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Two commercial varieties of Peruvian Pouteria lucuma fruits namely “Seda” and “Beltrán” were characterized in terms of their physicochemical properties as well as their primary and secondary metabolites content and profile. Free sugars, dietary fiber, and starch comprise the main components in both varieties. Phenolic compounds derived from flavanoids (flavan‐3‐ols), gallic acid, and their derivatives were identified. Xanthophylls were tentatively identified based on their UV‐vis spectra and enclosed the majority of the carotenoids found in lucuma. Additionally, both varieties showed to be sources of lipophilic compounds such as tocopherols (α, β, and γ) and triterpenoids. The triterpenoid α‐amyrin was identified in a Pouteria fruit for the first time. The in vitro antioxidant capacity (AoxC) of the lipophilic fraction represented approximately 30% of the total AoxC. These results show that both lucuma varieties are rich sources of compounds with technological and functional properties with potential application in the food industry. Lucuma is a characteristic Peruvian fruit. To date, it is mainly used by the regional ice cream industry and it has been included recently in some confectionery products. Due to its high dietary fiber, carotenoids and sugar content it could be used as an alternative to the use of refined sugars and artificial colorants in the dairy and bakery industry.
J Food Process Preserv. 2020;00:e14479.  
 1 of 11
© 2020 Wiley Periodicals LLC
The genus Pouteria belongs to the Sapotaceae family and it is dis-
tributed in the tropical and subtropical regions of Asia and America.
Many species are of commercial importance since they are used as
food and in traditional medicine (Silva, Simeoni, & Silveira, 2009).
One of the most studied species of this family is P. sapota (mamey)
which has been shown to be a source of many bioactive compounds
such as polyphenols, carotenoids, and tocopherols (Ma, Yang, Basile,
& Kennelly, 2004; Yahia, Gutiérrez-Orozco, & Arvizu-de Leon, 2011).
Other Pouteria species such as P. campechiana (canistel) (Costa,
Wondracek , Lopes, Vieir a, & Ferreira, 2010), P. viridis (Ma et al., 20 04),
and P. macrophylla (da Silva, Gordon, Jungfer, Marx, & Main, 2012)
have also been reported as rich sources of bioactive compounds.
Lucuma (P. lucuma) is a fruit native to the Andean region, found
in Peru and Chile; it can be cultivated from the sea level to an alti-
tude of 3,0 00 m.a.s.l (Jordan, 1996). It presents an ovoid or elliptical
shape depending on the cultivar, a diameter variable bet ween 7.5
and 10 cm, thin green or yellow-green skin and sweet yellow-or-
ange flesh (Yahia & Gutiérrez-Orozco, 2011). In Peru, there are two
  Revised:27O ctober2019 
DOI: 10.1111/jfpp.14479
Relevant physicochemical properties and metabolites with
functional properties of two commercial varieties of Peruvian
Pouteria lucuma
Diego García-Ríos1| Ana Aguilar-Galvez1| Rosana Chirinos1| Romina Pedreschi2|
David Campos1
1Universi dad Nacional Agraria L a Molina,
Instit uto de Biotecnolog ía, Lima , Peru
2Pontificia Universidad C atólic a de
Valparaíso, Escuela de Agronomía,
Valparaiso, Chile
David Campos, Instituto de Biotecnología ,
Universidad Nac ional Agraria L a Molina, Av.
La Molina s/n, Lima, Val parais o, Peru.
Funding information
Vicerrectorado de Investigación—
Universidad Nac ional Agraria L a Molina;
Fondo Nacional de D esarrollo Científico,
Tecnológico y de Innovación Tecnológica-
FONDECYT, Grant/Award Number:
124 -20 15-FO NDEC Y T
Two commercial varieties of Peruvian Pouteria lucuma fruits namely “Seda” and
“Beltrán” were characterized in terms of their physicochemical properties as well as
their primary and secondary metabolites content and profile. Free sugars, dietar y
fiber, and starch comprise the main components in both varieties. Phenolic com-
pounds derived from flavanoids (flavan-3-ols), gallic acid, and their derivatives were
identified. Xanthophylls were tentatively identified based on their UV-vis spectra and
enclosed the majority of the carotenoids found in lucuma. Additionally, both varieties
showed to be sources of lipophilic compounds such as tocopherols (α, β, and γ) and
triterpenoids. The triterpenoid α-amyrin was identified in a Pouteria fruit for the first
time. The in vitro antioxidant capacity (AoxC) of the lipophilic fraction represented
approximately 30% of the total AoxC. These results show that both lucuma varieties
are rich sources of compounds with technological and functional properties with po-
tential application in the food industry.
Practical applications
Lucuma is a characteristic Peruvian fruit. To date, it is mainly used by the regional ice
cream industry and it has been included recently in some confectionery products.
Due to its high dietary fiber, carotenoids and sugar content it could be used as an
alternative to the use of refined sugars and artificial colorants in the dairy and bakery
2 of 11 
   GARCÍA-RÍOS et A l.
types of lucuma: "Seda" and "Palo." The "lucuma Seda" has a pulp
with a smooth texture when ripe, flour y, intense yellow color, soft
on the palate and sweet and it is suitable for consumption as fruit.
The "lucuma Palo," in contrast, when ripe has a pulp of hard tex ture,
not suitable for fresh consumption, which makes it more appropri-
ate for industrial processing (Sistema Integrado de Información de
Comercio Exterior, 2015). However, color, aroma and other thermo-
sensitive compounds could be affected in different degrees during
postharvest storage and/or processing conditions as consequence
of changes and interactions among the compounds present. Thus, it
is important to be aware of the components present to prevent po-
tential changes in the physicochemical, organoleptic and bioactivity
and control these changes during processing or storage.
Recently, lucuma has attracted the attention of consumers and
researchers bec ause it constitutes a source of various compounds of
interest for their antioxidant properties such as carotenoids and phe-
nolic compounds (Dini, 2011; Erazo, Escobar, Olaeta, & Undurraga,
1999; Fuentealba et al., 2016). To date, the characterization and
quantification of the aforementioned metabolites in lucuma have
not been fully completed. Also, no previous study has provided in-
formation about the content of tocopherols or terpenoids in lucuma.
Therefore, the objective of this study is to identify and quantify the
physicochemical characteristic s as well as compounds with bioactive
proper ties of lucuma fruits of two commercial varieties: "Seda" and
2.1 | Materials and reagents
2.1.1 | Fruit material
Two varieties commercially known as "Seda" and "Beltrán" from the
province of Huaral, Peru and purchased directly from a local pro-
ducer were used. The fruits were harvested at commercial maturity
(yellow peel coloration under the calix), transported to the labora-
tory and stored for 5 days at room temperature, until they reached
edible ripeness. Subsequently, they were peeled, lyophilized, and
storedat−4 0°Cuntilanalysis.
2.1.2| Chemicals
Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), β-carotene, myo-inositol, phe-
nolic acid standards (ellagic and gallic), flavanones (hesperetin), to-
copherol standards (α, β, γ, and δ-tocopherol), α-amyrin, β-sitosterol,
and cycloartenol were purchased from Sigma Chemicals Co. (St.
