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Challenges and Opportunities for Higher Education amid the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Philippine Context

  • Mindanao State University, General Santos City, Philippines


Covid-19 affected higher educational institutions not just in Wuhan, China where the virus originated but all other higher educational institutions in 188 countries as of April 06, 2020. Educational countermeasures are taken to continue educating the students despite the COVID-19 predicaments. Based on the author’s experiences, research, observations in the academe, COVID-19 guidelines, and the need for alternative solutions, this article introduces how higher education is affected and how it can respond to future challenges. This article recommends to educational institutions to produce studies to proliferate and document the impact of the pandemic to the educational system. There is also a greater need for educational institutions to strengthen the practices in the curriculum and make it more responsive to the learning needs of the students even beyond the conventional classrooms.
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Pedagogical Research
2020, 5(4), em0063
e-ISSN: 2468-4929 Review Article OPEN ACCESS
Challenges and Opportunities for Higher Education amid the COVID-
19 Pandemic: The Philippine Context
Cathy Mae Toquero 1*
1 College of Education, Mindanao State University, Gen eral Santos City, PHILIPPINES
*Corresponding Author:
Citation: Toquero, C. M. (2020). Challenges and Opportunities for Higher Education amid the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Philippine Context.
Pedagogical Research, 5(4), em0063.
Received: 10 Apr. 2020
Accepted: 11 Apr. 2020
Covid-19 affected higher educational institutions not just in Wuhan, China where the virus originated but all other
higher educational institutions in 188 countries as of April 06, 2020. Educational countermeasures are taken to
continue educating the students despite the COVID-19 predicaments. Based on the authors experiences, research,
observations in the academe, COVID-19 guidelines, and the need for alternative solutions, this article introduces
how higher education is affected and how it can respond to future challenges. This article recommends to
educational institutions to produce studies to proliferate and document the impact of the pandemic to the
educational system. There is also a greater need for educational institutions to strengthen the practices in the
curriculum and make it more responsive to the learning needs of the students even beyond the conventional
Keywords: COVID-19, higher education, curriculum, online learning, mental health services, environmental
health education
What is COVID-19? COVID-19 stands for coronavirus disease and even referred to as the 2019 novel coronavirus or 2019-nCoV
(Bender, 2020). The COVID-19 virus is linked to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV) that similarly can be
as fatal (Meng, Hua, & Bian, 2020). This new virus can be transmitted just in minutes through droplets or even touching surface
metals or other materials which have been infected from a person who has respiratory problems. Even though the elderly and the
very young children are easily affected, nobody is immune to this new infectious disease once it hits the body, so all people are
susceptible to its devastating effects (Bender, 2020; Meng, Hua, & Bian, 2020).
Because of the vulnerability even in school settings, thousands of school closures are implemented the world over due to
COVID-19. As of April 06, 2020, UNESCO (2020) reported that there has been 1, 576, 021, 818 affected learners out of 91.3% total
enrolled learners in 188 countries in all levels of learning. Similarly, there were school and university closures that happened
during the outbreak of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome or SARS in China in 2003. In Hong Kong for example, there were 1,
302 schools which closed, 1,000,000 children stayed at home, and 50, 600 teachers faced challenges in using technology to provide
education to their students (Fox, 2007).
In the Philippines, due to the 4, 195 confirmed cases as of April 10, 2020 based on the Department of Health (DOH, 2020) online
tracker report, the COVID-19 pandemic really causes a massive impact in higher educational institutions. The country immediately
opted for online learning. Some teachers recorded and uploaded their lessons online for the students to access and some were
even more innovative (Fox, 2007) and used Google Classrooms, WebQuest, and other online sites, but a greater majority of
teachers are not prepared to deal with online education. After three days of the national memorandum for alternative delivery,
the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) suspended the online form of instruction since there was an increase in the number
of the students, including teachers who clamoured against the online mode of learning due to different factors. The truth is,
numerous higher education institutions, both private and state colleges and universities in the Philippines are not prepared to
implement this online system.
