante no recibe la suficiente atención en el ámbito de la investigación. Por ello, en este trabajo se pretende estudiar la relación entre el nivel de estrés y los exámenes en los estudiantes universitarios, además de analizar la influencia de determinados indicadores de salud y del autoconcepto académico. En este estudio han participado 40 estudiantes de 4º curso de las licenciaturas de Psicología, Ciencias Económicas, Filología Inglesa y Filología Hispánica. Fueron evaluados a lo largo de dos momentos temporales que diferían en la proximidad a la fecha de los exámenes: período sin exámenes (marzo) y período con exámenes (junio). En general, los resultados muestran un aumento en el nivel de estrés de los universitarios durante el período de exámenes. Se observaron diferencias significativas en el nivel de estrés alcanzado por los estudiantes de Psicología respecto al de Filología Hispánica durante los dos períodos analizados. Asimismo se han hallado efectos sobre la salud (ansiedad, consumo de tabaco, cafeína o fármacos, alteraciones en el sueño y en la ingesta de alimentos...) y sobre el autoconcepto académico de los estudiantes (peor nivel de autoconcepto académico) durante el período de presencia del estresor.
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This study explores shared thinking about HIV/AIDS among Zambian adolescents. With high numbers affected, the question is how this group represents its risk. Social representations of the origin, spread and risk of HIV/AIDS were gleaned via 60 semistructured interviews with urban 15 to 20 year olds. A systematic analysis revealed a shared picture: AIDS was linked to the West, God and teenage girls; its spread lay beyond the control of adolescent boys and men; and the personal sense of vulnerability was low. The results are discussed in light of their corroboration of the finding that social representations of danger can be identity protective, yet also system justifying. The potential transfer of such findings to psychological theory and to health campaigns is considered.
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Objective: To investigate the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of 135 confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Tianjin. Methods: The clinical and epidemiological data of 135 cases of COVID-19 in Tianjin were collected, and the data were analyzed with descriptive method. The factors influencing the severity of the illness were analyzed. Results: Among the 135 COVID-19 cases, 72 were males and 63 were females, the age of the cases was (48.62±16.83) years, and the case fatality rate was 2.22%. Local transmission caused 74.81% of the cases. A total of 33 clusters occurred, involving 85.92% of all COVID-19 cases. The median of the incubation period of COVID-19 was 6.50 days, the average generation interval was 5 days, and the household secondary transmission rate was 20.46%. Fever was the main symptom (78.63%), followed by cough (56.48%). Multivariate regression analysis indicated that age (OR=1.038, 95%CI: 1.010-1.167) and the number of chronic underlying diseases (OR=1.709, 95%CI: 1.052-2.777) were the risk factors of severe illness. Conclusions: Fever was the main symptom at the early phase of COVID-19 in Tianjin, and the local cluster cases accounted for high proportion in confirmed COVID-19 cases reported in Tianjin. Severe illness was prone to occur in people with old age and multi underlying diseases. Strict isolation of close contacts and intensive care of high-risk groups are the main measures to reduce the morbidity and case fatality of COVID-19.
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Since December 2019, more than 79,000 people have been diagnosed with infection of the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). A large number of medical staff was sent to Wuhan city and Hubei province to aid COVID-19 control. Psychological stress, especially vicarious traumatization caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, should not be ignored. To address this concern, the study employed a total of 214 general public and 526 nurses (i.e., 234 front-line nurses and 292 non-front-line nurses) to evaluate vicarious traumatization scores via a mobile app-based questionnaire. Front-line nurses are engaged in the process of providing care for patients with COVID-19. The results showed that the vicarious traumatization scores for front-line nurses including scores for physiological and psychological responses, were significantly lower than those of non-front-line nurses (P < 0.001). Interestingly, the vicarious traumatization scores of the general public were significantly higher than those of the front-line nurses (P < 0.001); however, no statistical difference was observed compared to the scores of non-front-line nurses (P > 0.05). Therefore, increased attention should be paid to the psychological problems of the medical staff, especially non-front-line nurses, and general public under the situation of the spread and control of COVID-19. Early strategies that aim to prevent and treat vicarious traumatization in medical staff and general public are extremely necessary.
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The December, 2019 coronavirus disease outbreak has seen many countries ask people who have potentially come into contact with the infection to isolate themselves at home or in a dedicated quarantine facility. Decisions on how to apply quarantine should be based on the best available evidence. We did a Review of the psychological impact of quarantine using three electronic databases. Of 3166 papers found, 24 are included in this Review. Most reviewed studies reported negative psychological effects including post-traumatic stress symptoms, confusion, and anger. Stressors included longer quarantine duration, infection fears, frustration, boredom, inadequate supplies, inadequate information, financial loss, and stigma. Some researchers have suggested long-lasting effects. In situations where quarantine is deemed necessary, officials should quarantine individuals for no longer than required, provide clear rationale for quarantine and information about protocols, and ensure sufficient supplies are provided. Appeals to altruism by reminding the public about the benefits of quarantine to wider society can be favourable.
Article
This study examined the collective image of the 2014-2015 Ebola outbreak, to understand how people incorporate this epidemic in their everyday thinking. A free association exercise elicited by Ebola was answered by 294 people from Spain and the content was analysed using Alceste software. First, results showed that Ebola was represented as inherently African. Second, it was also depicted as a global threat creating fear. People also felt anger, and they blamed political authorities and the mass media for the failure to manage this crisis. Finally, this research underlines the importance of the social representations to understand how current outbreaks are cognitively represented and emotionally faced as a key factor to appropriately manage future epidemics.
Article
El propósito de este estudio fue dimensionar la frecuencia de problemáticas de salud mental en una muestra representativa de estudiantes de la Universidad de Concepción. A través de un muestreo por conglomerado, se evaluaron 632 estudiantes de la mayoría de las Facultades de la Universidad. Se encontró un 23.4% de síndrome ansioso y 16.4% de síndrome depresivo. La presencia de sintomatología ligada al estrés académico fue una de las problemáticas observadas más frecuentes. Se observaron cifras preocupantes relacionadas con el deseo de muerte e ideación suicida. La importancia de fortalecer estrategias tanto a nivel preventivo como clínico que permitan responder de mejor forma a estas problemáticas es una de las conclusiones que se derivan de estos resultados.
Article
The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of home quarantine during the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in Toronto in 2003. Qualitative descriptive design. Stratified random sampling techniques were used to generate a list of potential participants, who varied in terms of gender and closeness of exposure to someone with suspected SARS (contact level). Twenty-one individuals participated in the study. All interviews were audiotaped and followed a semistructured interview guide. Participants were invited to describe their experience of quarantine in detail including their advice for Public Health. The experience followed a trajectory of stages beginning before quarantine and ending after quarantine. Despite individual differences, common themes of uncertainty, isolation, and coping intersected the data. Public Health has a dual role of monitoring compliance and providing support to people in quarantine. This study has implications for public health policy and practice in planning for future public health emergencies in terms of the information and the resources required to mount an effective response.
Percepción del riesgo y dinámicas promotoras de salud en adolescentes: una mirada de género
  • E Gil
  • J R González
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Prevalencia de trastornos emocionales en estudiantes de la universidad de la frontera
  • M Aracena
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  • L Rehbein
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Percepción del riesgo y dinámicas promotoras de salud en adolescentes una mirada de género
  • Gil E
Depresión en estudiantes universitarios y su asociación con el estrés académico
  • Vélez LPM
Prevalencia de trastornos emocionales en estudiantes de la universidad de la frontera
  • Aracena M