ArticlePDF Available

Abstract

Premise of research. Salvia is one of the most species-rich genera in the world. Its outstanding diversity and subcosmopolitan distribution have prevented the preparation of a modern comprehensive monograph and re-evaluation of its classification. As phylogenetic efforts advance to untangle the evolutionary relationships of Salvia, the need for a solid taxonomic footing is increasingly imperative. Accordingly, we present an updated checklist of the species richness and distribution of Salvia subg. Calosphace, which constitutes more than half of the diversity of the genus. Methodology. A preliminary checklist of the species of Salvia subg. Calosphace was compiled through examination of the literature and online databases; this was revised and discussed by the authors in order to retrieve a consensus list. The distribution of each species by country or territory as well as by biome was also recorded from the sources consulted; affinities in composition were visualized with the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean based on a dissimilarity matrix (Sørensen’s index). Pivotal results. Salvia subg. Calosphace comprises 580 species; 30 were qualified as unresolved and require further analysis. The countries with the highest species richness are Mexico (295 spp.), Peru (77 spp.), Colombia (60 spp.), Brazil (58 spp.), Guatemala (49 spp.), and Ecuador (41 spp.). The affinity in species composition between countries and between biomes is explained mainly by geographical proximity. Conclusions. The updated list of the species of Salvia subg. Calosphace will help to guide sampling for phylogenetic analyses, enabling the achievement of a more stable and solid phylogenetic hypothesis. At the same time, it is a potentially important tool for underpinning discussions toward a new sectional classification of the lineage.
A preview of the PDF is not available
... Salvia subgenus Calosphace is the most diverse subgenus of Salvia, including about half of the species of the genus (587 spp, González-Gallegos et al., 2020; Figure 1). It is endemic to America (Ramamoorthy and Elliot, 1993;Froissart, 2008;González-Gallegos et al., 2020), and its species are mainly distributed in the Neotropics Fragoso-Martínez et al., 2018). Mexico is the main centre of diversification of Calosphace, harbouring 295 species. ...
... Mexico is the main centre of diversification of Calosphace, harbouring 295 species. Secondary centres are found in the Andean region and the Antilles, and the most outstanding endemism level is found in Mexico (82%), followed by Brazil (72%), Peru (63%), and Colombia (61%) (González-Gallegos et al., 2020). Calosphace is monophyletic and was originally subdivided into several sections by Epling (1939). ...
... The species considered for this review were selected from those correctly identified and reported to belong to subgenus Calosphace according to the checklists of Martínez-Gordillo et al. (2017) and González-Gallegos et al. (2020). Then accordingly, the ethnopharmacology and phytochemistry studies were searched in scientific databases of several platforms and editorials such as Google, Google Scholar, PubMed, Elsevier, Science Direct, Springer, Wiley online library, Taylor and Francis, ACS, and RSC using keywords like Salvia, Calosphace, and more specific terms such as epithets (e.g., Salvia adenophora, S. assurgens, and S. urica, etc.) which were also combined with other words such as pharmacological, ethnobotany, chemistry, terpenoids. ...
Article
Full-text available
Salvia is the most diverse genus within the mint family (Lamiaceae), many of its species are well-known due to their medicinal and culinary uses. Most of the ethnopharmacological and phytochemical studies on Salvia are centred on species from the European and Asian clades. However, studies about the most diverse clade, the Neotropical sages (Salvia subgenus Calosphace; 587 spp.), are relatively scarce. This review aims to compile the information on the traditional medicinal uses, pharmacological and phytochemistry properties of the Neotropical sages. To do so, we carried out a comprehensive review of the articles available in different online databases published from the past to 2022 (i.e., PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science, among others) and summarized the information in tables. To uncover phylogenetic patterns in the distribution of four different groups of metabolites (mono-, sesqui-, di-, and triterpenes), we generated presence-absence matrices and plotted the tip states over a dated phylogeny of Salvia. We found several studies involving Mexican species of Salvia, but only a few about taxa from other diversity centres. The main traditional uses of the Mexican species of Calosphace are medicinal and ceremonial. In traditional medicine 56 species are used to treat diseases from 17 categories according to the WHO, plus cultural-bound syndromes. Pharmacological studies reveal a wide range of biological properties (e.g., antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic, cytotoxic, and antidiabetic, etc.) found in extracts and isolated compounds of 38 Neotropical sages. From extracts of these species, at least 109 compounds have been isolated, identified and evaluated pharmacologically; 73 of these compounds are clerodanes, 21 abietanes, six flavonoids, five sesquiterpenoids, and four triterpenoids. The most characteristic metabolites found in the Neotropical sages are the diterpenes, particularly clerodanes (e.g., Amarisolide A, Tilifodiolide), that are found almost exclusively in this group. The Neotropical sages are a promising resource in the production of herbal medication, but studies that corroborate the properties that have been attributed to them in traditional medicine are scarce. Research of these metabolites guided by the phylogenies is recommended, since closely related species tend to share the presence of similar compounds and thus similar medicinal properties.