Few research have been done so far in relation to COVID-19 from the medical field and other fields related to health sciences
(Abdulamir, & Hafidh, 2020; Meng, Hua, & Bian, 2020; Gondauri, Mikautadze, & Batiashvili, 2020; Holshue et al., 2020; Usak,
Masalimova, Cherdymova, & Shaidullina, 2020). However, very meager research is done in relation to the field of education on how
COVID-19 or even SARS affected the educational system (Bao, 2020; Sintema, 2020; Yan, 2020).
2 / 5 Toquero / Pedagogical Research, 5(4), em0063
Strengthening the educational planning and health measures in the university can provide the students and the rest of the
stakeholders with an opportunity to continue learning while preventing the spread of the virus. Such preventive measures can
improve environmental hygiene to mitigate the transmission of the infectious disease (Lee et al, 2003). Hence, this paper has been
created to hopefully encourage other educational researchers to also document and produce research evidences on how the
present pandemic has changed the working of the educational systems in the entire world. The proliferation of knowledge starts
in the educational institutions. Consequently, the educational system, especially higher education, should prioritize literacy for
the world to adeptly deal with a future virus outbreak.
Based on the need for improvement in the instructional delivery in the Philippine context, this article presents opportunities
for higher education to respond to the educational problems that arise due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Integrate Environment and Health Courses in the Curriculum
Higher education institutions should integrate environmental and health courses in the curriculum. It is particularly of utmost
importance to make the curriculum as responsive to the needs of the world at the present times. The integration of basic
environmental and health courses should be accessible to all students in the university (Türkoglu, 2019) and not just for the
science-related majors since everybody deals with environmental and health problems. Learning materials which are focused on
environmental literacy can also be developed for utilization in classroom instruction and for training to a wider audience in the
society (Türkoglu, 2019).
Environmental science education programs can produce citizens who can be environmentally literate and can exemplify
environmental health concerns for social action (Keselman, Levin, Kramer, Matzkin, & Dutcher, 2011).This is to adapt to the real
issues that the world is dealing with and thereby create awareness and improve positive attitudes among the students (Amin,
Mahadi, Ibrahim, Yaacob, & Nasir, 2012; Türkoglu, 2019), strengthen educational health practices, and implement effective
environmental education policies. The integration can present barriers to the teachers such as time constraints, pressures of
imposed guidelines, and lack of enough knowledge to teach environmental health, among others (Keselman, Levin, Kramer,
Matzkin, & Dutcher, 2011). Nonetheless, environmental health is highly regarded worldwide, especially after having to deal with
the global pandemic at the present time. This curriculum endeavor can help address future environmental issues.
Strengthen Environmental Policies and Hygiene Practices
There is a need to strengthen environmental hygiene practices in all levels of learning. Responsiveness of the society starts
when learners are educated in the schools. Creating awareness to the students about societal issues, especially of health concerns
challenges the universities. The COVID-19 pandemic has posited school closures globally, so, environmental hygiene should be a
priority in schools to prevent the transmission and outbreak of infectious diseases (Lee et al., 2003) in the future. Students should
also be taught to gain knowledge and behaviour practices on the prevention of infectious diseases. The students can be given
health management tools that can let them practice protocols until good hygiene becomes a school culture. To achieve the goal,
the university needs to craft a policy to control the transmission root of the virus (Lee et al., 2003). Thereby, effective health and
environmental policies should be crafted anchored on a sustainable environmental framework of a university.
Incorporate an Online Mental Health and Medical Services
For quality indicators of a higher education enterprise, there should be a set of values and principles that accounts for the
expressed needs of its stakeholders, particularly the students (Ludeman, Osfield, Hidalgo, Oste, & Wang, 2009).
Schools need to strengthen its medical services and student support services so that constant monitoring and implementation
of health practices are followed within the vicinity and beyond the academe. Due to global trends of the pandemic, higher
education needs to prioritize the academic, career counselling, and even the medical services and programs that should be
accessible to the students in the university and even through online means. In fact, mental health needs in the universities have
gained significant attention (McBride, Van Orman, Wera, & Leino, 2010) due to the increasing number of mental disorders among
college students (Blanco et al., 2008; Dalky & Gharaibeh, 2018; Hinderaker, 2013; Hunt & Eisenberg, 2010; Pedrelli, Nyer, Yeung,
Zulauf, & Wilens, 2015).
