ArticlePDF Available

Mapping the Life Cycle Co-Creation Process of Nature-Based Solutions for Urban Climate Change Adaptation

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Developing urban and peri-urban ecosystem services with nature-based solutions (NBS) and participatory approaches can help achieve more resilient and sustainable environments for cities and urban areas in the face of climate change. The co-creation process is increasingly recognised as the way forward to deal with environmental issues in cities, allowing the development of associated methods and tools that have been described and published for specific stages. It is argued that the co-creation process comprises various interlinked stages, corresponding stakeholders, and subsequent methods and tools that need to be mapped and integrated across all stages. In this study, a Life Cycle Co-Creation Process (LCCCP) for NBS is developed, building on continuous improvement cycles and Design Thinking methodologies, and for which the stages and substages, involved stakeholders and engagement methods and tools are mapped and defined. For stakeholders, the actors of an Urban Living Lab (ULL) are adapted to the LCCCP; for the engagement methods and tools, the goals of stakeholder engagement are used as a guide to select examples of co-creation methods and tools. The developed LCCCP comprises five stages, i.e., CoExplore, CoDesign, CoExperiment, CoImplement and CoManagement, creating a unique path that can be followed by practitioners for NBS co-creation.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Resources2020,9,39;doi:10.3390/resources9040039www.mdpi.com/journal/resources
Article
MappingtheLifeCycleCoCreationProcessof
NatureBasedSolutionsforUrbanClimateChange
Adaptation
MartaIreneDeLosRíosWhite
1,2,
*,PeterRoebeling
3,4
,SandraValente
3
andInesVaittinen
2
1
DepartmentofEnvironment&Planning,UniversityofAveiro(DAOUA),3810193Aveiro,Portugal
2
EuropeanNetworkofLivingLabs(ENoLL),AvenuedesArts6,1210Brussels,Belgium;
ines.vaittinen@enoll.org
3
CESAM&DepartmentofEnvironment&Planning,UniversityofAveiro(CESAM&DAOUA),3810193
Aveiro,Portugal;peter.roebeling@ua.pt(P.R.);sandra.valente@ua.pt(S.V.)
4
WageningenEconomicResearch,WageningenUniversityandResearch(WUR),6708PBWageningen,
TheNetherlands
*Correspondence:tica.dlrw@gmail.com;Tel.:+573013686020
Received:23December2019;Accepted:7April2020;Published:12April2020
Abstract:Developingurbanandperiurbanecosystemserviceswithnaturebasedsolutions(NBS)
andparticipatoryapproachescanhelpachievemoreresilientandsustainableenvironmentsfor
citiesandurbanareasinthefaceofclimatechange.Thecocreationprocessisincreasingly
recognisedasthewayforwardtodealwithenvironmentalissuesincities,allowingthe
developmentofassociatedmethodsandtoolsthathavebeendescribedandpublishedforspecific
stages.Itisarguedthatthecocreationprocesscomprisesvariousinterlinkedstages,corresponding
stakeholders,andsubsequentmethodsandtoolsthatneedtobemappedandintegratedacrossall
stages.Inthisstudy,aLifeCycleCoCreationProcess(LCCCP)forNBSisdeveloped,buildingon
continuousimprovementcyclesandDesignThinkingmethodologies,andforwhichthestagesand
substages,involvedstakeholdersandengagementmethodsandtoolsaremappedanddefined.For
stakeholders,theactorsofanUrbanLivingLab(ULL)areadaptedtotheLCCCP;forthe
engagementmethodsandtools,thegoalsofstakeholderengagementareusedasaguidetoselect
examplesofcocreationmethodsandtools.ThedevelopedLCCCPcomprisesfivestages,i.e.,
CoExplore,CoDesign,CoExperiment,CoImplementandCoManagement,creatingauniquepath
thatcanbefollowedbypractitionersforNBScocreation.
Keywords:cocreation;lifecyclecocreation;cocreationstages;methods;tools;actors;
stakeholders;naturebasedsolutions;stakeholderengagement
1.Introduction
Climatechangehasincreasedtheneedforurbanareastoadapttohazardsthreateningthe
liveabilityofcities,aswellastheurbansocialandeconomicsystems[1].Threatsrelatedtochanging
climaticconditions,suchasflooding,drought,heatstressandurbanheatislandeffects,are
exacerbatedduetotheincreasingproportionofthepopulationnowlivingincities[2].Morethan
halfoftheworldʹspopulationlivesinurbancentres,anditisexpectedthat,by2030,morethan60%
oftheworldpopulationwillliveinurbanareas.Hence,oneineverythreepersonsislikelyto
experiencethedirectimpactsofclimatechangeincities[3].Beingcentresofdevelopmentandoneof
themainemissionsourcesofgreenhousegases,thefutureofglobalsustainabilitywillbedetermined
byhowwellcitiesimplementmitigationandadaptationmeasurestodealwiththosethreats[4].
