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The Effect of Coconut Water and Planting Media to the Growth of Christmas Palm (Veitchia merilli)

Authors:
The Effect of Coconut Water and Planting Media to
the Growth of Christmas Palm (Veitchia merilli)
Umi Trisnaningsih*, Siti Wahyuni
Dept. of Agrotechnology, Agriculture Faculty
Universitas Swadaya Gunung Jati (UGJ)
Cirebon, Indonesia
AbstractChristmas palm seed is one types of seeds that are
difficult to germinate. This study aims to determine the effect of
coconut water and different growing media on germination of
Christmas palm seeds. The experiment was conducted at the
Faculty of Agriculture screen house, from October 2017 to
February 2018. The material used was Christmas palm seeds
obtained from the Faculty of Agriculture Experiment Garden,
hybrid coconut water, wulung coconut (medicinal coconut)
water, soil, red yellow podsolic soil (RYP), manure, and compost.
The experimental design used a randomized complete block
design consisting of 8 combinations of treatment between
immersion with coconut water (hybrid and wulung coconut water
and coconut water) with the type of planting media (humus soil,
red yellow podsolic soil, mixed soil with manure, and compost).
Each experimental unit consisted of 5 pots and was repeated
three times. The results showed that the red yellow podsolic soil
treatment with wulung coconut water gave the best results on all
observed variables. Thus it can be recommended to use coconut
water in an effort to accelerate the germination of princess
palms.
Keywords: Christmas palm, coconut water, planting media
I. INTRODUCTION
Christmas palm (Veitchia merilli) is an ornamental plant
commonly used as a garden element or as a shade plant on the
roadside. Its attractive appearance makes this type of palm
much sought after by consumers. In addition, Christmas palms
are more expensive than other types of palm which make this
plant have a high economic value [1]. In general, Christmas
palms are propagated generatively by seeds. One obstacle in
generative propagation is slow germination [2].
Various efforts can be made to accelerate the germination
of Christmas palm seeds. Chemical treatments that can
accelerate the germination of Christmas palm seeds include
H2SO4 and KNO3 treatment [3]. Exogenous growth regulators
can also accelerate the germination and growth of seedling.
The study showed that the application of gibberellins (GA3)
growth regulators significantly affected germination of red
palm seeds [4]. Besides gibberellins, another growth regulator
that plays a role in the growth of seedling and germination is
cytokines.
Coconut water is one of the natural sources of growth
regulator or phytohormone. In micro propagation or tissue
culture, coconut water is often used as a growth regulator [5].
This is due to its unique chemical composition [6]. The main
content of coconut water is sugar and minerals [5]. The
phytohormons contained in coconut water are auxin (IAA and
ABA), gibberellins, and zeatin (cytokines) in different amounts
[7]. However, the chemical composition varies according to the
stage of growth of coconuts, varieties, and cultivation
techniques [5]. Therefore, the phytohormone content will be
different in different types of coconuts. The difference in
phytohormone content in different varieties of coconut is
thought to have a different effect on germination of Christmas
palm seeds.
In addition to tissue culture, coconut water has also been
widely used to accelerate seed germination and root growth in
plant cuttings. In stevia, soaking with coconut water gave a
different growth of cuttings. The results showed that the age of
the different coconuts had different effects on the germination
of cucumber seeds treated with coconut water [8]. However,
soaking with coconut water has no significant effect on the
process of germination and growth of red palm seedlings [9].
In the germination process, sprouts obtain nutrients needed
from the stored food rather than from the environment.
However, a good growing environment is needed to support
decomposition of stores food, so that the germination process
can take place properly. Different types of planting media will
have different effects on the growth of stevia cuttings [10]. In
that study, the mixture of soil with compost gave a better effect
than that of land without compost. Compost causes the planting
media to become loose so that the roots can be easily
penetrated. However, palm trees require a dry environment, so
we need a planting medium that has good drainage. The use of
organic material such as compost and manure will make the
soil loose but will cause the planting media to become moister.
The study of Sumiasri and Priadi showed that different
growing media have different effects on germination and
growth of Christmas palms [1].
This study aims to determine the effect of coconut water
from two different types of coconut (hybrid coconut and
medicinal coconut or Wulung) as well as different growing
media on germination of Christmas palm seeds. Research on
the effect of various types of coconut as a source of plant
hormones has never been done before. Research that has been
done in general does not distinguish between types of coconuts,
but observes different age of picking.
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 429
International Conference on Agriculture, Social Sciences, Education, Technology
and Health (ICASSETH 2019)
Copyright © 2020 The Authors. Published by Atlantis Press SARL.
This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC 4.0 license -http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/. 79
II. RESEARCH METHODS
The experiment was conducted at the screen house of the
Faculty of Agriculture UGJ Cirebon. The location is located at
an altitude of 7 m above sea level (asl), from October 2017
until February 2018. The materials used in this experiment are
palm seed, coconut water from hybrids and Wulung
(medicinal) coconut, red yellow podsolic soil (RYP), humus
soil, manure, and compost while the tools used is a 9 cm
diameter pot, shovel, calipers, hands payer, ruler, stationery,
plastic, labels, and others.