Free virtual services such as medical counselling, mental health teleconferencing, and other related online health services
from medical staff representatives and professional health experts such as psychologists and guidance counselors should be
readily accessible for the students even outside the centers (Hinderaker, 2013). A study (McBride, Van Orman, Wera, & Leino, 2010)
reported having the highest offerings on primary care services (98%) along with health promotion (90%) under a range of health
services. The online care services would expedite the assessments and provide adequate services for better outcomes of the
students to seek treatment and engagement (Pedrelli et al., 2015).
Furthermore, for a basic understanding of COVID-19, higher education institutions should also formulate a management
protocol and flow chart focused on campus medical services to serve as public health awareness measures (Lee et al., 2003). The
information should map the symptoms, risks, and management guidelines to seek for primary care services contextualized in the
school setting to prevent the direct transmission of the virus. Other health-related services such as mental health services also
need development of its management flow chart and promotion of this agenda because mental health is part of the wellbeing that
is connected to the academic success of the students (Dalky, & Gharaibeh, 2018; Hunt & Eisenberg, 2010). Institutions can advance
Toquero / Pedagogical Research, 5(4), em0063 3 / 5
on promoting health services for the students especially when done through online dissemination since they are active in their
social media accounts.
Migrate Courses, Align Curriculum Competencies, and Scale up TeachersTraining for Online Learning Instruction
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, higher education intuitions the world over are shifting to online learning or distance education
programs. The advantage is it can allow for the students to learn at their convenience since it is needless to attend training centers
and universities (Knibel, 2001). This large shift to online instruction does not need for the face to face interaction between teachers
and the students together with their classmates so there is prevention and control over the spread of the virus. Higher education
institutions in the Philippines thereby should prepare the courses for online transfer since another epidemic can breakout in the
future. That indicates aligning the competencies that students should learn in the subject courses in an online format. By doing
this, universities can expedite its response for continuous learning of the stakeholders.
Although this online delivery can present barriers to the teachers since they need to acquire online-driven competencies in
planning, implementing, and assessing the performance of their students, providing teachers with adequate training courses can
assist them to effectively implement the courses through electronic delivery. There are various devices available with innovative
tools for the teachers to access to promote learning for the students with diverse educational needs. The technology devices,
design of the program, choices of instructors, responsive curriculum, and supportive stakeholders are necessary and significant
for the successful delivery of the lessons in an online environment (Barr & Miller, 2013). In that case, this brings an opportunity for
higher education institutions to scale up the training of the teachers for online learning instruction. The training for the teachers
can improve student learning in educational programming for the instructors to facilitate the goals aligned to the learning goals
of higher education institutions (Ludeman et al., 2009).
Strengthen Research Efforts, Data Monitoring, and Evidence-Based Practices
Institutions of higher education are expected to demonstrate responsiveness to the stakeholders. The expectations are higher
because of the bars that government entities, accreditation agencies, and other stakeholders are setting for the performance of
higher level institutions (Ludeman et al., 2009). Higher education needs to demonstrate effectiveness and efficiency in the
educational administration because the stakeholders demand evidence from institutions to support the claims of excellence and
effectiveness. Other than that, these are changing times globally, and even the pandemic has affected the way that educational
systems should function that a great deal of evidences are needed to determine how higher education institutions should respond
to the educational, economic, and employment crises. There is an even greater need to produce research reports on the impact
of COVID-19 pandemic to the educational system in the country.
Higher education institutions need to seize these opportunities to strengthen data monitoring, documentation and evidence-
based practices of the services and programs that are offered to the students. There have been numerous innovative programs of
higher learning but these innovations are not assessed rigorously (Hunt & Eisenberg, 2010). For example, little research has been
published referring to the counseling center utilizations in the universities (Hinderaker, 2013). Even in the Philippines, there is a
need for more scientific data on the provision of mental health services in college campuses nationally and locally. Hence,
research, evaluation, and strategic planning are central to student success. These research efforts can meet the challenges in the
future to provide information that are crucial for transparency and accountability (Ludeman et al., 2009). The faculty, researchers,
and professionals of higher education need to engage and strengthen the efforts in research, evaluation, and strategic planning
to document best processes, increase evidence-based practices, and improve student learning in higher education in the
Philippines even amidst the COVID-19 pandemic or possible spread of other viruses in the coming years.