Besidesimpactingurbanareasandhumanpopulations,theimpactsofclimatechangehave
directandindirectconsequencesforurbanecosystems,biodiversityandtheenvironmentalservices
Resources2020,9,392of27
theyprovidetothepopulation[5].Consideringthaturbanecosystemsandbiodiversityrepresentan
importantroleinclimatechangeadaptationandmitigation,citiesmustdevelopalongtermsystems
basedapproachthatconsiderstheimpactsonurbanareasandthehumanpopulation.Urbanareas
evolveandarebeingreshapedconstantlyasurbanisationadvancesandmoreinhabitantsare
migratingtowardsmetropolitanareas[6].Hence,“urbanplanningisacontinuousprocessofforeseeing,
anticipating,andpreparingforthefuture”whileseekingabalancebetweeninterestsfromdifferent
stakeholdersandsectors[7](p.76).Consideringthatclimatechangeisconstantlygeneratingnew
challengesforcities,theconceptofcontinuousimprovementandinnovativemeasures(combining
orintegratingurbanplanningandclimatechange)needtobetakenintoconsideration.
Developingurbanandperiurbanecosystemserviceswithanaturebasedandparticipatory
approachcanhelpachievemoreresilientandsustainableenvironmentsforcitiesandurbanareas[5].
Infact,theclaimfornewparticipatoryapproachestodealwithcomplexenvironmentalchallengesis
relatedtofailuresintopdowndecision‐andpolicymakingprocessestodealwiththosechallenges
[8–10].Theseprocessesweretraditionallypositionedinthedomainoftrainedexperts,lacking
detailedlocalknowledgeandsupportfromcommunities[11].Moreover,urbanbiodiversityand
ecosystemsneedtobesafeguardedandenhancedforthemtodelivercritical,naturebasedco
benefitsthatpromotethewellbeingofitsinhabitants.
Naturebasedsolutions(NBS)aresolutionsthatcanhelpsupportclimatechangemitigationand
adaptationinurbansettings[5].Namely,NBSarecosteffectivesolutionstosocietalchallengesthat
areinspiredandsupportedbynature,andthathelpbuildingresiliencebyprovidingbenefitsacross
thethreepillarsofsustainability:economic,environmental,andsocial[12].TheNBSconceptbuilds
ontherelatedecosystemapproach,whichadvocatesanintegratedmanagementofthedifferent
ecosystemservicesandthelivingresourcesinasustainableway[13].Hence,NBSaredesignedto
bringnaturalprocessestourbansettings,supporteconomicgrowthandenhanceoverallwellbeing.
TheSustainableDevelopmentGoal11(SDG11),promotedbytheUnitedNations,aimstoMake
citiesandhumansettlementsinclusive,safe,resilientandsustainable[14],supportingtheideathatcities
arekeyactorsinclimatechangeactionsforsustainablefutures.Consideringthat75%oftheEuropean
populationlivesinurbanareas,SDG11isofgreatimportancefortheEuropeanUnion’sResearch
andInnovationNBSAgenda.Furthermore,thereareaseriesofbenefitsassociatedwithNBSthat
aligndirectlywithseveralSDG11targets,suchastemperaturereduction,carbonsequestration,
pollutantfixationandurbanfoodproduction[15].
Environmentalissuesrelatedtourbanareashavebeensubjectofpublicdebate,inwhichitis
particularlyimportanttointegrateknowledgefrommultipleactorstoensureeffectiveinterventions
[16].Beingconsideredcosteffectivesolutionsforclimatechangeadaptation,NBSaimtoreconnect
peoplewithnature,raiseawarenessofsocialbenefitsandcreatedemandfornaturalenvironments
[12].Today,urbansettingsareseenbydifferentstakeholdersasanaturalspacetodevelopideasina
LivingLab(LL)setting[17].TheLLconceptisbasedontheideathatinnovationprocesses,
underpinnedbyacocreationapproach,effectivelycontributetothecreationofinnovationsthathave
addedvaluetoendusers[18].
AsdescribedbytheEuropeanNetworkofLivingLabs(ENoLL)[19],LLsaredefinedas“user
centred,openinnovationecosystemsbasedonsystematicusercocreationapproach,integratingresearchand
innovationprocessesinreallifecommunitiesandsettings”,therebynotingthatLLsoftenhaveastrong
focusonsocialvaluecreationandcivicengagement,moresothanincommercialactivities[20].The
UrbanLivingLab(ULL)conceptisusedwhentalkingaboutLLswithafocusonmoreurban
innovationand,thus,notonlyonfacilitatingtheinteractionbetweenstakeholders.InULLs,themain
focusshiftsfrombeingusercentredtobeingcitizencentred[19].GiventhattheULLconceptisbased
ontheideathatinnovationprocessesshouldbeperformedinacocreativewayasinastoprovide
benefitsfortheirusers,theULLconceptcanbeappliedtothegenerationofNBS.