The experimental design used in this study was a
randomized complete design (RCD). The treatment consisted
of 8 (eight) treatment combinations, between coconut water
(hybrid coconut and Wulung coconut) and planting media
(topsoil, RYP soil, topsoil mixture + manure, and compost),
each of which was repeated three times so that there were 24
unit experiments. Each experimental unit consists of 5 pots. So
that the total pot used is 120 pots.
Palm seeds are soaked in 100% coconut water, according to
the treatment, for 6 hours. For the treatment of soil mixture, a
mixture of topsoil and goat manure was used in a ratio of 1: 1
(v / v). The seeds are then drained and planted in pots that have
been filled with planting media in accordance with the
treatment. The seeds are then watered and stored in a screen
house. Maintenance is done only watering and weeding.
Observations were made on the percentage of germination,
plant height, number of leaves, number of roots, and root
length. For the percentage of germination measured at 21 days
after seedling (DAS), plant height was measured at 21, 28, and
35 DAS while the other variables were measured at 35 DAS.
To find out whether the treatment was significantly different,
the F test was used. Meanwhile, to find out which treatment
had a significantly different effect, the Duncan’s Multiple
Range test was used at the 5%.
III. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
A. Percentage of Germination
The combination of coconut water and planting media
significantly affected the percentage of female palm seed
germination (Table 1). RYP soil gives a significantly better
percentage than other planting media, both in seeds soaked in
green coconut water and wulung.
TABLE I. THE EFFECT OF COCONUT WATER AND PLANTING MEDIA TO
PERCENTAGE OF GERMINATION
Treatments
Germination
Percentage (%)
A : Soil + wulung coconut water
50,00
A
B : RYP soil + wulung coconut water
80,00
b
C : Mix Soil + wulung coconut water
65,00
a
D : Compost + wulung coconut water
47,50
a
E : Soil + hybrid coconut water
60,00
a
F : RYP soil + hybrid coconut water
65,00
ab
G : Mix soil + hybrid coconut water
62,50
a
H : Compost + hybrid coconut water
42,50
a
Note: The average number followed by the same letter shows no significant difference according
to Duncan's Multiple Range Test at a level of 5%
The highest percentage of seeds that germinated was 80%,
which indicates that the female palm seed is slow to germinate.
The study of Setyaningsih on the red palms showed that in the
treatment without coconut water immersion, the seeds only
germinated 14 days after the seedlings (DAS) while in the
immersion treatment the seeds had begun to germinate at 14
DAS [11]. In that research, the highest percentage of
germination was 75% achieved at 28 DAS. This is because
palm seeds experience physical dormancy due to their hard
seed skin, which inhibits imbibition and gas exchange
[3,11,12].
B. Plant Height
The treatment of coconut water and planting media
significantly affected plant height at all ages of observation
(Table 2). At the age of 21 DAS, wulung coconut water
treatment gave significantly higher plants compared to hybrid
coconut water treatment except for soil media. At 35 DAS,
RYP soil media treatment with wulung coconut water gave
significantly higher plants than the others (17.51 cm).
The treatment of coconut water and planting media
significantly affected plant height at all ages of observation
(Table 2). At the age of 21 DAS, wulung coconut water
treatment gave significantly higher plants compared to hybrid
coconut water treatment except for soil media. At 35 DAS,
RYP soil media treatment with wulung coconut water gave
significantly higher plants than the others (17.51 cm).
TABLE II. THE EFFECT OF COCONUT WATER AND PLANTING MEDIA ON
PLANT HEIGHT
Treatments
21 DAP
28 DAP
35 DAP
A : Soil + wulung
coconut water
8,33
A
12,59
ab
15,46
abc
B : RYP soil + wulung
coconut water
9,42
B
15,17
b
17.51
c
C : Mix Soil + wulung
coconut water
8,61
B
14,11
b
16,83
b
D : Compost + wulung
coconut water
6,41
B
11,51
a
13,61
a
E : Soil + hybrid
coconut water
8,14
A
11,71
ab
15,84
abc
F : RYP soil + hybrid
coconut water
12,93
a
12,83
ab
16,04
b
G : Mix soil + hybrid
coconut water
8,52
a
13,59
ab
16,14
bc
H : Compost + hybrid
coconut water
7,79
a
11,58
a
14,74
ab
Note: The average number followed by the same letter in the same column shows no significant
difference according to Duncan's Multiple Range Test at a level of 5%
In this study, the growth of palm seedling in red yellow
podsolic (RYP) soil was significantly higher than in other
growing media. This is different from the results of research by
Sumiasri and Priadi, which showed that Christmas palm
seedling in RYP soil gave the lowest plant height [1]. The
highest plants are obtained on compost growing media. The
opposite, in this study the use of compost provides the shortest
plants. This shows that the type of coconut water used has a
good effect on seeds planted on PKM soil but not on compost.