Louis). Flavan-3-ols (catechin, epicatechin, gallocatechin, and epi-
gallocatechin gallate) and procyanidins (procyanidin B1 and B2)
were purchased from ChromaDex ™ (Santa Clara). Sugar stand-
ards: fructose, glucose and sucrose were purchased from Sigma
(Carbohydrates Kit, CAR10), organic acid standards: L-ascorbic,
citric, malic, quinic, succinic and tartaric were purchased from
Supelco (Kit 47264) and standards of methyl esters of fatty
acids (FAME Mix, 37 components) were purchased from Restek.
Acetone, methylene chloride, hexane, ethanol, anhydrous sodium
sulfate and HPLC grade solvents (acetonitrile, methanol, hexane)
were purchased from J.T. Baker, MS-grade methanol LiChrosolv®
from Merck. Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, 2-propanol, and
Folin–Ciocalteu reagent were purchased from Merck. Glacial acetic
acid was purchased from Fermont and potassium hydroxide was
purchased from Mallinckrodt.
2.2 | Characterization and quantitative analysis
2.2.1| Physico-chemical characteristics
Moisture, ash, lipid, and protein (N × 6.25) were determined ac-
cording to the AOAC (2007) methods. Moisture was determined in
both fresh and lyophilized pulp. Total dietary fiber and starch were
determined according to the AOAC method (AOAC, 2007), results
were expressed as g/100 g of DW. Soluble solids, pH, and titrat-
able acidity were performed following the methods described in the
AOAC (2007). Reducing sugars were determined as recommended
by Miller (1959) with some modifications and were expressed as glu-
cose. Color determination (L*, a*, and b* values) was carried out both
in the peel and in the pulp as the average of six measurements at the
equatorial region using the Konica Minolta Chromameter colorim-
eter (CR-400, Konica Minolta).
2.2.2 | Determination of sugars, sugar-alcohols
and organic acids
Sugars, sugar-alcohols and organic acids were extracted accord-
ing to Pérez, Olías, Espada, Olías, and Sanz (1997) with certain
modifications. Briefly, 0.5 g of lyophilized lucuma was extrac ted
twice with 25 ml of 95% ethanol for 10 min for each extraction.
The extracts were mixed and concentrated in a rotary evapora-
0.2 N H2SO4 containing 0.05% EDTA. Eight hundred microliter of
the solution was taken and injec ted into a Sep-Pak C18 car tridge
(WAT036905, Waters, Ireland), then eluted with 10 ml of 0.2 N
H2SO4. The content of sugars and sugar-alcohols was determined
following the method described by Campos, Aguilar-Galvez, and
Pedreschi (2016); while organic acids according to the protocol
described by Aguilar-Galvez, Guillermo, Dubois-Dauphin, and
Campos (2011). In both cases, a Waters 2695 Separation Module
(Waters) equipped with an autoinjector, a 2414 refractive index
and detector 996 photodiode array detector, respectively, and
the Empower software (Waters) were used. The results were ex-
pressed in mg/ g of DW.
 3 of 11
2.2.3 | Determination of L-ascorbic acid
Sample treatment for the quantification of L-ascorbic acid was per-
formed as reported by Sánchez-Moreno, Plaza, de Ancos, and Cano
(2003) with some modifications. One gram of lyophilized sample was
homogenized with 10 ml of 3% metaphosphoric acid solution and 8%
aceticacidfor10min.Themixturewas centrifugedat2,795gat 4°C
for 25 min (Het tich, model MIKRO 220R). The extract was analyzed
by HPLC-PAD. A Prodigy ODS3 100A (5μm, 250 × 4.6 mm ID) col-
umn (Phenomenex) was used. The mobile phase was composed of
25 mmol/l KH2PO4, pH 2.5 at a flow rate of 1 ml/ min. Samples were
filtered prior to HPLC injection. Ten microliter of sample was injected
andrunfor15minat 40°C.L-ascorbicacidwas detectedandquanti-
fied at 245 nm. The results were expressed in mg/ 100 g of DW).
2.2.4 | Determination of fatty acids
The lipophilic fraction was extracted from 100 mg of lyophilized
lucuma and 500 μl of 96% methanol, 750 μl of Milli-Q water, and
375 μl of chloroform were added. The samples were sonicated for
30 min and then centrifuged for 10 min at a maximum speed. The
chloroform phase was recovered and the methanol/ water phase
was re-extracted with 375 μl of chloroform. The chloroform phases
were mixed and evaporated in a nitrogen-saturated atmosphere. The
fatty acid profile was determined according to the method proposed
by Meurens , Baeten, Yan, Mignolet , and Larondell e (2005) with slight
modifications. The fatty acids present in the residue were converted
to methyl esters and one microliter was injected in a gas chroma-
tograph GC-2010 plus Shimadzu equipped with an FID-2010 flame
ionization detector and AOC-20i autoinjector. The column used was
a Restek Rt-2560 (0.2 μm, 100 × 0.25 mm ID). The methyl esters of
the fatty acids were identified and quantified by comparing reten-
tion times with known and previously injected standards. The results
were expressed as a percentage relative to the total of fatty acids.
2.2.5 | Total carotenoids and profile
Carotenoid extraction was carried out according to the method re-
ported by Andre et al. (2007) with slight modifications. Lyophilized
lucuma pulp (0.5 g) was mixed with 5 ml of acetone: hexane (1:1, v/ v),
homogenized and stirred in an ice bath for 30 min. The extract was
centrifugedat2,795g for 15 min at 4°C, andthesupernatantwas
collected. The extraction was repeated in the cake twice for 10 min
each, maintaining the initial extraction conditions. The supernatants
were combined and evaporated to dr yness in a rotar y evapora-
tor at 40°C, and finally suspended in2 mlofacetone. Total carot-
enoids were determined by spectrophotometry (Genesys™ 20 Vis
Spectrophotometer, Thermo Scientific) at 450 nm and the content
was expressed in mg of β-carotene equivalents/ 100 g DW.
To determine the profile of carotenoids, saponification of the
extract was carried out, an aliquot of the extract was evaporated to
dryness with nitrogen, then re-suspended in 4 ml of methanol con-
taining 10% potassium hydroxide (w/v). The solution was allowed
tostand for 16hrinthedarkat4°Cina nitrogen-saturated atmo-
sphere and 4 ml of hexane and 4 ml of saturated NaCl solution were
added. The organic phase was recovered and the aqueous phase
re-extracted with hexane. Both organic phases were mixed, brought
to dryness with N2 and re-dissolved in 1 ml of methylene chloride:
ethanol (65:35, v/v).
The analysis was per formed by HPLC-PDA according to the
method of Kao, Loh, Inbaraj, and Chen (2012) with slight modifica-
tions. Spectral data were recorded from 330 to 550 nm during the
whole run. A YMCTM carotenoid (5 μm, 250 × 4.6 mm ID) column
was composed of solvent (A) methanol: acetonitrile: water (79:14:
7, v/v/v) and solvent (B) methylene chloride. The solvent gradient
was as follows: 5% B for 9 min, 5%–15% B in 14 min, 15%–17% B in
10 min, 17%–29% B in 2 min, 29%–30% B in 10 min, 30%–34% B in
21 min and returned to 5% B in 1 min and kept at those conditions for
5 min. A flow rate of 1.0 ml/ min was used and 20 μl of sample was
injected. Carotenoids were identified by comparison of retention
times and absorption spectra with data reported in the literature.