ThetermcocreationwasinitiallyusedbyPrahaladandRamaswamy[21]andisconsideredan
evolutionofthecooperativedesignusedbytradeunionsinScandinaviabetweenthe1960and1970s.
Giventhatcooperativedesignreferredtoacocreationprocess,thegoalhasalwaysbeentodescribe
aprocessinwhichstakeholdersareengagedtobepartofaproblemsolvingprocessinwhichthey
Resources2020,9,393of27
alltakepartascodesigners.Eventhoughcocreationasaconceptappearedin2000andwasused
mostlytoengageendusersinthedesignofaproductorservice,itwasfullyadoptedaround2010
whenitwasexpandedtoincludeallstakeholders[22].
Theimportanceofcocreationinurbandevelopmentresidesinthefactthatittakesplace
between“economicandsocialactorswithinnetworksinteractingandexchangingacrossandthrough
networks”[23](p.5).Thismeansthatcocreationismorethanadirectdeveloper/customer
relationshipasitconsidersstakeholdersaspartofanecosystemand,assuch,understandsthe
complexnatureofrelationshipsandthesystemicinteractionsthattakeplaceamongstakeholders[24].
Framingthedevelopmentinthesenseofabusinessecosystem,eachstakeholderisresponsiblefor
theachievementofasolutionand,assuch,shouldbepartoftheentiredecisionmakingprocess,
includingthedevelopment,cocreationanddesignoftheprocess[25].
Consideringthatallthestakeholdersinvolvedinthedevelopmentofsolutionsareaffectedand
affectdecisionsbothdirectlyandindirectly,thecocreationapproachisincreasinglymentionedas
thewayforwardwithenvironmentrelatedissues[14](pp.20–23).Thus,variouscocreationmethods
andtoolshavebeendevelopedandappliedoverthedecadestothisend.Thesemethodsandtools
are,however,developed,describedandpublishedforspecificstagesofthecocreationprocess,and
notfortheentireprocess.Weargue,however,thatthecocreationprocesscomprisesvarious
interlinkedstages,correspondingstakeholdersandsubsequentmethodsandtools,whichneedtobe
mappedandintegratedacrossallstagesofthecocreationprocess.Infact,BradwellandMarr[26]
statethatitisanabsolutenecessityforasuccessfulcocreationprocesstohaveamethodologythat
supportsitspropertiesastoensurethattheaimoftheprocessismet.
Hence,theobjectiveofthisstudyistoidentifyanddescribethestages,stakeholders,and
methodsandtoolsoftheLifeCycleCoCreationProcess(LCCCP)fornaturebasedurbanclimate
changeadaptation.Tothisend,adocumentalanalysisandliteraturereviewisperformedtoobtain
anenhancedunderstandingoftheconceptsofcocreation,naturebasedsolutions,lifecycleapproach,
continuousimprovementmethodologies,DesignThinkingandstakeholderengagementmethods
andtools.Fromtheinformationcompiled,theproposalfortheLCCCPisdesigned,including
correspondingstagesandsubstages.Inturn,stakeholdersinvolvedineachstagearedefinedusing
theULLactors.Finally,aseriesofmethodsandtoolstopromotestakeholderengagementare
identifiedandmappedacrosstheLCCCPstages.
Thisstudyisexpectedtogobeyondpreviousstudiesbyprovidinganewapproachtotheco
creationprocess,insteadoffocusingonaparticularstageand,atthesametime,identifyingthe
stakeholders,andmethodsandtoolsforeachofthestagesandsubstagesoftheLCCCP.By
combiningmethodologiesfromthefieldofcocreation,BusinessProcessManagement(BPM)and
processimprovement,theLCCCPbringstogetherthestagesofthesedifferentmethodsinanew
approachthatcoverstheinnovationlifecyclefromtheveryinitialphasesofexplorationand
engagement(e.g.,DesignThinking[27])tothelaterstagesofimplementationandmaintenance(e.g.,
PDCAandDMAICcycles[28,29]).ByidentifyinganddefiningthedifferentstagesoftheLCCCPfor
NBS,thisstudyprovidesacomprehensiveframeworktodevelopNBSincitiesusingacocreative
approach.ThestagespresentedhereintendtocoverthecompleteLCCCPandaredesignedbasedon
systemicandlifecyclethinkingapproaches,inwhichtheinteractionsofthecocreationprocessare
takenintoaccount.
Theremainderofthispaperisstructuredasfollows.Thenextsectiondescribesthemethodology
usedtodesigntheLCCCP.Section3presentsconceptsofsystemicthinking,lifecycleapproachand
continuousimprovement,whichwerenecessarytounderstandhowthePDCACycle(Plan,Do,
Check,Act)[28],DMAICCycle(Define,Measure,Analyse,ImproveandControl)[29]andDesign
Thinking[27]approachcouldbeusedtodefinethestagesoftheLCCCP.Thissectionalsopresents
aspectsofstakeholdermanagementandparticipation,theQuadrupleHelixModel(QHM)approach
androleswithinaULLand,finally,themaingoalsandexamplesoftoolkitsthatcouldbeusedto
facilitatestakeholderengagement.Section4describestheLCCCPfornaturebasedurbanclimate
changeadaptation,includingthevariousstages,thestakeholdersinvolvedineachstage,andsome
examplesofmethodsandtoolsthatcouldpromotestakeholderengagementduringthecocreation
Resources2020,9,394of27
process.Finally,Section5comprisesthediscussionoftheLCCCPdesignandpresents
recommendationsforfuturestudies.