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 429
80
C. Number of Leaves
The combination of coconut water treatment with the type
of planting media significantly affected the number of leaves
(Table 3). Most leaves were obtained in PKM soil treatment
with medicinal coconut water while the least was in compost
with medicinal coconut water.
TABLE III. THE EFFECT OF COCONUT WATER AND PLANTING MEDIA ON
NUMBER OF LEAVES
Treatments
Number of Leaves
A : Soil + wulung coconut water
7,25
bc
B : RYP soil + wulung coconut water
7,75
c
C : Mix Soil + wulung coconut water
7,50
bc
D : Compost + wulung coconut water
1,50
a
E : Soil + hybrid coconut water
5,25
bc
F : RYP soil + hybrid coconut water
6,75
bc
G : Mix soil + hybrid coconut water
5,00
b
H : Compost + hybrid coconut water
0,25
a
Note: The average number followed by the same letter in the same column shows no significant
difference according to Duncan's Multiple Range Test at a level of 5%
The first leaves that appear on a Christmas palm plant are
usually larger when compared to the size of the plant. In
addition, the shape is different from the leaves that appear next.
The plant is still rosette, where the book is so short that it
doesn't look like it has a stem.
The most leaves are obtained from the treatment of wulung
coconut water with RYP soil (B), which is between 7-8 strands.
Compost treatment, both with wulung (D) and hybrid (H)
coconut water, gives the smallest number of leaves, which is
between 1-2 strands. The more leaves formed, the higher the
level of photosynthesis so that more photosynthesis is produced
to support plant growth. The results of the study of Sujarwati et
al. showed that coconut water immersion significantly affected
plant height, leaf length, root length, and plant fresh weight
compared with no immersion treatment [2]. However, different
concentrations of coconut water do not have a real effect
D. Number and Length of Roots
Coconut water and the type of planting media significantly
affected the number of roots and root length (Table 4). The
most roots were obtained in RYP soil treatment with wulung
coconut water while the longest root was obtained from mixed
soil treatment (soil + manure) with wulung coconut water.
Root is the organ that first appears in Christmas palm
germination. Therefore, roots grow faster than leaves. The
average number of roots produced in the treatment of hybrid
coconut water is less when compared to wulung coconut water,
in all types of planting media. The longest root is produced by
seeds soaked in wulung coconut water in a mixed soil. The
results of this study are different from the results of the study
of Sumiasri and Priadi which show that female palm roots
grow better on compost growing media [1].
TABLE IV. THE EFFECT OF COCONUT WATER AND PLANTING MEDIA ON
THE NUMBER AND HEIGHT OF ROOT
Treatment
Number of
Root
Height of
Root (cm)
A : Soil + wulung coconut water
7,75
a
15,00
b
B : RYP soil + wulung coconut water
10,75
b
17,38
bc
C : Mix Soil + wulung coconut water
10,50
ab
17,63
c
D : Compost + wulung coconut water
6,50
a
14,63
b
E : Soil + hybrid coconut water
4,00
a
7,00
a
F : RYP soil + hybrid coconut water
8,25
ab
14,25
b
G : Mix soil + hybrid coconut water
7,00
a
15,38
bc
H : Compost + hybrid coconut water
5,25
a
11,68
b
Note: The average number followed by the same letter in the same column shows no significant
difference according to Duncan's Multiple Range Test at a level of 5%
Soaking with coconut water has a significant effect on the
growth of the king's palm roots. The longer soaking the longer
the roots produced [11]. The same results were also obtained in
Christmas palms [2]. However, the red palm germination,
soaking of coconut water has no significant effect on root
growth [9].
Coconut water contains growth regulators auxin,
gibberellins, cytokines and abscisic acid [6]. Gibberellins play
an important role in the germination process, because it
functions to activate the enzymes that remodel food reserves.
However, exogenous administration of gibberellins did not
significantly affect the growth of red palm sprout roots [4]. In
this study, it was suspected that in addition to growth
regulators, planting media also had an effect on germination
and subsequent germination growth.
IV. CONCLUSION
Soaking with coconut water and planting media
significantly affected the growth variables of the Christmas
palm seedlings. The treatment of red-yellow podsolic soil and
wulung coconut water gave a better effect on the percentage of
germination, growth of the shoot (plant height and number of
leaves) compared to other treatments.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The author wish to acknowledge to Dean of Agriculture
Faculty, University of Swadaya Gunung Jati, who provided the
necessary facilities for this research.
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Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 429
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... Research also reported that medium with coconut water treatment of 150ml/l and 200ml/l resulted in the early germination and highest germination percentage on the Dendrobium orchid seed (Sumantra & Widnyana, 2011). Soaking with coconut water significantly affected the growth variables of the Christmas palm seedlings because it gave a better effect on the percentage of germination, the plant height, and the number of leaves (Trisnaningsih & Wahyuni, 2020). ...
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