... La magnitud de su diversidad engloba una gama amplia de variación morfológica y química (Harley et al., 2004;Kintzios, 2000;Lawrence, 1992;Richardson, 1992), de estrategias de polinización y dispersión (Celep et al., 2014;Claßen-Bockhoff, 2007;Huck, 1992;Wester y Claßen-Bockhoff, 2011;Zona, 2017), así como de valores utilitarios presentes y ancestrales (El-Gazzar y Watson, 1969;Heinrich, 1992;Kansole-Michelline et al., 2015;Kintzios, 2000;Reisfield, 1993;Rivera-Núñez y Obónde Castro, 1992); por ejemplo, el uso de la chía (Salvia hispanica L.) como alimento, en medicina tradicional, en ritos religiosos y para producir laca de recubrimiento de trabajos artísticos (Cahill, 2003(Cahill, , 2005. Lamiaceae, por lo tanto, ofrece oportunidades interesantes de estudio en diferentes ramas de la ciencia, desde prospección de los compuestos activos que contienen sus especies, hasta modelos de estudios ecológico-evolutivos y biogeográficos (Arizmendi et al., 2008;González-Gallegos, Bedolla-García et al., 2020;Kriebel et al., 2019;Rosas-Guerrero et al., 2017;Sharma et al., 2017;Strelin et al., 2017;Wilson et al., 2017). ...
... The knowledge of the diversity of the genus Salvia Linnaeus (1753: 23) in Mexico has been almost in a permanent hustle in the last years due either to the recent phylogenetic attention and taxonomic novelties derived from botanical exploration and regional Flora projects. The country possesses 317 native species in total, of these, 298 belong to subgenus Calosphace (Bentham 1833: 198) Epling (1939a: 4) (Martínez-Gordillo et al. 2017, González-Gallegos et al. 2020a, 2020b, Fragoso-Martínez et al. 2021, 14 to subgenus Audibertia Walker et al. (2015: 837) (Epling 1939b, Walker et al. 2015, Martínez-Gordillo et al. 2017, and 5 to the informal group "Heterosphace" according to Kriebel et al. (2019) (Walker & Elisens 2001, Martínez-Gordillo et al. 2017. This high richness in native species places Mexico in the first position above Turkey (100-109 spp.; Celep et al. 2015, Celep & Dirmenci 2017, China (83 spp; Li & Hedge 1994, Hu et al. 2018, Wei et al. 2019, Peru (78 spp.; Zarucchi 1993, González-Gallegos et al. 2020, Wood & Uría 2021 and Iran (63 spp.; Jamzad 2013, Ranjbar & Paketchi 2014, Akhani et al. 2016. ...
Article
An undescribed Salvia species was discovered in savannoid vegetation in the municipality of Cosalá, Sinaloa, during botanical explorations addressed to document the endemic species of this Mexican state. This plant is morphologically most similar to Salvia pringlei, sharing with this the peculiar character of connivent calyces during fructification enclosing the mericarps. However, the new species differs by having smaller floral bracts, deep blue corollas instead of magenta, shorter corollas, corolla lips subequal in length, and shorter connectives and styles. Consequently, we describe and diagnosed this taxon as Salvia beltraniorum. A distribution map, photographs and an identification key to Salvia species in Sinaloa are also provided.