2.MaterialsandMethods
Themethodologyfollowedinthisstudycomprisesthreesteps,whichincludeadocument
analysisandliteraturereview,thedesignoftheLCCCPandtheformulationofconclusionsand
recommendations(seeFigure1).
Figure1.Methodology.
Thefirststepofthemethodologyentailedadocumentanalysisandliteraturereview.A
systematicapproachwasused,inwhichthekeywordsthatwereusedduringthereviewwere
identifiedaccordingtotheresearchquestionandobjectives.Giventhatcocreationiscentraltothis
study,understandingtheevolutionandmeaningofthetermwasimportanttodefinethedifferent
stagesofthereview.Inturn,newtopicstoberesearchedwereidentified,suchascontinuousprocess
improvement,stakeholderroleswithinaULL,andgeneralobjectivesofmethodsandtoolsfor
stakeholderengagement.Thereviewwasdividedintothefollowingfourtopics:
Generalproblematic—keywords:climatechange,urbanareas,climateextremes,cocreation,
ULLandNBS;
Lifecycleapproach—keywords:systemicthinking,continuousimprovement,Kaizen,Six
Sigma,DesignThinking,cocreationframeworkandcocreationstages;
Stakeholdermanagement—keywords:stakeholderidentification,ULLandQHM;and
Engagementmethodsandtools—keywords:stakeholderengagementmethods,toolsand
techniques;
andcorrespondingkeywordswereidentifiedbytheauthorsbasedontheirexperienceinthisareaof
researchandfurtherrefinedbasedontheresultsobtainedusingthekeywordsearch.
Duringthereview,differentcombinationsofthekeywordslistedabovewereusedtoidentify
papersrelatedtococreationinurbansettings.ThemaindatabasesusedwereScienceDirect,Scopus
andProQuest,consideringtheperiodbetween2010and2018(giventhecocreationmethodology
involvingallstakeholdershasbeenevolvingsince2010[22]).Thereferencemanagementsoftware
Mendeleywasusedtocompilethedocumentsandpapersusedintheliteraturereview.
Toidentifytherelevantpapersoutofthepapersretrievedusingthekeywordsearch(basedon
title,abstractandkeywords),tworoundsofreviewwereperformed.Inthefirstround,172papers
wereshortlistedbasedontitlesandabstracts.Inthesecondround,shortlistedpaperswereread,
Resources2020,9,395of27
and29wereselectedtobeincludedinthisstudy.Inbothroundsofreview,papersthatdidnotfit
thestudyordidnotresulttoberelevantwereexcluded.Duringthisreview,23additionalpapers
wereidentified(basedonreferences)andconsideredforinclusionfollowingthissamemethodology.
Hence,atotalof195paperswereretrievedintheprocess,outofwhich107paperswerestudiedin
detailduringthereviewingprocess,and38paperswerefinallyselectedforinclusioninthisstudy.
Thisapproachwasusedtoobtainarapidoverviewofrelevantandrecentpapersintheareasof
interest.Whileakeywordsearchdoesfacevariousissues,suchasalargeamountofresults,many
irrelevantresultsandkeywordsconsideredoutofcontext[30],someoftheseissueswereovercome
byapplyingthetworoundsofreview(efficientlyexcludingirrelevantresults;identifyingkeywords
incontext)andselectingadditionalrelevantpapersfromthereferencesmentionedintheshortlisted
papers.
Fortheframingofthegeneralproblematic,thebook“ClimateChangeandCities:Second
AssessmentReportoftheUrbanClimateChangeResearchNetwork”byRosenzweigetal.,2018was
used[31].AsforULLrelatedconcepts,officialdocumentsfromENoLL[19]wereused,aswellas
papersproducedbyULLresearchersandpractitioners.GiventhatKaizen[32]andSixSigma[28]
aremethodologiesthatareinternationallycertifiedbyofficialagencies,informationfromthese
agencieswasalsoused.
ThesecondstepentailedthedesignoftheLCCCP,therebybuildingontheinformationcompiled
inthedocumentanalysisandliteraturereview.TheproposalforthedesignoftheLCCCPcocreation
stageswasbasedondifferentcontinuousimprovement[28,32,33]andDesignThinking[34]methods.