2.2.6 | Total phenolic compounds and profile
The extraction of phenolic compounds was carried out according
to the method proposed by Ma et al. (2004) with slight modifica-
tions. Half a gram of lyophilized lucuma was mixed with 25 ml of 80%
acetone and stirred for 90 min. Subsequently, the extract was cen-
trifuged at 2,80 0 g and stored in dark and nitrogen-saturated atmos-
determined according to the method of Singleton and Rossi (1965)
by colorimetric reaction with Folin–Ciocalteu reagent. The content
of TPC was expressed in mg of Gallic equivalent (AGE)/ g DW.
Phenolic profile was assessed following the method of Chirinos
et al. (2008) with slight modifications. Phenolic extracts were sep-
arated on HPLC-PDA. Spectral data were recorded from 200 to
700 nm during the whole run. An X-terra RP18 (3.5 µm, 250 × 4.6 mm
ID) column ( Waters) was used fo r separati on at 30°C . The mobile
phase was composed of solvent (A) water: formic acid (95:5, v/v) and
solvent (B) acetonitrile. The solvent gradient was as follows: 0%–15%
B in 40 min, 15%–45% B in 45 min, and 45%–100% B in 10 min. A
flow rate of 0.5 ml/min was used and 20 µl of sample was injected.
Samples were filtered prior to HPLC injection. Phenolic compounds
were identified by comparing their retention time and UV-vis spec-
tral data to known previously injected standards.
2.2.7 | Determination of tocopherols
Tocopherols were quantified and identified following the method-
ology proposed by Amaral, Rui, Seabra, and Oliveira (20 05). Half
a gram of lyophilized lucuma pulp was mixed with 100 μl of BHT
4 of 11 
   GARCÍA-RÍOS et A l.
solution (10 mg in 1 ml of hexane), 2 ml of ethanol, 4 ml of hexane
and 2 ml of saturated NaCl solution. The mix ture was homogenized
for 1 min in a vortex and then centrifuged for 4 min at 2,505 gat4° C .
The upper phase was collected and the sample was re-extracted
twice with 2 ml of hexane. The extract s were combined and taken to
dryness with nitrogen and the residue was re-dissolved with 0.5 ml
of hexane. The extract was dried with anhydrous sodium sulfate
(0.5 g), centrifuged at 7,378 g for 2 min.
Samples were separated using a HPLC equipped with a Waters
2475 multi fluorescence detector. An YMC-Pack SIL (3 µm,
250 × 4.6 mm ID) column (YMC, Japan) was used for tocopherol
2-propanol/acetic acid (1000/6/5, v/v/v). A flow rate of 1.4 ml/min
under isocratic conditions was used. Ten microliter of sample was
injected. Samples were filtered prior to HPLC injection. The fluo-
rescence detector was programmed at the excitation and emission
wavelengths of 290 and 330 nm, respectively. Tocopherols were
identified and quantified by comparing their retention time to
known previously injected standards. Results were expressed as
mg/100 g of dry matter.
2.2.8 | Phytosterols and triterpenoids
The unsaponifiable extract was obtained according to the protocol
reported by Duchateau et al. (20 02). Twelve and a half grams of ly-
ophilized sample was mixed with 100 ml of hexane: acetone: etha-
nol (50:25:25, v/v/v) for 10 min under agitation and then 15 ml of
water was added and stirred for another 5 min. The lipid phase was
Hundred milligram of the lipid extract was saponified with 1 ml of
standard (β-cholestanol). The unsaponifiable fraction was extracted
by liquid–liquid partition with 1 ml of distilled water and 5 ml of n-
heptane. The n-heptane extract was recovered and the extraction
was repeated in the aqueous fraction t wice. The n-heptane extracts
were mixed and dehydrated with anhydrous sodium sulfate. Trace
1310 Gas chromatograph (Thermo Scientific, Rodano) was used,
coupled to a triple Quadrupole TSQ 8000 Evo Mass Spectrometer
(Thermo Scientific, using a TG-5SILMS column (30 × 0.25 mm ID,
0.25 μm film thickness) (Thermo Scientific). The chromatographic
separation was carried according to da Costa, Augusto, Teixeira-
Filho, and Teixeira (2010). The furnace temperature was programmed
volume was 1 μl with a split ratio of 10. The temperature of the injec-
spectrometric analysis, the ionization was performed by electronic
impact (EI) in a positive mode at 70 eV and detection by scanning in
the range of 45 to 600 m/z was performed. Compound identification
was performed by comparing retention times and mass spectra with
previously injected standards and by comparison with the NIST 2.0
librar y. The result s were expressed as μg/g of dry matter.
2.2.9| In vitro hydrophilic and lipophilic
antioxidant capacity
Antioxidant capacity (AoxC) was reported by the TEAC (Trolox equiva-
lent antioxidant capacity) test recommended by Arnao, Cano, and
Acosta (2001) in the hydrophilic and lipophilic extr acts, using the ABTS
reagent. The extracts were obtained according to the protocol of Wu
et al. (2004) with some modifications. The lipophilic extract was ob-
tained from 1 gram of lyophilized lucuma pulp, homogenized in 10 ml
of hexane: dichloromethane (1:1, v: v) in an ice bath for 15 min and then
centrifuged at 4,000 gfor10minat4°C.Theextractionwasrepeated
after recovering the supernat ant under the same conditions as the firs t
extraction. The supernatants were mixed and evaporated on a rotary
evapora tor at 40°C un der reduced p ressure. Fi nally, the dry ex tract 
was re-suspended in 10 ml acetone and stored under a nitrogen at-
mosphereat−20°Cuntilanalysis.Thehydrophilicextrac twasobtained
from the residue of the lipophilic extraction which was homogenized
in 20 ml of acetone: water: acetic acid (70:29.5:0.5, v/v/v) at room
temperature for 15 min. The extraction was repeated after the cen-
trifugation per formed under the same conditions as for the hydrophilic
extract. The supernatants were mixed and stored under the same con-
ditions as for the lipophilic extract . The results of both methods were
expressed in μmol of Trolox equivalent (TE)/ g sample (dry basis).
2.3 | Statistical analysis
Results represent the mean and standard deviation of three inde-
pendent experiments (n = 3). T- tests were performed with a 95%
confidence, using the Statgraphics Centurion X VI (StatPoint Inc.).
3.1 | Physico-chemical characteristics
The physico-chemical characteristics are shown in Table 1. The
moisture contents were similar for both varieties (p > .05), 56.2 and
56.9% for Beltrán and Seda, respectively. The result s are within
the humidity range reported by Erazo et al. (1999) in six selections
of Chilean lucuma (56.03 to 63.16%). The stage of maturit y at the
time of har vest and storage conditions can affect the moisture con-
tent of the fruit (Alia-Tejacal et al., 2007; Fuentealba et al., 2016).