... Mexico has 31 genera and 598 species. The most diverse genus is Salvia, with 306 species, where the subgenus Calosphace is one of the most diverse, with 295 species from the 580 included in the group [36]. Oaxaca is the state with the greatest diversity, while Jalisco houses the largest number of endemic species. ...
Article
Full-text available
The search for molecules that contribute to the relief of pain is a field of research in constant development. Lamiaceae is one of the most recognized families world-wide for its use in traditional medicine to treat diseases that include pain and inflammation. Mexico can be considered one of the most important centers of diversification, and due to the high endemism of this family, it is crucial for the in situ conservation of this family. Information about the most common genera and species found in this country and their uses in folk medicine are scarcely reported in the literature. After an extensive inspection in bibliographic databases, mainly Sciencedirect, Pubmed and Springer, almost 1200 articles describing aspects of Lamiaceae were found; however, 217 articles were selected because they recognize the Mexican genera and species with antinociceptive and/or anti-inflammatory potential to relieve pain, such as Salvia and Agastache. The bioactive constituents of these genera were mainly terpenes (volatile and non-volatile) and phenolic compounds such as flavonoids (glycosides and aglycone). The aim of this review is to analyze important aspects of Mexican genera of Lamiaceae, scarcely explored as a potential source of secondary metabolites responsible for the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of these species. In addition, we point out the possible mechanisms of action involved and the modulatory pathways investigated in different experimental models. As a result of this review, it is important to mention that scarce information has been reported regarding species of this family from Mexican genera. In fact, despite Calosphace being one of the largest subgenera of Salvia in the world, found mainly in Mexico, it has been barely investigated regarding its potential biological activities and recognized bioactive constituents. The scientific evidence regarding the different bioactive constituents found in species of Lamiaceae demonstrates that several species require further investigation in preclinical studies, and of course also in controlled clinical trials evaluating the efficacy and safety of these natural products to support their therapeutic potential in pain relief and/or inflammation, among other health conditions. Since Mexico is one of the most important centers of diversification, and due to the high endemism of species of this family, it is crucial their rescue, in situ conservation, and investigation of their health benefits.
... Salvia, Sclarea), and especially, Mexico, Central, and South America (∼580 spp., subg. Calosphace; González-Gallegos et al., 2020). Salvia is not only of interest from an economic perspective, given its culinary use (e.g., chia: S. hispanica L.; rosemary: S. rosmarinus (L.) Spenn.; sage: S. officinalis L.), but also in its horticultural importance (e.g., blue sage: S. nemorosa L.; pineapple sage: S. elegans Vahl; Russian sage: S. yangii B.T.Drew). ...
Article
Full-text available
Next-generation sequencing technologies have facilitated new phylogenomic approaches to help clarify previously intractable relationships while simultaneously highlighting the pervasive nature of incongruence within and among genomes that can complicate definitive taxonomic conclusions. Salvia L., with ∼1,000 species, makes up nearly 15% of the species diversity in the mint family and has attracted great interest from biologists across subdisciplines. Despite the great progress that has been achieved in discerning the placement of Salvia within Lamiaceae and in clarifying its infrageneric relationships through plastid, nuclear ribosomal, and nuclear single-copy genes, the incomplete resolution has left open major questions regarding the phylogenetic relationships among and within the subgenera, as well as to what extent the infrageneric relationships differ across genomes. We expanded a previously published anchored hybrid enrichment dataset of 35 exemplars of Salvia to 179 terminals. We also reconstructed nearly complete plastomes for these samples from off-target reads. We used these data to examine the concordance and discordance among the nuclear loci and between the nuclear and plastid genomes in detail, elucidating both broad-scale and species-level relationships within Salvia. We found that despite the widespread gene tree discordance, nuclear phylogenies reconstructed using concatenated, coalescent, and network-based approaches recover a common backbone topology. Moreover, all subgenera, except for Audibertia, are strongly supported as monophyletic in all analyses. The plastome genealogy is largely resolved and is congruent with the nuclear backbone. However, multiple analyses suggest that incomplete lineage sorting does not fully explain the gene tree discordance. Instead, horizontal gene flow has been important in both the deep and more recent history of Salvia. Our results provide a robust species tree of Salvia across phylogenetic scales and genomes. Future comparative analyses in the genus will need to account for the impacts of hybridization/introgression and incomplete lineage sorting in topology and divergence time estimation.
