Teaching and Learning Cultural Metacognition in Marketing and Sales Education

  • U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, Columbus, Ohio, United States
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Thinking about cultural assumptions, referred to as cultural metacognition, can help increase awareness, build trust, and create successful marketing and sales outcomes. The role of cultural metacognition in marketing and sales education helps students build a cultural metacognition knowledge base and promotes appreciation of its importance and effect on business enhancement. The context of this article will help amplify knowledge, ideas, and skills necessary to connect various issues of teaching and learning cultural metacognition. This article will facilitate business educators' teaching practices that foster learning cultural metacognition and its effects on marketing and sales. The ultimate goal is to help elevate teaching, learning, and assessment practices related to the topic of cultural metacognition in marketing and sales education.

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... For example, explicit coaching or discussion about metacognitive skills is an effective way to show students why metacognition matters and when and how to use the skills (Bae and Kwon, 2019;Santangelo et al., 2021). Turning to intercultural education, such metacognitive skills may include self-monitoring, which is used to constantly check for one's cultural understanding (Phelan, 2019;Liao and Thomas, 2020), regulating, which involves adapting cognitive activities and ensuring the achievement of cognitive goals (Liao and Thomas, 2020), perspective-taking, which is also a reflective skill and involves considering how cultural factors shape individuals' thoughts and behaviors ; Van der Horst and Albertyn, 2018), mindfulness, which helps individuals avoid inappropriate or automatic behaviors by learning to observe their own thoughts, emotions, and habits (Thomas, 2006; Van der Horst and Albertyn, 2018), etc. While Earley and Peterson (2004) suggested decades ago that a specific discussion of metacognitive strategies in intercultural training could promote learners' ability to transfer a concept from an example case to a novel situation, explicit coaching or discussion on these cultural metacognitive skills has rarely been conducted in classroom instructions for enhancing IC. ...
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The soaring demand for intercultural competence (IC) in the globalized world has made it a key concern in foreign language education. Most existing training on IC has often focused on providing immersive intercultural experiences, equipping learners with cultural knowledge, and simulating intercultural situations. However, some of these approaches may not be feasible in English as a foreign language (EFL) classrooms, nor are they effective to prepare learners to cope with the complexities and uncertainties in novel intercultural situations unless there specifically involves higher-order thinking. Thus, this study took a perspective of cultural metacognition and examined whether and how could an instructional design that highlighted cultural metacognition facilitate learners’ IC development in an EFL classroom at the tertiary level in Chinese mainland. Fifty-eight undergraduate students enrolled in an English Listening, Viewing, and Speaking course were involved in the instruction, and questionnaires and focus groups were employed for the data collection. A paired sample t-test revealed that there was a significant enhancement in students’ intercultural competence in terms of affective, metacognitive, and behavioral dimensions, but not in the knowledge dimension. Thematic analysis indicated that the instructional design was effective in supporting students’ intentional knowledge acquiring, developing positive intercultural attitudes, and promoting the translation of cognition into actions. The findings thus confirmed that the instructional design featuring cultural metacognition can be used in domestic EFL contexts, such as College English classrooms at the tertiary level in Chinese mainland, as an effective way of enhancing learners’ IC. This study also offered additional evidence of how students’ IC development was achieved through a range of metacognitive processes, which may provide implications for teachers to design their IC instructions in similar EFL educational settings.
The multiple aspects of safety and security of people have always deserved the highest importance in human society. Today, the world faces huge, general instability with constant global risks and threats in daily life. Instability and insecurity jeopardize the economy and social relations at all levels. Those involved in economic activities like tourism have always understood safety and security are essential conditions for development. Coastal and maritime tourism are very vulnerable. This chapter covers the safety and security of the tourist in activities he can perform in coastal and maritime territories and the risks and threats he can face there. Authors present a Portuguese situation on the subject, and give ideas to minimize insecurity from both points of view (safety and security) in coastal and maritime tourism.
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