DuringtheprocessofidentifyingthesecocreationstagesandgiventhattheLCCCPwasdesigned
withtheobjectivetopromotestakeholderengagementduringallthesestages,themappingof
stakeholderstobeinvolvedacrosseachofthesestageswasbasedontheULLconceptandQHM
approach[35].Lastly,methodsandtoolstofacilitatestakeholderengagementwereidentifiedand
givenasexamplesofmethodsandtoolsthatcanbeusedineachofthesestages,mostlybasedonthe
U4IoTproject[36],theMindToolswebpage[37],theServiceDesignToolswebpage[38]andthe
UNaLabcocreationToolkit[39].
Finally,afteridentifyinganddefiningthethreedimensionsoftheLCCCP(stages,stakeholders,
andmethodsandtools),generalconclusionsandrecommendationswerederived.Thesewerebased
onthedocumentanalysisandliteraturereview,aswellastheauthors’experienceinthefield.
3.CoCreationConcepts
ForthethreedimensionsoftheLCCCPtobedefined,backgroundinformationonaseriesof
topicswasrequired.Understandingtheconceptsofsystemicthinkingandlifecycleapproachwas
necessary,tounderstandhowthePDCACycle[28],DMAICCycle[29]andDesignThinking[27]
couldbeusedtodefinethestagesoftheLCCCP(Section3.1).Afterunderstandingtheseconcepts
andhowtheycanbeappliedtoNBS,aspectsofstakeholdermanagementandparticipation,aswell
astheQHMandroleswithinaULLwerereviewed(Section3.2).Finally,themaingoalsandexamples
oftoolkitsthatcouldbeusedtofacilitatestakeholderengagementarepresented(Section3.3).
3.1.SystemicThinkingandLifeCycleApproaches
Environmentalproblemsarecomplexanddynamic,astheyarepartofabroadersystemandare
interlinkedwithdifferentprocesses[40].Hence,solvingenvironmentalproblemsrequiresflexible
andtransparentdecisionmakingprocessesthatareabletoembracethediversityofknowledgeand
theunderstandingoftheproblem,valuesandneeds[9].
Asystemicthinkingapproachfacilitatestheunderstandingofcomplexsystemsorchallenges
andtheirinterrelations,whileallowingaglobalview,avoidingsimplificationsanddeveloping
simpleinterventionsfortransformingthem[40,41].Thisapproachprovidesaframeworkinwhich
patternscanbeidentified,allowingforthereplicationofprocessesindifferentscenariosinwhichthe
samepatternsareidentified[41].Thelifecycleapproachfollowsthesystemicthinkingapproachas
itconsiders,notonly,everythingandeveryoneinvolvedintheproductorservicelifecycle,butalso,
allrelevantimpactsontheeconomy,environmentandsociety[42].
Resources2020,9,396of27
Processesareincontinuousevolutionand,assuch,theiranalysiscannotbedonewithastatic
approach.Thelifecycleapproachisconsideredtobethefoundationofanyconsiderationof
improvementinaprocessand,hence,aframeworkwithsuchcharacteristicsisconsideredimportant.
Thereareseveralmethodologiesandmethodsthatfocusonimprovingprocesses,including:
ThePDCAcycle[28]usedintheKaizen™method[32]thatformsthebasisofthecycleof
continuousimprovement;
TheDMAICcycle[29],asanevolutionofthePDCAcycle[28],developedasthebasisoftheSix
Sigmamethodology[28];and
TheDesignThinkingapproachforcocreation[27]thatcanbecomparedtothemethodologies
andmethodsdescribedabove.
Eventhoughmethodologiesandmethods,suchasKaizen’scontinuousimprovement(PDCA
cycle[28,32])andSixSigma(DMAICcycle[29]),areverystructuredandrelyondatatoperform
measurementsandimprovements,aparallelbetweenthemandthestagesofDesignThinking[27]
canbemade(seeFigure2).
Figure2.ComparisonbetweenPDCA,DMAICandDesignThinkingstages.Adaptedfrom[32,38,41].
Althoughalloftheapproaches,methodologiesandmethodsmentionedaboveconsider
continuousimprovementinadifferentway,theyallstartwhentheopportunityforimprovement
hasbeenidentifiedandfinishwhenthesolutionisdesigned(asinthecaseofDesignThinking[27])
orimplemented(asinthePDCAandDMAICcycles[28,29]).Regardlessoftheirconstraints,when
consideringthecocreationprocessasmorethanjustcomingupwithasolutiontoaproblem,and
bearinginmindthatthecyclesmentionedabove(PDCAandDMAICcycles[28,29])arethebasisof
mostcontinuousimprovementprocesses,therearesomeframeworksinliteraturedefiningstepsfor
cocreationthatmostlyuseaDesignThinkingapproach[1,27,43–45].Thesethreeapproachesprovide
asolidbasisforthedesignoftheLCCCPforNBS.