Article
Full-text available
Salvia is a genetically diverse genus in the Lamiaceae family, with hundreds of species distributed globally. With base chromosome numbers ranging from 6 to 19 and ploidy levels ranging from diploid to octoploid, the genus has been proposed to be subdivided based on molecular data rather than morphology. However, little is known about total DNA content across the genus. The DNA content of 141 Salvia genotypes were analyzed using flow cytometry. Samples of Salvia were stained with propidium iodide and compared with the internal standards Pisum sativum ‘Ctirad’ and Solanum lycopersicum ‘Stupické’ to generate estimations of DNA content. Holoploid 2C genome sizes of the analyzed Salvia ranged from 0.63 pg to 6.12 pg. DNA content showed a wide distribution across chromosome number, ploidy, and clade. The wide distribution of DNA content across the genus further indicates the diversity of Salvia and may be useful for future breeding efforts.
Article
Full-text available
The genus Salvia is comprised of about 1000 species and has diversity hotspots in the Americas, East Asia, southwest Asia and the Mediterranean region. Central Asia also possesses considerable Salvia species diversity but is understudied relative to the aforementioned diversity hotspots. To help remedy this deficiency, we present a synopsis of Central Asian Salvia species based on extensive fieldwork, herbarium consultation, and literature surveys focusing on Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, and Turkmenistan (i.e., Central Asia). According to our final taxonomic revision, there are 41 species of native Salvia in the flora of Central Asia, 24 of which are endemic. Salvia ariana from Tajikistan and S. spinosa from Kazakhstan are documented from the respective countries for the first time, and the presence of S. tianschanica from Tajikistan and S. verticillata from Kazakhstan has been confirmed. In addition, the neotypification of S. deserta and three lectotypifications (Perovskia abrotanoides, S. bucharica and S. trautvetterii) are provided. Furthermore, we synonymized six species of Salvia that were previously reported from Central Asia, including S. intercedens, S. kopetdaghensis, S. linczevskii, S. lipskyi, S. semilanata and S. stepposa. Finally, a new species identification key for Central Asian Salvia is presented based on the new nomenclature changes and our taxonomic revision.
Article
Full-text available
Salvia leucantha (Lamiaceae) is an important horticultural plant with great ornamental and economic value. Here, we report the complete chloroplast genome of this species. The chloroplast genome was determined to be 151021 bp and the GC contents was 38.0%. The sequence includes a large single copy (LSC) region of 82,262 bp, a small single copy (SSC) region of 17,537 bp, and two separated inverted regions of 25,611 bp each. It contains 130 unique genes, including 85 protein-coding genes, 37 tRNA genes, and 8 rRNA genes. Based on the chloroplast genomes data of 26 species in Salvia, our result indicated that S. leucantha, S. tiliifolia, S. hispanica, and S. splendens formed one clade with Bootstrap = 100%. The four species belong to Salvia subgenus Calosphace, and S. leucantha was closely related to Salvia tiliifolia and Salvia hispanica. This result will facilitate population, genetic diversity and phylogenetic studies of S. leucantha.
Article
Full-text available
The evolutionary relationships of Salvia have been difficult to estimate. In this study, we used the Next Generation Sequencing method Hyb-Seq to evaluate relationships among 90 Lamiaceae samples, including representatives of Mentheae, Ocimeae, Salvia subgenera Audibertia, Leonia, Salvia, and 69 species of subgenus Calosphace, representing 32 of Epling's sections. A bait set was designed in MarkerMiner using available transcriptome data to enrich 119 variable nuclear loci. Nuclear and chloroplast loci were assembled with hybphylomaker (HPM), followed by coalescent approach analyses for nuclear data (ASTRAL, BEAST) and a concatenated Maximum Likelihood analysis of chloroplast loci. The HPM assembly had an average of 1,314,368 mapped reads for the sample and 527 putative exons. Phylogenetic inferences resolved strongly supported relationships for the deep-level nodes, agreeing with previous hypotheses which assumed that subgenus Audibertia is sister to subgenus Calosphace. Within subgenus Calosphace, we recovered eight monophyletic sections sensu Epling, Cardinalis, Hastatae, Incarnatae, and Uricae in all the analyses (nDNA and cpDNA), Biflorae, Lavanduloideae, and Sigmoideae in nuclear analyses (ASTRAL, BEAST) and Curtiflorae in ASTRAL trees. Network analysis supports deep node relationships, some of the main clades, and recovers reticulation within the core Calosphace. The chloroplast phylogeny resolved deep nodes and four monophyletic Calosphace sections. Placement of S. axillaris is distinct in nuclear evidence and chloroplast, as sister to the rest of the S. subg. Calosphace in chloroplast and a clade with "Hastatae clade" sister to the rest of the subgenus in nuclear evidence. We also tested the monophyly of S. hispanica, S. polystachia, S. purpurea, and S. tiliifolia, including two samples of each, and found that S. hispanica and S. purpurea are monophyletic. Our baits can be used in future studies of Lamiaceae phylogeny to estimate relationships between genera and among species. In this study, we presented a Hyb-Seq phylogeny for complex, recently diverged Salvia, which could be implemented in other Lamiaceae.