The paper highlights pedagogical and policy implications. To effectively respond to the threat of the pandemic, universities
need to reassess the curricular interventions to gear for readiness towards online learning. Likewise, campus medical health
representatives can develop health management protocols and tools to ensure that stakeholders follow environmental health
practices even outside the academe. Aside from the academic implications, this paper also presents policy implications to craft
environmental policies that can strengthen the health management systems in the university. This article can also serve as
reference for future studies relative to the effects of COVID-19 to the performance of the educational system. On the other hand,
there remains numerous gaps in the scientific community as to the impact of COVID-19 to higher education. Future studies should
evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic to the educational system and gather scientific evidences on how the educational
institutions can effectively respond to another future virus outbreak.
Higher education worldwide is affected due to the COVID-19 pandemic that thousands of school closures followed in a very
limited span of time to enforce social distancing measures. Educational institutions particularly in the Philippines, are presented
with surmounting challenges in its system of planning, implementation, and assessment. On a light note, however, the global
pandemic opened up opportunities to the country to upgrade its educational mode of delivery and transfer its attention to
emerging technologies. Higher education institutions thereby need to seize the opportunity to strengthen its evidence-based
4 / 5 Toquero / Pedagogical Research, 5(4), em0063
practices, provide accessible mental health-related services, and make the curriculum responsive to the needs of the changing
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... COVID-19 has occasioned numerous prevailing trends and patterns distinctively experienced globally (Amujiri et al., 2021). To the extreme, we have been treated to numerous weaknesses and susceptibilities: these entail accentuated disparities, threats that arise due to privatization of education being a common good, unpreparedness for immense change to virtual learning (Marginson, 2016;Toquero, 2020;Tawil and Locatelli, 2015). Conversely, positive facets within our social order have also been made progressively noticeable. ...
... COVID-19 is perilous to public education, with threats of disintegration and detachment as we are bound to lose both educators and learners who might not make it to institutions as they slowly reopen. Some level of privatization ensues when learning relocates from institutions into homes (Toquero, 2020). It is the view of many stakeholders that the recent alternative measures should be transmuted into lifelong reforms. ...
... What is clear is that the economic impact has led to loss of jobs, incomes and rising levels of susceptibility than ever before. These economic strains have severe repercussions on parents and guardian"s capability in terms of advancing the education of their children due to lessened financial ability to provide assistance in terms of education requirements for their children (Toquero, 2020). Easing the economic strain due to this crisis is expected to lead to fiscal austerity. ...
Full-text available
The worldwide health epidemic has glinted serious challenges on the vulnerabilities. However, on the other hand it has given a glimpse of existing disparities and a wakening call on what mitigations are needed to be considered. At the topmost is the need to address the education of over one point five billion learners whose education has been interrupted due to the COVID-19 crisis. As the world globally navigates the COVID-19 catastrophe and its repercussions, there is need to reflect on fundamental principles and identified strengths, while contenting with unprecedented distraction to economies, education and societies. Distractions occasioned by the epidemic are aggravating disparities both inside and across nations. We promptly need reimaging of education so that short-range impediments do not translate into bigger, lifelong challenges. To this end, renewal and reimaging of education takes center stage. This premise is anchored on global solidarity and EFA goals that do not condone the echelons of inequalities that have emerged in the modern-day world. Methodologically, secondary data and purposive random sampling was utilized to review articles that were concerned with reimaging of basic education. Drawing from the Covid-19 relevant experiences and relevant theories, this study established that Covid-19 experiences heightened disparities, accentuated the threats that arise due to privatization of education being a common good coupled with unpreparedness for immense change to virtual learning platform. The study recommends interventions meant to promote inclusive learning to minimize disparities for the vulnerable leaners and assist various countries to realize their already initiated 100 per cent transition policy. Significantly, the study contends that reflections on renewal and reimaging of education may prove fruitful towards catalyzing change for inclusion and access during epidemics to the advantage of our learners
... University administrators are motivated to present online content and assessments to ensure a broader student reach [6]. The COVID-19 pandemic converted this possibility into a necessity [7], [8], [9]. However, with the remote way of teaching comes the challenge of unsupervised online testing, shown to yield a higher possibility of fraud [9], [10], [11], challenging the fair principle of evaluation [12]. ...