Resources2020,9,397of27
3.2.StakeholdersinParticipatoryProcesses
Climatechangepresentscomplexanddynamicchallengesforcities.Toovercomesuch
challenges,engagementofrelevantstakeholdersisimportantbecauseareductioninconflict,
buildingoftrustandfacilitationoflearningamongstakeholderscanhappenwhenaparticipatory
approachtoenvironmentalissuesisimplemented[10].Theinvolvementofdifferentstakeholdersis
essentialwhenadaptationmeasuresaredevelopedinexistingurbanareas.Thesestakeholdershave
differentlevelsofknowledge,interests,rolesandagendasintheprocess[46].Aparticipatory
approachallowsstakeholderstomeeteachother,sharetheirknowledge,understandtheproblem
andidentifythemostdesirableadaptationmeasures[1].
ULLsfollowtheQHMapproach[35]todefineitsmainactors,asitclusterstheprotagonistsof
innovationgeneratingprocessesintofourcomprehensivecategories[35,47]:
Academiaandresearchcentres.Historicallythissectorhasalwaysbeenfundamentalin
knowledgeproductionandhasonlyrecentlybecomeacontributortoinnovationthankstothe
crucialrolethatknowledgehasgainedindevelopmentprocesses.Thissectorhasbecomeakey
actorofeconomicandculturalgrowth.
Industryandbusiness.Alsoknownasthecommercialmarketortheeconomiccategory.
Frequentlyastrongactorthatleadstechnologicalandorganisationalinnovationandusuallyhas
theroleofgenerating,producinganddistributingproductsandservices.Producesinnovations
aloneorassociatedwithotherstakeholders.
Governmentandpublicsector.Theinnovationwithinthissectorisframedwithinnewideas
thatcreatevalueforsociety,andthus,thisinnovationusuallycomesthroughpolicies,strategies
andinitiatives.Theroleoftheseinstitutionsistosupportbothindustryandacademiaforthe
applicationofinformationtodevelopment.
Civilsociety.Representscitizensoruserswhoprovideknowledgeabouttheirneeds,
experiencesandexpectations.Astheyaredirectlyaffectedbyanychangesmadeinanurban
context,theycanprovidefirsthandinformationregardingthechallengeathandand,thus,
becomeinnovationusers.ByincludingcivilsocietytotheTripleHelixModel(THM),thus
creatingtheQHM,theinnovationshiftsfromtechnicaltosocial.
BesidesthecategoriesusedfortheQHM,aseriesofspecificroleswithinaULLareidentified.
Thesecanbeeitherinternal,forsettingupandmanagingaULL,orexternal,formanagingULL
activities[48].Theserolesdescribetheresponsibilitiesofthestakeholderswhenworkingonaproject
thatwillbeimplementedinaULLsetting.Itisimportanttonotethatseveralrolescanbeperformed
bythesameperson.Figures3and4listtheinternalandexternalrolesofthekeystakeholdersina
ULL,aswellasdescribebrieflythemainresponsibilitiesofeachrole[48].
Resources2020,9,398of27
Figure3.InternalrolesofkeystakeholdersinanUrbanLivingLab(ULL).Adaptedfrom[48].
Figure4.ExternalrolesofkeystakeholdersinaULL.Adaptedfrom[48].
Resources2020,9,399of27
ThespecificinternalandexternalrolesofsomestakeholdersinaULLweretakenintoaccount
whenidentifyingwhichstakeholdersshouldparticipateineachstageoftheLCCCP.
3.3.MethodsandToolsforStakeholderEngagement
Involvingkeystakeholdersduringtheearlystagesofaparticipatoryprocesshasproventobe
ofgreatimportanceforobtainingapositiveoutcome[49,50].Thus,engagementmustcapture
relevantknowledgethroughoutthedurationoftheprojectandamongststakeholders,reflectingthe
needsofthecommunitiesandunderstandingthattheycanvaryovertime[9].Consideringthat
stakeholderengagementisusuallyacomplicatedandmessyprocess,taintedwithconflict,
disagreementanddivergingpointsofview[50],thegoalsoftheengagementprocessshouldbeclear
fromthebeginning.ThemostcommongoalsareshowninFigure5.
Figure5.Managementgoalsforstakeholderengagement.Adaptedfrom[50].
Topromotetheengagementofstakeholdersandtoachievethemanagementgoalsmentioned
above,differentstrategies,methodsandtoolshavebeendesignedandimplementedspecificallyfor
participatoryprocesses.Amethoddescribesaprocessusedtoeffectivelycompleteatask,whilea
toolgeneratesanoutputfrominformationthatisintroducedinit[51].Arobusttoolboxofstakeholder
strategiescanhelpmanagerstodesigneffectiveparticipatoryapproaches.Thesemethodsandtools
shouldbedefinedandstructuredinawaythatallowsmanagerstoplan,implement,reflectand
evaluatethedecisionsmadebythestakeholders[50].Participatoryandusercentredmethodologies,
suchasDesignThinkingandcocreation,provideaframeworkformethodsandtoolstobedesigned
andfocusedonstakeholderengagement[1].