In general, the moisture content of lucuma is lower than that of
other Sapotaceae such as mamey (75%) and sapodilla (82%) (Moo-
Huchin et al., 2014), although a moisture value of 49.5% in canistel
has been reported (Costa, Wondracek, et al., 2010). The total die-
tary fiber content was similar for both varieties (24.2%) and higher
than that reported in sapote (17.2%–21.5%) (Mahattanatawee et al.,
2006; Moo-Huchin et al., 2014). For this reason, lucuma is an op-
tion to meet the fiber requirements recommended for adult s by the
American Dietetic Association (between 20 and 35 g/day) (Marlett,
McBurney, & Slavin, 2002).
 5 of 11
The starch content was significantly higher in Beltrán variety,
but the content of reducing sugars was similar for both varieties.
Controlling the content of sugars and starch is impor tant for the
conservation of the fruit because although it is possible to reduce
the starch content (therefore, increase the content of sugars), this
increase could result in an over-ripe and easily affected fruit (Eskin &
Hoehn, 2013). Seda presented an acidity (0. 28%) lower than Beltrán
(0.36%); both values were similar to those reported for mamey (0.2
to 0.3%) (Alia-Tejacal et al., 2007). However, the acid values found
were lower than most of those repor ted by Moo-Huchin et al. (2014)
for tropical fruits, which have contents in the order of 0.3 to 1.9%
acidity expressed as citric acid. No significant difference (p > .05)
was found in the pH values for both varieties. The content of soluble
solids was significantly higher (p < .05) in Seda (23.4%) than Beltrán
(21.7%). These values were similar to those reported by Alia-Tejacal
et al. (2007) for mamey (23%–27%).
Regarding color, differences were found in the peel of both vari-
eties, while the values of L* and b* were similar, differences for the
value of a* were encountered with positive values (red) in Beltrán
and negative values ( green) in Seda. Very marked differences in the
hue of the peel were found with yellow - orange for Beltrán and
green - yellow for Seda. The appearance of yellow-orange tones is
attributed to the synthesis of carotenoids, as the fruit matures, chlo-
rophyll degrades and carotenoids are synthesized (Eskin & Hoehn,
2013; Li & Yuan, 2013). These differences in peel color might suggest
that the synthesis-degradation balance of chlorophyll during ripen-
ing is different bet ween both varieties of lucuma. In contrast, the
color of the pulp showed no significant differences (p > .05) for any
of the parameters (L*, a*, b*). These values were higher than those re-
ported in mamey (Alia-Tejacal et al., 2007; Moo-Huchin et al., 2014).
3.2 | Determination of sugars, sugar-
alcohols and organic acids
Results corresponding to primary metabolites (sugars and sugar al-
cohols) are shown in Table 2. Most relevant sugars corresponded to
fructose and glucose. No significant differences in sugar contents
were found ( p > .05) for Beltrán and Seda, respectively with values of
fructose (155.9 and 136.9 mg/g DW), glucose (147.2 and 140.9 mg/g
DW), and sucrose (57.6 and 48.0 mg/g DW), respectively. The con-
tents of fructose and sucrose were higher than those reported by
Fuentealba et al. (2016) for lucuma biotype Leiva 1 (98.7 mg / g and
36.2 mg/g in DW, respectively); while the glucose content found in
this work was lower than that repor ted by Fuentealba (170.9 mg/g
DW). The composition of sugars in the studied lucuma varieties is
different from that reported in canistel where sucrose predomi-
nates (96.89 mg/g DW, Kubola, Siriamornpun, & Meso, 2011) and
in mamey where non-reducing sugars, such as sucrose, represented
more than 70% of total sugars (38.96–69.35 mg/g DW, Alia-Tejacal
et al., 2007). Myo-inositol was the only sugar alcohol detected;
TABLE 1 Composition and physico-chemical characteristics for
Beltrán and Seda lucuma varieties
Beltrán Seda
Moisture1 (g/100g) 56.2 ± 3.7a56.9 ± 3.3a
Protein (g/100 g DW) 4.3 ± 0.02a5.2 ± 0.05b
Ash (g/100 g DW) 2.1 ± 0.08a2 .51 ± 0.04b
Lipids (g/100 g DW) 1.29 ± 0.06a1. 23 ± 0.03a
Total Dietar y Fiber (g/100 g DW) 24.2 ± 1.4a24.2 ± 0.7a
Soluble Fiber 4.5 ± 0.8 3.9 ± 0.5
Insoluble Fiber 19.7 ± 1. 2 20.3 ± 0.5
Starch (g/100 g DW) 15.6 ± 1.6a11.7 ± 0.5b
Reducing sugars ( g glucose/100 g
27.2 ± 1.7a23.2 ± 3.5a
Soluble solids 21.7 ± 0.6b23.4 ± 0.9a
pH 5.56 ± 0.06a5.49 ± 0.0 4a
Titrable acid (% of citric acid) 0.28 ± 0.01a0.36 ± 0.02a
Peel Color
L* 50.7 ± 2.7a46.2 ± 3.1a
a* 6.0 ± 2.5a−6.8±2.0b
b* 35.3 ± 5.2a22.3 ± 1.2b
Pulp Color
L* 71.6 ± 2.3a69.2 ± 3.6a
a* 16.6 ± 3.0a13.9 ± 5.4a
b* 68.8 ± 3.2a52.6 ± 6.9a
Note: Dif ferent letters within the same row s tand for significant
differences (p < .05).
1Moisture measured on the fresh pulp.
TABLE 2 Content of sugars, myo-inositol and organic acids in
Beltrán and Seda lucuma varieties
(mg/g DW)
Beltrán Seda
Glucose 147.2 ± 18.5a140.9 ± 5.5a
Fructose 155.9 ± 16.7a136.9 ± 10.6a
Sucrose 57.6 ± 3.9a48.0 ± 6.7a
Sugar alcohols
myo-inositol 5.7 ± 0.4b9.9 ± 0.5a
Organic acids
Citric 1.7 ± 0.1b3.4 ± 0.4a
Tartaric 0.55 ± 0.03b1.0 ± 0.2a
Malic ND 1.6 ± 0.2
Quinic 14.3 ± 0.7a14.9 ± 1.4a
Succinic 0.8 ± 0.01a0.6 ± 0.1b
L-ascorbic 0.68 ± 0.01a0.58 ± 0.02b
Note: Dif ferent letters within the same row s tand for significant
differences (p < .05).
Abbreviation: ND, non detected.
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the content in Seda was higher (9.9 mg/g DW or 4.3 mg/g FW)
than in Beltrán (5.7 mgg DW or 2.5 mg/g FW). These values were
greater than 2.1 mg/g DW and differed from the values reported by
Fuentealba et al. (2016) for lucuma biotype Leiva 1.