... Given n students and g questions, the time complexity to compute the item selection probability for all questions is O(ng), the answer precedence between two students from their timestamps is O(g), the posterior weight calculus [see (7) and (8)) is O(g), the network inference is then O(np + n 2 p) = O(n 2 p), and the subsequent scoring of all students in the network according to (10) is O(n 2 β). Accordingly, the principled generation of quiz answers and subsequent description of null models is O(kn 2 (β + g)), where k is the number of simulations. ...
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Online evaluation systems, pervasive nowadays, are known to be susceptible to higher fraud risks. This work proposes a novel and robust method to detect potential fraud acts in online multiple-choice question (MCQ) exams. For the first time, the communication probability between the examinees is statistically assessed based on the concordance of responses and answer time against null expectations and is subsequently used to identify potential fraud behavior. The model is sensitive to the direction of communication acts, distinguishing content consumption from production, as well as multiwise communication channels. Online remote tests from engineering courses at Técnico Lisboa are used as a case study. We show that the cumulative contribution of concordant responses between students, when recurrent, offers a way of signaling fraud behavior. Separating content production from consumption reveals the underlying student role played in potential fraud acts. Collusion behavior is assessed against null models of fraud and conformity, and therefore being statistically framed and offering a solid criterion to guide tutors in ascertaining fraud and discouraging communication.
... The Covid-19 Pandemic, which emerged for the first time in Wuhan, China in December 2019, has begun to show its effects in many areas such as health, society, economy, and education all over the world, including Turkey (Gören et al., 2020;Sönmez, Yıldırım & Çetinkaya, 2020;McRoy et al., 2020;Zhang et al., 2020;Marek, Chew, & Wu, 2021). In many countries, comprehensive measures have begun to be taken, such as travel restrictions, lockouts, cancellation of events, and cessation of face-to-face activities in education in order to be protected from the effects of the pandemic and not to endanger human health (Mengi & Alpdoğan, 2020;Budak & Korkmaz, 2020;Yılmaz et al., 2020;Bergdahl & Nouri, 2021;Toquero, 2020;Kivi et al., 2021). ...
In this study, it was aimed to determine the views of music teachers who delivered distance musical instrument education within the scope of amateur music education during the Covid-19 pandemic. The study group of the research consisted of 19 music teachers determined by the purposive sampling method, and the data were obtained with a semi-structured interview form, most of which consisted of open-ended questions. In line with the findings obtained from the study, it was determined that the musical instrument education carried out by the teachers participating in the research during the pandemic had a positive impact on the lesson process, the motivation of the student, self-confidence, study discipline, and individual responsibility. In addition, it has been determined that teachers have experienced some negativities in terms of the teaching process and technology in distance education carried out during the pandemic.
... Krantz and Fernandes (2020) reported that in Fall 2020, Harvard and MIT saw an increase in admission deferments from 1 to 20 and 8%, respectively. Not less importantly, the COVID-19 pandemic had started outside the United States at the end of 2019 (i.e., much sooner than it became a major concern in the United States) which has clearly reduced the number of incoming international students which had been declining for 3 consecutive years even preceding the pandemic (Crawford et al., 2020;Fischer, 2020;Toquero, 2020). Therefore, it is important to keep in mind that whatever changes in enrollment trends we are seeing these days are not solely due to the pandemic. ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic has affected various aspects of our lives. For many, it has affected their ability to attend school. While some have switched to online classes, others have had to drop or delay college until later. Using official enrollment data for 12 public universities in the State of Texas, this study explores the impact the COVID-19 pandemic has had on student enrollment in criminal justice programs. A series of statistical techniques, including t-tests comparing pre- and post-pandemic enrollment numbers and panel data analysis models, are utilized to investigate the trends and changes in the program enrollments between 2009 and 2021. While in alignment with the existing research on the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on college enrollment in general the authors have found a negative statistically significant effect of the pandemic on total college enrollment for all universities in the sample, no statistically significant effect of the pandemic was found on enrollment in criminal justice programs at 12 public universities. The effect was also non-existent for engineering and all social science programs combined. In contrast to all other programs studied herein, enrollment in natural science programs was found to be positively associated with the pandemic. Authors offer an explanation for these findings as well as suggest ideas for future research.