Therearemanycocreationstakeholderengagementmethodsandtools.Theseare,forexample,
compiledinthetoolkitdevelopedfortheU4IoTproject[36],theMindToolswebpage[37],theService
DesignToolswebpage[38]andtheUNaLabcocreationToolkit[39].Theaimofthelatteristosupport
thedevelopmentofULLforcocreationandexperimentationofNBSaswellastocollectmethods,
toolsandtechniquesforstakeholderengagement.Someofthemethodsandtoolsfoundinthetoolkits
mentionedabove,aswellasthemaingoalsforstakeholderengagement(seeFigure5),wereusedto
identifythemethodsandtoolsthatcanbeusedineachofthestagesandsubstagesoftheLCCCP.
4.LifeCycleCoCreationProcess(LCCCP)
ThissectiondescribestheLifeCycleCoCreationProcess(LCCCP)fornaturebasedurban
climatechangeadaptation,includingthevariousstages,thestakeholdersinvolvedinthesestages,
andsomeexamplesofmethodsandtoolsthatcouldpromotestakeholderengagementduringtheco
creationprocess.Thecocreationpathwasconceptualisedusingthestages,stakeholders,and
methodsandtoolsascomponents.
BusinessProcessManagement(BPM)isaframeworkthatprovidestheguidelinesfor
organisationstooptimisetheirperformance.Thus,BPMisasystematicapproachtoprocess
improvement[33].Eventhoughthispaperdoesnotfocusonprocessimprovement,someofthe
conceptsofBPMcanbeusedtoframethecocreationlifecycleinamorecomprehensiveway.BPM
reliesontheidentificationofprocesseswiththeirdifferentcomponents,spanningfromabroadview
oftheorganisationandrelyingonasystemicthinkingapproach,tothedefinitionofthetasksofeach
process[33].
Resources2020,9,3910of27
First,byusingBPMasaninspiration,andconsideringcocreationasamacroprocess,stagesand
substagesincocreationareidentified.Thestagesaredesignedtogiveageneralguidefortheco
creationprocesswhilethesubstagesprovidemoredetailintoeachofthestages.Thedevelopedco
creationpathwasinspiredbythePDCAandDMAICcycles[28,29],andtheDesignThinking
methodology[27],withthemainstagesandsubstagespresentedanddescribedinSection4.1.
Second,thestakeholderstobeengagedineachstagewereidentifiedafterreviewingtheQHM
approach[35]andtheactorsofULLwithacitizencentredapproach,consideringboththeinternal
andexternalactors.TheULLactorswereusedtoidentifythestakeholdersthatshouldparticipatein
specificstages[48].ConsideringthespecificrolesidentifiedforULL,Section4.2identifiesthe
stakeholdersthatshouldparticipateinthestagesandsubstagespresentedinthecocreationpath.
Finally,usingthemostcommongoalsofstakeholderengagementmentionedabove,examples
ofmethodsandtoolstopromoteengagementwereidentified,takingintoconsiderationthatarobust
toolboxofstakeholderstrategiescanhelpmanagerstodesigneffectiveparticipatoryapproaches.
Section4.3describesthegeneralobjectivethatmethodsandtoolsforstakeholderengagementshould
haveforeachofthemainstages,andpresentsaseriesofexamplestakenfromprojectsandpartners
experience(e.g.,U4IoT[36]andUNaLab[52]).
Thethreecomponentsmentionedaboveformtheskeletonofthecocreationpath.Thestages
representtheroadforcocreation,whilethespecificstakeholdersandmethodsandtoolssupportthe
objectivesofeachofthesestages.Figure6showsaconceptualintegrationofthethreedesigned
components.TheproposedconceptualintegrationofLCCCPstagesfollowstheprincipleof
continuousimprovementofthePDCAandDMAICcycles[28,29],andthus,itisnotaproposalfora
linearprocessbut,instead,acontinuousanditerativeprocessthatfeedsitselfconstantly.
Figure6.ConceptualintegrationoftheLifeCycleCoCreationProcess(LCCCP)stages,stakeholders,
andmethodsandtools.
4.1.CoCreationLifeCycle
TheLCCCPconsistsoffivestagesandaseriesofspecificsubstages.Thefirststage,CoExplore,
representstheinitialsteptakenpriortoideatingasolutionwiththestakeholders.Thesecondstage,
CoDesign,coversthecompleteprocessofthepotentialsolution(s)ideationprocessuntilthe
prototypesdesign.TheCoDesignstageiscomplementedbythethirdstage,CoExperiment,inwhich
theprototypesaretested(andfeedbackinformationissenttotheCoDesignstage)untilthemost
desirablesolutionisidentified.Thefourthstage,CoImplement,describestheprocessof
implementationofthesolutions.Finally,thefifthstage,CoGovernance,representswhathappens
afterthesolutionisimplementedandcoversthemaintenanceandgovernanceofthesolutions.Itis
importanttonoticethattheprocessishighlyiterativeand,assuch,userscangobacktoprevious
stagesasmanytimesasneeded.Thepoweroftheiterativeloopisthatthepotentialsofallstages,
Resources2020,9,3911of27
rolesinvolved,effortsrequired,results,etc.,canbeconsideredandtestedintheprototypingsubstage.