Organic acid profile and content are shown in Table 2. The high-
est content corresponds to quinic acid and similar contents of 14.3
and 14.9 mg/g DW (p > .05) were found in both varieties. For other
quantified organic acids, Seda variety had a significantly higher
concentration of citric and tartaric acid, while Beltrán had a higher
concentration of succinic and ascorbic acid, respectively. Malic
acid was only detected and quantified in Seda variety. In other
Pouteria species such as mamey, malic acid was reported as the
predominant organic acid (Alia-Tejacal et al., 2007). The greatest
difference obser ved bet ween Seda and Beltrán corresponds to or-
ganic acids linked to respiration (citric, malic and succinic) and can
be attributed to the environmental conditions in which the fruits
were stored after harvest, since the content of these acids tended
to decrease more rapidly at higher storage temperatures (Eskin &
Hoenh, 2013).
3.3 | Determination of L-ascorbic acid
The content of ascorbic acid was significantly different between
Seda (0.68 mg/g DW or 0.29 mg /g FW) and Beltrán (0.58 mg/g
DW or 0.25 mg/g FW) varieties, respectively. These contents
were higher than that reported in lucuma Leiva 1 (0.19 mg/g DW)
by Fuentealba et al. (2016). Ascorbic acid contents in the range of
0.2–1.2 mg/g DW have been repor ted in mamey (Mahattanatawee
et al., 2006; Moo-Huchín et al., 2014). Pouteria species with the
highest vitamin C content reported correspond to P. macrophylla
with 2.5 mg/g DW (Gordon, Jungfer, Alexandre, Guilherme, & Marx,
2011; da Silva et al., 2012) and canistel with 1.9 mg/g FW (Kubola
et al., 2011).
3.4 | Determination of fatty acids
The content s of the dif ferent fatty acids are shown in Table 3. Both
lucuma varieties presented a similar profile of fatty acids. Within the
saturated fatty acids, the most representative was palmitic acid that
represents between 23% and 25% of total fatty acids. Among the
unsaturated fat ty acids, α-linolenic acid (ω-3) was the most abundant
and constitutes between 27% and 30% of unsaturated fatty acids. It
is important to point out that this fatt y acid is an essential nutrient
of the diet and plays an important role in human health due to its
association with the reduction of the risk of cardiovascular diseases,
cancer, osteoporosis, and immune disorders (Vilela et al., 2013). The
content of linoleic acid (ω-6) was very low with respect to total fatty
acids, possibly due to its oxidation and subsequent cleavage by en-
zymes lipoxygenase and aldehyde lyase, which convert this acid into
volatile components such as aldehydes and ketones, which contrib-
ute to the aroma profile in the mature fruit (Eskin & Hoehn, 2013).
3.5 | Total carotenoids and profile
Total carotenoid content was significantly higher in the variety
Beltrán (0.3 mg of β - CE/ g DW) than Seda (0.25 mg of β - CE/g
DW) (Table 3). These content s were similar to those reported by
Fuentealba et al. (2016) for lucuma Leiva 1 and greater than those
obtained by Erazo et al. (1999) who reported a range of 0.03–
0.05 mg of β - CE/g DW. In addition, the content of total carotenoids
is within the values normally reported for species belonging to genus
TABLE 3 Content of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids,
total carotenoids, total phenolic compounds, tocopherols and
antioxidant activity in two commercial lucuma varieties
Beltrán Seda
Saturated fatt y acids (% of total
fatty acids)
Lauric (C12:0) traces 2.9
Miristic (C14:0) 7.5 6.6
Pentadecanoic (C15:0) 3.6 5.4
Palmitic (C16:0) 25 23.4
Stearic (C18:0) 20 17. 7
Unsatur ated fat ty acids (% of total
fatty acids)
Palmitoleic (C16:1) 2.5 1.9
Oleic (C18:1) 10 12.2
Linoleic (C18:2) 1.8 2.9
α-linolenic (C18:3) 29. 6 27
ω6/ ω3 ratio 0.06 0.11
Total carotenoids (mg β-carotene
eq/ g DW)
0.30 ± 0.01a0.25 ± 0.02b
Total phenolic compounds
(mg AGE/ g DW)
2.50 ± 0.11a2.38 ± 0.13a
Tocopherols (μg/ g DW)
α-Tocopherol 47.4 ± 1.6b59.4 ± 1.3a
β-Tocopherol 0.68 ± 0.01b0.75 ± 0.01a
γ-Tocopherol 7.1 ± 0.3 ND
δ-Tocopherol ND ND
Antioxidant capacity
(μmol TE/ g DW)
Hydrophilic 19.3 ± 1.3a17.3 ± 1.0b
Lipophilic 8.7 ± 0.1a7.4 ± 0.4b
Phytosterols and Triterpenoids
(ug /g DW)
β-Sitosterol 4.44 5.27
Cycloartenol 3.50 2.48
α-Amyrin 11.8 5 12.34
Note: Dif ferent letters within the same row s tand for significant
differences (p < .05).
Abbreviation: ND, non detected.
 7 of 11
Pouteria such is mamey 1.44 mg of β - CE/g DW (Moo-Huchin et al.,
HPLC-PDA analysis allowed the separation of 10 carotenoids
(Figure 1), eight of which were identified by comparing their reten-
tion times and absorption spectra to those reported by Kao et al.
(2012). The main carotenoids found in lucuma pulp belong to the
family of xanthophylls. The epoxide forms such as neoxanthin and
violaxanthin were more abundant in the Beltrán variety. In contrast,
the Seda variety presented hydroxylated carotenoids (lutein deriva-
tives) as the most abundant carotenoids. Traces of β-carotene were
detected in both varieties; however, the presence of derivatives such
as β-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and violaxanthin would indicate that
the carotenoids in lucuma tend to accumulate in the form of xan-
thophylls (possibly esterified) rapidly as maturation progresses (Li &
Yuan, 2013). This process seems to begin even before reaching com-
mercial maturity, as reported by Fuentealba et al. (2016).
The nature of the carotenoids present in lucuma allows us to
infer that these components could be significantly affec ted by a
conventional drying process extensively used for lucuma flour elab-
oration ( Yahia & Gutiérrez-Orozco, 2011). Previous studies have re-
ported that hot air conventional drying significantly decreases the
total carotenoid content in the chips of sweet potato (Bechoff et al.,
2010). Most of the losses observed in sweet pepper during drying
corresponded to the xanthophils violaxanthin and zeaxanthin in ad-
dition to β-carotene (Topuz, Dincer, Sultan, Feng, & Kushad, 2011).
3.6 | Total phenolics compounds and profile
The TPC content in both varieties was similar, with 2.5 mg of
GAE/g DW and 2.4 mg of GAE/g DW for Beltrán and Seda, respec-
tively (Table 3). These values were higher than those reported by
Fuentealba et al. (2016) for lucuma Leiva 1 (0.7 mg AGE/g DM). In
mamey, values of 0.6 mg of GAE/g DW (Moo-Huchin et al., 2014) and
2.8 mg of GAE/g DW (Mahattanatawee et al., 2006) were previously
reported. Instead, in canistel a value of 5 mg of GAE/g DW (Kubola
et al., 2011) was reported and a much higher content (22.9 mg of
GAE/g DW) was reported in P. macrophylla (da Silva et al., 2012) and
up to 29.2 mg of GAE/g DW according to Gordon et al. (2011). This
variation responds to multiple factors both environmental and spe-
cific of the fruit, within the most important environmental factors
are the har vest season and location of the crop (Barceló, Nicolás,
Sabater, & Sánchez, 2009) while factors inherent to the fruit cor-
respond to the type of cultivar and maturity stage. Fuentealba et al.