... The COVID-19 pandemic spread across the globe restricting numerous sectors from working intact, especially for higher education causing the closure of traditional classes. Because of the vulnerability of face-to-face classes, thousands of school closures had been implemented to curb the continuous increase in cases (Toquero, 2020). This closure affected more than 1.2 billion learners worldwide (Tria, 2020) while in the Philippines the current education shifted to online and modular access which also affected more than 28 million learners in the country (UNESCO, 2020). ...
The rise of the COVID-19 pandemic has led to the overhaul of the conduct of teaching and learning particularly in the assessment of learners during a time of crisis trapped in many structural and practical challenges. This study examines the assessment practices and strategies to protect its quality and integrity in the delivery of teaching and learning among higher education students at Zamboanga Peninsula Polytechnic State University, Zamboanga City, Philippines. This research employs a comprehensive and reliable survey questionnaire on the assessment practices and strategies for assessment, including its quality and integrity. A total of 300 students and teachers were purposefully selected for the study. Based on the findings, practical assessment and skill assessment were among the most widely employed strategies by the teachers. There was a need for skill development in distance learning which calls teachers to integrate it into skill assessment strategies. The study yields the current practices of the teachers in assessing the academic performances of the students, strategies to execute their assessment practices that comply with the health protocols, and strategies to safeguard the quality and integrity of these assessments despite the difficulties in the learning environment. This study is integral to extending the body of knowledge regarding the different assessment practices and strategies and how these influence the delivery of online education. Nevertheless, academic institutions should reconfigure their assessment practices in terms of which of these suits well their stakeholders.
... According to Toquero [4], educational institutions must strengthen practices in the learning modalities and develop the essential requirements of students beyond the conventional classroom. In reacting to the changing educational landscape, the research results of this study may assist graduate school departments in revising their learning platforms, both in-person and remote learning. ...
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Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2020, university students experienced difficulties with their education. Research shows that the constraints were mostly felt by international post-graduate students. Possibly, their small social networks, constrained employment options, and travel restrictions worldwide could have played a part. This chapter does a literature review on the lived-experiences of international post-graduate students studying in foreign universities, especially in a South African university. Questions guiding the review were: 1. What inferences are made from literature on experiences of international post-graduate students studying in South African universities? 2. What suggestions are made by literature to alleviate their difficulties? The chapter demonstrates the discriminatory tendencies of government programs and how higher education institutions were required to abruptly close residences. The closure escalated the adversity of most international students. Further, the chapter partakes in the discourse analyses of the plight of international students and hopes to influence future direction of international education policy during crises times. The chapter concludes that in internationalisation issues, a more conscious decision of the interests and needs of international post-graduate students should be seriously considered to be socially acceptable, justifiable and fair.
This research study dealt with the comprehensive assessment of the socio-emotional condition of MSU at Naawan constituents during the time of the pandemic. The study employed both quantitative and qualitative data in describing and making inferences as to the social and emotional concerns of 1,045 students and 63 members of the faculty and staff. This study revealed that students tend to become more stressed as they enter into a higher level of schooling due to the increment in tasks and school responsibilities. However, as the respondents become more mature with age, the socio-emotional condition of the respondents tends to fare better as evidenced in the significantly healthier socio-emotional condition of MSU at Naawan employees compared to their younger student counterparts. This research study further implies that gender and family monthly income significantly influence the level of socio-emotional condition of the respondents; providing pieces of evidence that male respondents have a higher level of optimism, self-management of emotions, and general well-being, compared to their female counterparts; and indicating further that those respondents with lower family monthly income significantly revealed a lower level of general well-being. Moreover, the socio-emotional situation of the students significantly affects their academic performance, implying that students with better grades are also indicated to have better socio-emotional conditions. Based on the findings of this study, a tiered and gender-based intervention program among MSU at Naawan employees and students was crafted and implemented.
