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NaClO4 added, corn and arrowroot starch based economical, high conducting electrolyte membranes for flexible energy devices

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The increasing flexible and wearable electronic technology, demands cost effective and flexible energy devices which are safe to human body. Hence the benign biodegradable materials are becoming important class of materials for wearable energy devices. Starch is one such potential host renewable polymer which is abundant in nature and economical. Being a food ingredient, it is safe for human body. Its properties depends upon the amylose and amylopectin content in it and hence two different starches, corn (~ 27% amylose) and arrowroot (~ 15% amylose) are modified by sodium salt (NaClO4) and glutaraldehyde to develop flexible, transparent and free standing electrolyte membranes with high conductivity (> 10–3 S/cm). They have wide electrochemical stability window (> 2 V reaching upto 3.5 V) and low ESR. The relaxation time is of the order of µs and the cyclic voltammetry has indicated EDLC type of charge storage. At low frequency, the values of Cp/Cs are approaching to 1, indicating that all the available charges are polarizable and contributing to charge storage. The resonance frequency and frequency (f−45°) at which phase angle is −45°, are in kHz frequency range, i.e. the working frequency range is quite high. Electrolytes having corn starch (i.e. greater amount of amylose) have better performance on every electrochemical figure of merit. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42452-020-2660-0
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SN Applied Sciences (2020) 2:899 | https://doi.org/10.1007/s42452-020-2660-0
Research Article
NaClO4 added, corn andarrowroot starch based economical, high
conducting electrolyte membranes forexible energy devices
JagdishKumarChauhan1· DiptiYadav1· MadhaviYadav1· ManindraKumar2· TuhinaTiwari1· NeelamSrivastava1
Received: 21 November 2019 / Accepted: 31 March 2020 / Published online: 15 April 2020
© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020
Abstract
The increasing exible and wearable electronic technology, demands cost eective and exible energy devices which are
safe to human body. Hence the benign biodegradable materials are becoming important class of materials for wearable
energy devices. Starch is one such potential host renewable polymer which is abundant in nature and economical. Being
a food ingredient, it is safe for human body. Its properties depends upon the amylose and amylopectin content in it and
hence two dierent starches, corn (~ 27% amylose) and arrowroot (~ 15% amylose) are modied by sodium salt (NaClO4)
and glutaraldehyde to develop exible, transparent and free standing electrolyte membranes with high conductivity
(> 10–3 S/cm). They have wide electrochemical stability window (> 2V reaching upto 3.5V) and low ESR. The relaxation
time is of the order of µs and the cyclic voltammetry has indicated EDLC type of charge storage. At low frequency, the
values of Cp/Cs are approaching to 1, indicating that all the available charges are polarizable and contributing to charge
storage. The resonance frequency and frequency (f−45°) at which phase angle is −45°, are in kHz frequency range, i.e.
the working frequency range is quite high. Electrolytes having corn starch (i.e. greater amount of amylose) have better
performance on every electrochemical gure of merit.
Keywords Biopolymers· Flexible electrolyte· ESW· Relaxation time
1 Introduction
The technology of wearable electronics is advancing at great
pace and hence energy devices which are safe to human
beings and cost eective are the demand of the time. That’s
why researchers are trying to synthesize basic components
(electrode and electrolytes) of energy devices from natural/
renewable materials. The present paper deals with elec-
trolytes for exible and wearable devices. Ions, being big-
ger particle, need more space for moving and that’s why
the liquid electrolytes always give better conductivity in
comparison to solid electrolytes, but many drawbacks like
leakage, corrosion etc. are associated with them. Hence
polymer electrolytes, which have solid physique and amor-
phous morphology, gained great popularity after the work
of Armand and White in 1970s. Their work led to investiga-
tion of dierent combinations of polymers and additives
(llers and/or plasticizers) to achieve better electrochemi-
cal parameters along with making it cost eective, safe and
environment friendly. In past few decades, polymers like
Chitosan, Agar–agar, Cellulose etc. [1, 2]. which are benign
to environment and human body, are being explored for the
purpose. Unfortunately their conductivity and mechanical
behavior are not good enough for commercial applications.
In this series starch (a low cost and abundant renewable
polymer) has also been tried [3, 4], because it fullls many
criteria, to be used as host, such as (i) salt acceptability, (ii)
hanging moieties to support the ion transport, (iii) ease of
lm casting and (iv) abundance and low cost. Starches of dif-
ferent botanical origins have dierent ratio of amylose and
* Neelam Srivastava, neelamsrivastava_bhu@yahoo.co.in | 1Department ofPhysics (MMV), Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi221005,
India. 2Department ofPhysics, D.D.U. Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur273009, India.
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
... In recent years, starch-based materials have existed specific applications in the field of wearable electronic devices. Chauhan et al. [145] modified two different starches: corn (similar to 27% amylose) and arrowroot (similar to 15% amylose) with sodium salt (NaClO4) and glutaraldehyde. They got flexible, transparent and highly conductive electrolyte membranes. ...
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