(2016) observed a drastic reduction in the content of TPC in lucuma:
at harvest maturity (131.6 mg of GAEg DW), the fruit naturally de-
tached from the tree (45.3 mg of GAE/g DW) and then stored at
within the same cultivar or species (Barceló et al., 2009).
Regarding the nature of phenolic compounds present in lucuma
at edible ripeness, chromatographic analysis allowed the determi-
nation of eight main compounds in both varieties that showed a
similar phenolic compound profile (Figure 2). The majority of these
compounds were tentatively identified and quantified as the deriv-
atives of gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, catechin and epicatechin
(peaks 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 9) based on their UV spectra. Other com-
pounds identified were gallic acid (peak 2), ellagic acid (peak 8) and
a derivative of hesperetin (peak 7). The nature of these compounds
was consistent with that reported by Fuentealba et al. (2016), who
identified gallic acid and a flavonoid derivative in the hydrolyzate
of lucuma phenolic compounds. Dini (2011) isolated and identified
gallic acid and complex glycosides of kaempferol in lucuma flour.
The latter, however, was not identified in the present study. The
occurrence of similarity bet ween the absorption spectra and the
difference between the retention times with respect to standards
could suggest that the lucuma phenolic compounds are probably
glycosylated to different types of sugars or in different positions
(Gordon et al., 2011).
FIGURE 1 HPLC-PDA carotenoid
profile obtained at 450 nm for the
varieties Beltrán (a) and Seda (b), tentative
identification and UV obtained data.
Identification was based on data reported
by Kao et al. (2012)*
8 of 11 
   GARCÍA-RÍOS et A l.
The compounds found in this study are similar to those previ-
ously reported for other Pouteria species. In general, gallic acid,
catechins and gallocatechins are the most representative phenolic
compounds (Ma et al., 2004; da Silva et al., 2012). The authors point
out that the differences can be attributed to genetic variations, as
well as to the chromatographic conditions. Due to the complexity of
the phenolic compounds present in the samples, peak coelution is
possible during HPLC-PDA analysis.
3.7 | Determination of tocopherols
Αlpha and β-tocopherol were detected in both lucuma varie-
ties, while γ-tocopherol was detec ted only in the Beltrán variety
(Table 3). Αlpha tocopherol constitutes the most abundant tocoph-
erol in both varieties, being higher in the Seda variety. The sum of
tocopherols for the Beltrán and Seda varieties were 5.5 and 6.0 mg/
100 g DW, respectively. These values are comparable to those re-
ported in mango (1.2–9.4 mg/ 100 g DW). No δ-tocopherol was de-
tected; however, this tocopherol has only been reported in mamey
with a content of 0.36 mg/ 100 g DM (Yahia et al., 2011) and the
value was much lower than the total tocopherols found in the pre-
sent work.
Although in comparison with other sources of tocopherols such
as oils and nuts, the total tocopherol content in lucuma is low; how-
ever, this fruit contributes a greater quantity of α-tocopherol, which
is the isomer of vitamin E activity. The presence, although at low
concentrations of other tocopherols such as β and γ-tocopherol in
the Beltrán variety, could increase its stability even more before ox-
idation with respect to the variety Seda. These isomers according
to Kamal-Eldin and Budilarto (2015) significantly contribute to the
oxidative stabilit y of foods.
3.8 | Determination of phytosterols and
Two phytosterols (β-sitosterol and cycloartenol) and one triter-
penoid (α-amyrin) were identified and quantified in lucuma pulp
of two varieties (Table 3). The concentrations of β-sitosterol for
Beltrán variety (0.44 mg/100 g DW or 0.19 mg/100 g FW) and
Seda (0.53 mg/100 g DW or 0.23 mg/100 g FW ) lucuma varieties
were lower than those reported in mango (23.7–69.2 mg/100 g DW)
(Vilela et al., 2013). Another phy tosterol detected was cycloartenol,
which was found in a higher concentration in Beltrán (0.35 mg/100 g
DW) than in Seda (0.25 mg/100 g DW). α-Amyrin was the triterpe-
noid detec ted in both varieties of lucuma and was present in higher
concentration than the phytosterols, with of 11.85 and 12.34 μg /g
DW for Beltrán and Seda, respectively. Its mass spec trum is shown
in Figure 3. Amyrins are secondary metabolites whose bioactivity
has been widely studied and they have been at tributed to antihy-
perglycemic and anti-inflammatory properties (Vázquez, Palazon,
& Navarro-Ocaña, 2012). To our knowledge, this is the first report
of α-amyrin in P. lucuma fruits. This triterpenoid and it s derivatives
have been detected in the fruits of P. caimito and P. tor ta branches
(Silva et al., 2009). In this regard, Fuentealba et al. (2016) repor ted,
FIGURE 2 HPLC-PDA profile for
phenolic compounds obtained at 280 nm
for the lucuma varieties Beltrán (a) and
Seda (b); identification and UV data for
the phenolic compounds
 9 of 11
a significant in vitro antihyperglycemic properties which could be
related to this triterpenoid.
3.9 | In vitro hydrophilic and lipophilic
antioxidant capacity
Significant differences (p < .05) in the lipophilic and hydrophilic AoxC
were found in the studied lucuma varieties (Table 3). Beltrán variety
displayed the highest lipophilic and hydrophilic AoxC with values of
19.3 and 8.7 μmol TE/g DW, respectively compared to Seda vari-
ety (17.3 and 7.4 μmol TE/g DW). At edible ripeness, the values ob-
tained were higher than those reported by Fuentealba et al. (2016)
for lucuma Leiva 1 (4.8 μmol TE/g DW) that coincides with the lower
TPC content also found by these authors (0.7 mg GAE/g DW) with
respect to the Seda and Beltrán varieties. With respect to other spe-
cies of Pouteria, such is mamey, Moo-Huchín et al. (2014) reported a
value of 15.75 μmol TE/g DW using the ABTS method.
The lipophilic AoxC is at tributed to compounds such as carot-
enoids and tocopherols. The greater AoxC determined in the Beltrán
variety can be attributed to its higher content of carotenoids and its
greater variety of tocopherols (α, β, γ). In the studied lucuma variet-
ies, lipophilic AoxC represents approximately 30% of the total AoxC
quantified with the ABTS method. Wu et al. (2004) reported that
the lipophilic AoxC determined with the ORAC method in 11 fruit
species represented less than five percent of the total AoxC except
in watermelon (13.4%) and avocado (28.6%).
Studies on lipophilic AoxC in other species of Pouteria are
scarce. Lipophilic AoxC values have been reported in mamey
determined with the DPPH (8.7 mg equivalent ascorbic acid
(AAE)/100 g FW) and FRAP (3.5 mg A AE/100 g FW ) methods
that represent less than 10% of the total AoxC (Yahia et al., 2011).