Article
Full-text available
The evolutionary relationships of Salvia have been difficult to estimate. In this study, we used the Next Generation Sequencing method Hyb-Seq to evaluate relationships among 90 Lamiaceae samples, including representatives of Mentheae, Ocimeae, Salvia subgenera Audibertia, Leonia, Salvia, and 69 species of subgenus Calosphace, representing 32 of Epling’s sections. A bait set was designed in MarkerMiner using available transcriptome data to enrich 119 variable nuclear loci. Nuclear and chloroplast loci were assembled with hybphylomaker (HPM), followed by coalescent approach analyses for nuclear data (ASTRAL, BEAST) and a concatenated Maximum Likelihood analysis of chloroplast loci. The HPM assembly had an average of 1,314,368 mapped reads for the sample and 527 putative exons. Phylogenetic inferences resolved strongly supported relationships for the deep-level nodes, agreeing with previous hypotheses which assumed that subgenus Audibertia is sister to subgenus Calosphace. Within subgenus Calosphace, we recovered eight monophyletic sections sensu Epling, Cardinalis, Hastatae, Incarnatae, and Uricae in all the analyses (nDNA and cpDNA), Biflorae, Lavanduloideae, and Sigmoideae in nuclear analyses (ASTRAL, BEAST) and Curtiflorae in ASTRAL trees. Network analysis supports deep node relationships, some of the main clades, and recovers reticulation within the core Calosphace. The chloroplast phylogeny resolved deep nodes and four monophyletic Calosphace sections. Placement of S. axillaris is distinct in nuclear evidence and chloroplast, as sister to the rest of the S. subg. Calosphace in chloroplast and a clade with “Hastatae clade” sister to the rest of the subgenus in nuclear evidence. We also tested the monophyly of S. hispanica, S. polystachia, S. purpurea, and S. tiliifolia, including two samples of each, and found that S. hispanica and S. purpurea are monophyletic. Our baits can be used in future studies of Lamiaceae phylogeny to estimate relationships between genera and among species. In this study, we presented a Hyb-Seq phylogeny for complex, recently diverged Salvia, which could be implemented in other Lamiaceae.
Article
Full-text available
Taxonomic monographs have the potential to make a unique contribution to the understanding of global biodiversity. However, such studies, now rare, are often considered too daunting to undertake within a realistic time frame, especially as the world’s collections have doubled in size in recent times. Here, we report a global-scale monographic study of morning glories (Ipomoea) that integrated DNA barcodes and high-throughput sequencing with the morphological study of herbarium specimens. Our approach overhauled the taxonomy of this megadiverse group, described 63 new species and uncovered significant increases in net diversification rates comparable to the most iconic evolutionary radiations in the plant kingdom. Finally, we show that more than 60 species of Ipomoea, including sweet potato, independently evolved storage roots in pre-human times, indicating that the storage root is not solely a product of human domestication but a trait that predisposed the species for cultivation. This study demonstrates how the world’s natural history collections can contribute to global challenges in the Anthropocene. Taxonomic monographs have been considered too vast and daunting as a source for studying biodiversity, but this novel study of morning glories combines herbarium specimens with DNA barcodes and high-throughput sequencing to describe new species and discover hidden traits.