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A pandemia de Covid-19 trouxe inúmeros desafios para a educação à nível global. A grande quantidade de mudanças exigiu que professores, escolas, alunos e famílias se adaptassem rapidamente, mudando a forma de aprender e ensinar mesmo após o período pandêmico. Este trabalho teve como objetivo discutir alguns fatores relacionados à educação após a crise da pandemia de Covid-19. A metodologia utilizada trata-se de uma revisão sistemática da literatura. A partir dos achados, observou-se que a tecnologia veio de uma forma permanente, ou seja, mesmo após a pandemia ferramentas como google meet, entre outras, passarão a ser utilizadas de forma contínua. Professores e alunos passaram a usar tecnologia com maior frequência, se familiarizando cada vez com diferentes tipos de ferramentas. Contudo, é necessário levantar um alerta para que o ensino pós-pandêmico mantenha algumas características fundamentais, como por exemplo, considerar o aluno como protagonista no seu próprio desenvolvimento, fazendo com que este possa aprender a lidar melhor com essas ferramentas de uma forma autônoma, sendo o professor responsável por guiá-lo em seu percurso.
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Nowadays, we all are sitting in our homes and watching what is going on in the world, as if we are watching a science fiction movie, in which we have the leading role. Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19), which first appeared in Wuhan (Abdulamir, & Hafidh, 2020; Ait Addi et al., 2020 Aljofan, & Gaipov, 2020; Sorooshian, 2020) and later turned into a pandemic affecting the entire world, does not discriminate between the degree of democracy, finances, religion, gender, ethnicity and region. World is a fireplace and we all are “burning”. In the countries where the pandemic is progressing rapidly, all health professionals, regardless of their area of expertise, have been called to the field. This reminds us of the need to revive the general perspective that we have begun to forget. That is to say, no matter how specific our area of expertise is, we are obliged to keep the general perspective of our field and basic doctrines constantly fresh.
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With all learning institutions pre-maturely closed on 20 March 2020 and all citizens advised to self-isolate in a bid to control the spread of COVID-19, it was hypothesized that COVID-19 would negatively impact on the performance of students in the 2020 Grade 12 national examinations vis-à-vis mathematics, science and design and technology subjects. An observed steady increase in the number of COVID-19 confirmed cases and the low levels of technology use in secondary schools in Zambia due to limited technology resources signifies a very difficult period in a young country which has just rolled out a nation-wide implementation of STEM education, This study collected data from three teachers at a public secondary school in Chipata District of Eastern Province in the Republic of Zambia. The Head of Department for Mathematics, the Head of Natural Sciences Department and one science teacher were interviewed. Semi-structured interviews via mobile phone were used to collect views of what these specialists thought would be the COVID- 19 effects on the general performance of students in their subject areas. Results of this study revealed that there is likely to be a drop in the pass percentage of secondary school students in this year’s national examinations if the COVID-19 epidemic is not contained in the shortest possible time considering that the school academic calendar was abruptly disturbed by the early untimely closure of all schools in the country.
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The novel coronavirus COVID-19 originally identified in December 2019, based on the data issued by March 30, 2020 daily report, the epidemic of SARS-CoV-2 so far has caused 693224 cases and resulted in 33106 deaths in more than 200 countries. Referring to the data reported, World Health Organization declared the outbreak a pandemic. We considered the chain-binomial type of the model which involves short stages of high infectivity and approximately constant incubation periods. This research paper is to study and analyze the COVID-19 Virus spreading statistics on the examples of the cases from the different counties. High correlation coefficients (91.64%) and determinants (83.98%) between the total volumes of virus spread and recovery are considered to be high and indicate the correctness of the Bailey model. Thus, as of March 30, with the results of statistical and mathematical data processing, it is difficult to predict the future spread-reduction variables of the pandemic.
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Novel Coronavirus, COVID-19 discovered in December, 2019 in Wuhan, China started a world-wide epidemic. It is not clear till now what is the pathogenesis of this virus infection in human or the exact strategies of host immune response in combating this novel threat to human beings. However, morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 infections vary widely from asymptomatic, mild to deadly critical. Strangely, children were found to be protected from severe or deadly critical infections, while elderly and immunocompromised adults are most affected badly by this virus. It is necessary to disclose the possible viral and host interactions that lead to such variable morbid effects among patients of COVID-19 infections.