According to what has been reported in the literature, it is not pos-
sible to establish a conclusive relationship between the content
of lipophilic compounds with AoxC and the value of AoxC itself
(Arnao et al., 2001).
FIGURE 3 GC-MS chromatograms
obtained for phytosterols and terpenoids
for the lucuma varieties Beltrán (a) and
Seda (b). (1) β-sitosterol, (2) α-Amyrin,
(3) Cycloartenol, (*) Not Identified,
(IS) Internal Standard. α-amyrin mass
spectrum (c)
10 of 11 
   GARCÍA-RÍOS et A l.
Both varieties of lucuma showed to be important sources of dietary
fiber, starch, and sugar. Moreover, they presented interesting com-
pounds from a functional point of view. Beltrán variety presented
a higher total carotenoid content than Seda variety; however, the
carotenoid profile determined by HPLC-PDA was similar for both
varieties. Both varieties presented linolenic acid (ω3) as the major
fatty acid and the lipid fraction was characterized by a ratio ω6/
β-tocopherol was present in the same amount in both varieties,
while γ-tocopherol was only present in the Beltrán variety. Both va-
rieties presented similar amounts of phy tosterols and triterpenoids,
highlighting the α-amyrin that might be related to the anti-inflam-
matory and anti-hyperglycemic activities of lucuma. The AoxC, both
hydrophilic and lipophilic, was higher in the Beltrán variety. In both
varieties, lipophilic AoxC stood out, and represented approximately
30% of the total AoxC. These results show that lucuma fruits have
potential for an increased and broadened industrial use.
This work was supported by Vicerrectorado de Investigación—
UNALM ( Te chnological Re search UNALM-2015) and Fo ndo Nacional
de Desarrollo Científico, Tecnológico y de Innovación Tecnológica-
FONDECYT [grant number 124-2015-FONDECYT].
The authors have declared no conflicts of interest in this article.
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... Pouteria lucuma Ruiz and Pav. (Sapotaceae) is a subtropical fruit known as the 'Gold of the Incas' or 'lucuma' which is native to the Andean region and is found in Peru, Chile and Ecuador [3,4]. P. lucuma was a food of ancient cultivation [5], as suggested by ceramic representations of lucuma dating back to the Nazca and Moche pre-Inca civilizations. ...
... In Peru and Chile, 'lucuma' flavor ice cream is very popular. Recently, lucuma has attracted the attention of researchers because it constitutes a source of various compounds of interest for their antioxidant properties such as carotenoids and phenolic compounds [3,5,6]. Therefore, the taste along with its beneficial properties gained the attention of consumers and increased the trade of lucuma, which is widely distributed also in online markets. ...
... Therefore, the taste along with its beneficial properties gained the attention of consumers and increased the trade of lucuma, which is widely distributed also in online markets. There are few studies focused on the content of this fruit [3,[5][6][7], and no studies have been reported on its skin, which represents an important agricultural waste due to the high demand for lucuma. ...
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Pouteria lucuma Ruiz and Pav., known as the ‘Gold of the Incas’ or ‘lucuma’, is a subtropical fruit belonging to the Sapotaceae family, with a very sweet flavor, used to prepare cakes, ice creams as well as in the baking and dairy industries. To date, the content of primary metabolites is known, but little information is reported about the composition in specialized metabolites. Moreover, no study is reported on skin which represent an important agricultural waste due to the high demand for lucuma. In order to have a preliminary metabolite profile of Pouteria lucuma, the extracts of pulp and skin have been analyzed by LC-ESI/LTQOrbitrap/MS/MS in negative ion mode. The careful analysis of the accurate masses, of the molecular formulas and of the ESI/MS spectra allowed to identify specialized metabolites belonging to phenolic, flavonoid and polar lipid classes. The LC-MS/MS analysis guided the isolation of compounds occurring in the pulp extract whose structures have been characterized by spectroscopic methods including 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments and ESI-MS analysis. Furthermore, the phenolic content of the extracts along with the antioxidant activity of extracts and isolated compounds was evaluated.
... [49] On this occasion we are going to apply the operation of the proposed equipment in the dehydration of the lucuma fruit (Pouteria lucuma), an fruit that has excellent nutritional properties. [50][51][52] Its international demand has been growing in the last decade. [4] However, the shelf-life of this fruit is very sensitive to ripening, which complicates its transfer to foreign markets. ...
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In this research, a closed-flow solar dehydrator with a refrigeration moisture extraction system was evaluated, likewise, the dehydration temperature time was optimized by evaluating three types of heat transfer fluids. The dehydration equipment included devices to absorb thermal energy from incident sunlight, such as a trombe wall and a parabolic cylindrical collector, and a thermo bank system. In addition, the influence of three types of heat transfer fluids (water, oil and oil nanofluid + silver nanoparticles) was evaluated. This dehydration system was applied to process the Pouteria lucuma fruit. The results indicate the reduction of the dehydration time by 58.19% using nanofluid. This treatment prevents the modification of the physicochemical properties of the product and helps preserving its organoleptic properties.
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Inadequate storage conditions can affect the sensory, physicochemical, and functional properties of tropical fruits such as Pouteria lucuma; which is a climacteric fruit, with a pleasant aroma and flavor; Peru being the main producer and exporter of this fruit, postharvest storage conditions have not been studied to maintain its properties. The objective of the research was to evaluate the effect of the storage conditions on the main physicochemical components, primary and secondary metabolites, antioxidant, and hypoglycemic capacity during postharvest ripening, under two storage conditions: ambient (29 °C and 70% RH) and climatic chamber (15 °C and 90% RH). Regarding the physicochemical characteristics, the state of maturity influenced acidity, pH, reducing sugars, starch, dietary fiber, firmness, pulp color and epicarp. In climate-controlled storage, glucose is the only metabolite that increases; while fructose, alcohol sugars and amino acids (Ala and Val), present higher values under ambient conditions; sucrose, organic acids, amino acids (Tyr, Glu, Asp and Thr), β-carotene, total phenolic compounds and total carotenoids were not affected by the type of storage. The measure of antioxidant and hypoglycemic capacity decreased significantly (p < 0,05), showing to be affected only by the state of maturity. The study of the carotenoid profile according to its spectrum (UV-vis) showed the presence of the group of xanthophylls. The results indicate that the state of maturity concerning the storage condition influenced most of the changes studied.
The objective of this work was to identify primary and secondary metabolites, volatile compounds, bioactive properties and physicochemical characteristics of lucuma fruit at two ripeness stages, before physiological maturity (bPM) and at physiological maturity (PM) or commercial harvest. The content of reducing sugars decreased, while starch content increased. Myo-inositol and vitamin C content decreased and increased, respectively as maturity stage advanced. The content of stearic acid decreased possibly related to the formation of unsaturated fatty acids and volatile compounds, especially aldehydes, such as 2-hexenal. In fact, key identified volatile compounds included 2-hexenal and hexanoic acid. Regarding secondary metabolites and functional properties, these significantly decreased as maturity stage advanced, only the total carotenoid content significantly increased (0.083-0.148 mg β-carotene equivalent); and the total phenolic content (83.3 69.3 mg GAE/g dw), sterols (4.4-6.5 μg β-sitosterol/g dw, 0.74-0.86 μg cycloartenol/g dw) and α-amylase inhibitory activity were not influenced by the maturity stage. The presence of α-amyrin (25.4 μg/g dw), myo-inositol (3.17 mg/g dw) and α-tocopherol (5.1 mg/100 g dw) stood out, so lucuma fruit could have potential as food with antioxidant, hypolipidemic, anti-hyperglycemic, and anti-inflammatory properties.