Article
Full-text available
Premise of the study: A key question in evolutionary biology is why some clades are more successful by being widespread geographically, biome diverse, or species-rich. To extend understanding of how shifts in area, biomes, and pollinators impact diversification in plants, we examined the relationships of these shifts to diversification across the mega-genus Salvia. Methods: A chronogram was developed from a supermatrix of anchored hybrid enrichment genomic data and targeted sequence data for over 500 of the nearly 1000 Salvia species. Ancestral areas and biomes were reconstructed using BioGeoBEARS. Pollinator guilds were scored, ancestral pollinators determined, shifts in pollinator guilds identified, and rates of pollinator switches compared. Key results: A well-resolved phylogenetic backbone of Salvia and updated subgeneric designations are presented. Salvia originated in Southwest Asia in the Oligocene and subsequently dispersed worldwide. Biome shifts are frequent from a likely ancestral lineage utilizing broadleaf and/or coniferous forests and/or arid shrublands. None of the four species diversification shifts are correlated to shifts in biomes. Shifts in pollination system are not correlated to species diversification shifts, except for one hummingbird shift that precedes a major shift in diversification near the crown of New World subgen. Calosphace. Multiple reversals back to bee pollination occurred within this hummingbird clade. Conclusions: Salvia diversified extensively in different continents, biomes, and with both bee and bird pollinators. The lack of tight correlation of area, biome, and most pollinator shifts to the four documented species diversification shifts points to other important drivers of speciation in Salvia.
Article
Full-text available
The Neotropical region (tropical America) is the most species rich region on Earth. Several causes have been proposed to explain this extraordinary biodiversity, which may be very roughly classified into two major categories: 'biotic' (e.g.soil adaptations; biotic interactions with pollinators, dispersers and herbivores; niche conservatism; dispersal ability) and 'abiotic' (e.g.time; rainfall, temperature and area; mountain uplift; hydrological changes). In this paper we review the evidence for each of these postulated causes of diversification and provide general directions towards further testing. We highlight the need of more well-sampled and dated phylogenies and urge increased inter-disciplinary collaboration.
Article
Full-text available
The time of origin of cool-to-cold-temperate plants of northern affinities in the Latin American biota is unsettled. Two models have been proposed-a Paleogene origin from a once widespread temperate rain forest, and a Neogene origin by introductions from the north which is best supported by new evidence. Fourteen palynofloras of Tertiary age are now available from Mexico and Central America, in addition to numerous others from the southeastern United States and northern South America. Pollen of cool-temperate plants occurs in the Eocene of southeastern United States, but not in northern Mexico, central Panama, or northern South America. In the Miocene this pollen is sparse in deposits from Mexico and Guatemala, rare in Panama, and absent from northern South America. In the Pliocene pollen representing a diverse northern temperate element of ten genera is present in the Pliocene of southeastern Veracruz, Mexico, five in northeastern Guatemala, and two (Myrica, Salix) first appear in northern South America; Alnus and Quercus are added in the Pleistocene. This north-to-south and early-to-late pattern is consistent with the appearance of highlands in southern Central America and northern South America in the Neogene, closure of the isthmian marine portal between 3.5 and 2.5 Ma (million years ago), and the late Cenozoic cooling trend evident in the O/O-based paleotemperature curve.
Article
An essential component of biodiversity research and conservation is to accurately delimit species. Traditional morphology‐based taxonomy has faced great challenges in complex taxa. In the last few years, the focus of species delimitations has shifted from defining species using different species concepts to integrating multiple lines of evidence to characterize different aspects of the speciation process. This study employs an integrative taxonomic method to revise the species limits in Rhodiola sect. Trifida, based on multi‐locus sequence data from population‐level sampling, morphometric analyses, and ecological niche modeling. We surveyed 44 populations representing seven previously defined morphological species. We sequenced three plastid markers and three nuclear markers, and employed the coalescent‐based species delimitation method to assess the variational patterns from the molecular data. We also conducted a comprehensive morphological analysis, as well as ecological niche modeling for each species. The multidisciplinary data support Rhodiola liciae and R. sinuata as distinct species, which likely originated by allopatric isolation and ecological speciation. Rhodiola ovatisepala, R. sacra and R. sexifolia are suggested to be synonyms of R. chrysanthemifolia, and the status of R. alterna needs further verification. Our study suggests that the previous taxonomy of this group may depend on too many intra‐lineage variable traits, and showcases the importance of integrative taxonomy for species delimitations in morphologically complex plant groups.