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The epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), originating in Wuhan, China, has become a major public health challenge for not only China but also countries around the world. The World Health Organization announced that the outbreaks of the novel coronavirus have constituted a public health emergency of international concern. As of February 26, 2020, COVID-19 has been recognized in 34 countries, with a total of 80,239 laboratory-confirmed cases and 2,700 deaths. Infection control measures are necessary to prevent the virus from further spreading and to help control the epidemic situation. Due to the characteristics of dental settings, the risk of cross infection can be high between patients and dental practitioners. For dental practices and hospitals in areas that are (potentially) affected with COVID-19, strict and effective infection control protocols are urgently needed. This article, based on our experience and relevant guidelines and research, introduces essential knowledge about COVID-19 and nosocomial infection in dental settings and provides recommended management protocols for dental practitioners and students in (potentially) affected areas.
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This research is a qualitative study to determine the opinions of preschool teachers and pre-service teachers on environmental education and environmental awareness for sustainable development. The phenomenology approach, which focuses on individuals’ own experiences and the meaning of a phenomenon, was used in this direction. The study group of the research consisted of 68 preschool teachers and 72 pre-service preschool teachers. In the study, a semi-structured interview form consisting of open-ended questions was used as a data collection tool. The content analysis technique was used in the analysis of the data obtained from the interview form. According to the research results, it can be said that pre-service teachers have more theoretical knowledge than teachers and teachers have more practical knowledge than pre-service teachers. This can be explained by the fact that the knowledge that pre-service teachers obtain at university is quite new, they spend more limited time with children within the scope of applied courses, teachers communicate much more with children every day and they are more distant from theoretical knowledge. Furthermore, it can be said that teachers and pre-service teachers are sensitive towards environmental problems, interested in environmental education, willing and open to development.
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Introduction Psychological distress (in the form of depression, anxiety, and stress) among college students is prevalent and increasing. In most instances, college students with mental health issues are not seeking treatment. Although not a new phenomenon, little progress has been made toward promoting students’ use of mental health services in Jordan. Aim To measure depression, anxiety, and stress among college students in Jordan and explore their awareness of available mental health services. Methods A convenience sample (n = 600) was tested using the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale. Students answered questions concerning the use of campus mental health services. Results Findings showed college students have a moderate level of depression, severe level of anxiety, and a moderate level of stress. Half were not aware that psychological support services were available, although 54.4% indicated they experienced problems. Conclusion Similar results have been reported in non‐Arab countries. Anxiety appears to be high in college students worldwide. Strategies are needed to promote awareness of resources and encourage access. Nurses are ideally suited for promoting awareness among students on seeking help. They are also needed to screen students for mental health problems and provide counseling as needed.
Starting from the spring of 2020, the outbreak of the COVID‐19 caused Chinese universities to close the campuses and forced them to initiate online teaching. This paper focuses on a case of Peking University's online education. Six specific instructional strategies are presented to summarize current online teaching experiences for university instructors who might conduct online education in similar circumstances. The study concludes with five high‐impact principles for online education: (a) high relevance between online instructional design and student learning, (b) effective delivery on online instructional information, (c) adequate support provided by faculty and teaching assistants to students; (d) high‐quality participation to improve the breadth and depth of student's learning, and (e) contingency plan to deal with unexpected incidents of online education platforms.
The COVID‐19 pandemic is currently spreading across the world in an unprecedented way. “Social distancing” has become the latest buzzword in the headlines of media covering the COVID‐19 pandemic As a result, the widely implemented social distancing measures has generated one unprecedented shift that pushes various types of human social interactions from dominantly offline to dominantly online. This becomes a “new normal” in our daily life. For our research community of studying technology‐related behavior, the COVID‐19 pandemic provides an unprecedented opportunity to join the worldwide efforts to fight against the current pandemic and Human Behavior and Emerging Technologies calls for studies examining how humans behavior with emerging technologies in extreme events such as the COVID‐19 pandemic.
An outbreak of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) that began in Wuhan, China, has spread rapidly, with cases now confirmed in multiple countries. We report the first case of 2019-nCoV infection confirmed in the United States and describe the identification, diagnosis, clinical course, and management of the case, including the patient's initial mild symptoms at presentation with progression to pneumonia on day 9 of illness. This case highlights the importance of close coordination between clinicians and public health authorities at the local, state, and federal levels, as well as the need for rapid dissemination of clinical information related to the care of patients with this emerging infection.