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Lucuma fruit is a good source of fiber, minerals, β-carotene, phenolics and niacin. The fruit is consumed mostly in Peru and Chile, although it is also known in a few other countries, and mostly in processed form in ice creams, bakery products and preserves. Almost no postharvest information is available on this fruit, and research is needed on nearly all aspects of fruit physiology and handling. This brief chapter is intended to report the information available on this fruit and to draw attention to the research that needs to be carried out and the information that needs to be generated.
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Canistel (Pouteria campechiana) is a native fruit from Central America and Mexico. This fruit still not known in Brazil, presents an orange-yellow pulp rich in carotenoids, which has attracted interest as a potential source of vitamin A. The purpose of this study was to determine the carotenoids content and pro-vitamin A values in the pulp of canistel, as well as the percentage of moisture and lipids in the pulp and seeds. Carotenoids were separated by open column chromatography. The content of total carotenoids was 226 ± 4 μg/g. Violaxantin and neoxantin were the predominant carotenoids with 196 ± 5 μg/g followed by zeta-carotene, beta-carotene 5,6-epoxide, beta-carotene and phytofluene. The seeds presented higher levels of total lipids with 4.6 ± 0.2 %, while pulp had 0.61 ± 0.03 % of total lipid. These results indicate that this fruit presented very high levels of total carotenoids when compared to other fruits regularly consumed, and may be considered as a good source of pro-vitamin A (59 ± 6 RAE/100g). However, the main carotenoids found in Canistel have no pro-vitamin A activity.
Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) root is an important source of fructooligosaccharides (FOS). This study evaluated the influence of the blanching and drying processes on the sugars, FOS and colour of the obtained flour. Blanching in boiling water of 5 mm slices for 6 min allowed to inactivate 95% of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase activity. Blanching solutions containing ascorbic, citric and lactic acid were detrimental in terms of FOS retention (68.2–87.4%) due to hydrolysis mainly of GF3, GF4 and GF5 FOS, and also important losses of reducing sugars (RS) were observed (69.5–87.4% retention). Blanching treatments that included ascorbic acid/CaCl2 prevented RS and FOS losses and improved colour of the obtained flour. The drying tested temperatures of 50–80 °C did not affect the RS retention and FOS losses associated to hydrolysis and the use of 80 °C rapidly reduced the water content and minimised browning reactions yielding flours with excellent colour characteristics with high FOS content that can be derived to the elaboration of prebiotic containing functional foods or for the extraction and purification of FOS.
The Sapotaceae family includes trees or shrubs with milky sap; the fruits are mainly berries; seeds are generally dark brown; shiny, with a wide hilum, wide cotyledons, large embryos, and generally very little endosperm; their pulp is edible, and used in many ways (Muñoz 1960). Several species belonging to the genus Pouteria have become important as a valuable food source in tropical and subtropical areas.
While products such as bananas, pineapples, kiwifruit and citrus have long been available to consumers in temperate zones, new fruits such as lychee, longan, carambola, and mangosteen are now also entering the market. Confirmation of the health benefits of tropical and subtropical fruit may also promote consumption further. Tropical and subtropical fruits are particularly vulnerable to postharvest losses, and are also transported long distances for sale. Therefore maximising their quality postharvest is essential and there have been many recent advances in this area. Many tropical fruits are processed further into purees, juices and other value-added products, so quality optimization of processed products is also important. The books cover current state-of-the-art and emerging post-harvest and processing technologies. Volume 1 contains chapters on particular production stages and issues, whereas Volumes 2, 3 and 4 contain chapters focused on particular fruit. Chapters in Volume 2 review the factors affecting the quality of different tropical and subtropical fruits from aã§ai to citrus fruits. Important issues relevant to each product are discussed, including means of maintaining quality and minimizing losses postharvest, recommended storage and transport conditions and processing methods, among other topics. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Volume 2 of Postharvest biology and technology of tropical and subtropical fruits, along with the other volumes in the collection, will be an essential reference both for professionals involved in the postharvest handling and processing of tropical and subtropical fruits and for academics and researchers working in the area.
The number and position of methyl groups of tocopherols and tocotrienols influence their ease to donate hydrogens and hence their antioxidant effectiveness. Tocopherols have been found to increase the induction period of bulk oils and emulsions, but their relative activity was found to differ under different conditions. There are several peculiarities regarding the antioxidant efficacy of tocopherols, e.g. the immediate changes from induction to propagation period, their loss of efficacy at higher concentrations and the unknown mechanisms behind their synergistic interactions with secondary antioxidants (e.g. phospholipids and amino acids). The recent understanding of the role of the physical factors, e.g. the log P value and size and orientation of antioxidant molecules help to understand these peculiarities.
Dietary fiber consists of the structural and storage polysaccharides and lignin in plants that are not digested in the human stomach and small intestine. A wealth of information supports the American Dietetic Association position that the public should consume adequate amounts of dietary fiber from a variety of plant foods. Recommended intakes, 20-35 g/day for healthy adults and age plus 5 g/day for children, are not being met, because intakes of good sources of dietary fiber, fruits, vegetables, whole and high-fiber grain products, and legumes are low. Consumption of dietary fibers that are viscous lowers blood cholesterol levels and helps to normalize blood glucose and insulin levels, making these kinds of fibers part of the dietary plans to treat cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Fibers that are incompletely or slowly fermented by microflora in the large intestine promote normal laxation and are integral components of diet plans to treat constipation and prevent the development of diverticulosis and diverticulitis. A diet adequate in fiber-containing foods is also usually rich in micronutrients and nonnutritive ingredients that have additional health benefits. It is unclear why several recently published clinical trials with dietary fiber intervention failed to show a reduction in colon polyps. Nonetheless, a fiber-rich diet is associated with a lower risk of colon cancer. A fiber-rich meal is processed more slowly, which promotes earlier satiety, and is frequently less calorically dense and lower in fat and added sugars. All of these characteristics are features of a dietary pattern to treat and prevent obesity. Appropriate kinds and amounts of dietary fiber for the critically ill and the very old have not been clearly delineated; both may need nonfood sources of fiber. Many factors confound observations of gastrointestinal function in the critically ill, and the kinds of fiber that would promote normal small and large intestinal function are usually not in a form suitable for the critically ill. Maintenance of body weight in the inactive older adult is accomplished in part by decreasing food intake. Even with a fiber-rich diet, a supplement may be needed to bring fiber intakes into a range adequate to prevent constipation. By increasing variety in the daily food pattern, the dietetics professional can help most healthy children and adults achieve adequate dietary fiber intakes.