Article
Previous molecular phylogenetic research, based on chloroplast and nuclear ribosomal DNA data, has demonstrated that the large genus Salvia (Lamiaceae) is paraphyletic as traditionally circumscribed. However, neither relationships within Salvia s.l. nor within subtribe Salviinae have been evaluated using low-copy nuclear gene regions. Here, we use two low-copy nuclear gene regions (PPR-AT3G09060, GBSSI) to further assess relationships of Salvia and related genera within Salviinae. Our results largely confirm results from previous studies based on chloroplast and nuclear ribosomal DNA. Based upon the phylogenetic results presented here, previous phylogenetic studies, and taxonomic, morphological, and practical considerations, we conclude that the botanical community would be best served by maintaining a broadly defined Salvia, including the five small embedded genera Dorystaechas, Meriandra, Perovskia, Rosmarinus, and Zhumeria as Salvia species. We subsequently present an updated circumscription of Salvia.
Article
Phylogenetic analysis is used to recover the evolutionary history of species, genes or proteins. Understanding phylogenetic relationships between organisms is a prerequisite of almost any evolutionary study, as contemporary species all share a common history through their ancestry. Moreover, it is important because of its wide applications that include understanding genome organization, epidemiological investigations, predicting protein functions, and deciding the genes to be analyzed in comparative studies. Despite immense progress in recent years, phylogenetic reconstruction involves many challenges that create uncertainty with respect to the true evolutionary relationships of the species or genes analyzed. One of the most notable difficulties is the widespread occurrence of incongruence among methods and also among individual genes or different genomic regions. Presence of widespread incongruence inhibits successful revealing of evolutionary relationships and applications of phylogenetic analysis. In this article, I concisely review the effect of various factors that cause incongruence in molecular phylogenies, the advances in the field that resolved some factors, and explore unresolved factors that cause incongruence along with possible ways for tackling them.
Article
We analyze distributional patterns of Neotropical flowering plants between 38° N and 55° S. Along with identification of centers of angiosperm biodiversity and endemism, we explore range size patterns and discuss implications for angiosperm evolution and conservation. Based on monographic and herbarium specimen data, a database for Neotropical angiosperms was created containing distributional and ecological data of more than 4,000 species and subspecific taxa, representing approximately 5% of all Neotropical angiosperms. Maps of species richness and endemism at 1° grid resolution were produced using a geographical information system (GIS). We found that the distribution area of most species was small (1% or less of the total Neotropical area) and that centers of narrow endemism were irregularly distributed, not coinciding with the hypothesized Pleistocene refugia and diversity hotspots. Based on identified centers of narrow endemism and forest conversion rates, we estimate that approximately 100 narrow endemic species are lost annually. Areas rich in narrow endemics but without protection status according to the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) Consortium are recognized. Our results suggest that the success of long-term conservation of angiosperm diversity relies on future protection of areas covering a larger portion of the identified centers of narrow endemism.
Article
Salvia, with over 900 species from both the Old and New World, is the largest genus in the Lamiaceae. Unlike most members of the subfamily Nepetoideae to which it belongs, only two stamens are expressed in Salvia. Although the structure of these stamens is remarkably variable across the genus, generally each stamen has an elongate connective and divergent anther thecae, which form a lever mechanism important in pollination. In a preliminary investigation of infrageneric relationships within Salvia, the monophyly of the genus and its relationship to other members of the tribe Mentheae were investigated using the chloroplast DNA regions rbcL and trnL-F. Significant conclusions drawn from the data include: Salvia is not monophyletic, Rosmarinus and Perovskia together are sister to an Old World clade of Salvia, the section Audibertia is sister to subgenus Calosphace or the monotypic Asian genus Dorystaechas, and the New World members of section Heterosphace are sister to section Salviastrum. Owing to the non-monophyly of Salvia, relationships at the next clearly monophyletic level, tribe Mentheae, were investigated.