Figure7showstheLCCCPwiththestagesandsubstages.
Figure7.LCCCPwithstagesandsubstages.
4.1.1.Stage1:Initiative—CoExplore
ThisstagerepresentsthebeginningoftheLCCCPand,assuch,itcoversallthepreparatorysteps
neededtocreateandimplementsolutions.ItismostlyinspiredbythePlanstepofthePDCACycle
andtheDefinestepoftheDMAICCycle.Thisstagebeginswhenoneofthestakeholdersoftheproject
spotsaproblem,anditendswhenthemappingandanalysisofthestakeholdersthatwilltakepart
intheprocessiscompletedandthepreliminaryplanningoftheprojectisdone.TheCoExplorestage
willprovidealltheinformationneededtocreateasolidfoundationfortheprocess,including
informationrelatedspecificallytotheproblemandinformationonthestakeholders.Themain
purposeofthisstageistoidentifyandanalysetheproblem,gatherinitialdataandcreatehypotheses.
Italsocoverstheidentificationandselectionofstakeholdersand,thus,itwillalsoallowfor
information,suchasexperiences,motivationsandrequirements,tobegathered.Thesubstagesthat
arepartoftheCoExplorestagearethefollowing:
(1). Spottheproblem.Thissubstagerepresentsthebeginningoftheprocessand,assuch,itis
consideredthetriggerforthecocreationprocess.Inthisstage,thecurrentoremerging
problem(s)areidentifiedbythestakeholders—beitthroughstructuredresearchoridentifiedby
chance.Anexampleofaproblemidentifiedbychanceiswhenacitizenfeelsthatthetemperature
inthecitycentreishigherthanintherestofthecity(heatislandeffect).Inthisstage,ageneral
approachisdeveloped,whiletheconsequencesorcausesarenotanalysed.Itisimportantto
reachaconsensusacrossthestakeholdersconsideringwhatthemainproblem(s)thatneedtobe
solvedare.Inthisstage,anyinformationavailableisusedtounderstandthecontextofthe
problem(s).Themainquestionsthatneedtobeansweredinthissubstageare[53]:
a. Whatisthecurrentproblem?
b. Whatisthescopeofthecurrentproblem?
Resources2020,9,3912of27
c. Howistheprojectframed,andwhataretheinternalandexternalrelations?
d. Whatisthefutureproblem?
(2). Preliminaryresearch.Aftermappingtheproblem(s)andagreeingonwhicharethemainone(s),
apreliminaryresearchneedstobeperformed.Datarichevidenceontheproblem(s)iscollected,
includingcharacteristics,scaleandextent,causeandeffectandallassociatedcosts(economic,
socialandenvironmental).Theobjectiveofthissubstageistodemonstratethattheproblem(s)
createsconstraintsforachievingstatedgoalsandobjectivesatthelocal,regionalorgloballevel.
Inthissubstage,additionalproblemsmightbeidentified.Thefollowingquestionscanprovide
guidanceinthisstage[53]:
a. Howistheproblempreventingtheachievementoftheobjectives?
b. Whatdoestheproblemmean(feel,think,say,do)fromthedifferentviewpointsof
allstakeholdersinvolved?
c. Cantheeffectsoftheproblembemeasured?
d. Whatarethedriversthatinfluencetheproblem?
e. Howwillthedriversoftheproblemchangeovertime?
f. Willtheproblemincreasegradually,orwilltherebeastepwiseincrease?
g. Whatarethesymptomsoftheproblem?
h. Whatarethecausesoftheproblem?
i. Aretheredependenciesbetweenthisproblemandothers?
j. Arethereotherinitiativesunderdevelopmentthatinfluencetheproblem?
(3). Definetheproblemandobjectives.Afterestablishingacomprehensiveunderstandingofthe
problem(s),whichwillenableeffectiveaction,theproblem(s)needtobeprioritisedandcorrectly
defined.Thefollowingquestionscanbeusedforprioritising[53]:
a. Whichproblempresentsthegreatestobstacletoachievingthegoalsandobjectives?
b. Whichproblempreventsthemostimportantobjectivefrombeingachieved?
Afteridentifyingtheproblem(s)thatwillbetackledwithaparticipatoryplanningapproach,the
problem(s)needstobedescribedinacomprehensiveway.Forthis,adesignbriefcanbeused,
inwhichageneralandsimpledescriptionoftheproblem(s)shouldbestated.Thisbriefwill
workasaninitialroadmapandmeansofcommunicationbetweenthestakeholders,andit
shouldnotbeseenasastaticdocumentasitcanbemodifiedduringtheproject.Forthisbrief,
questionssuchasthefollowingcouldbeused[54]:
a. Whatisthepurpose?
b. Whyarewedoingthisnow?
c. Arewegoingdowntherightpath?
d. Whoareweserving?
e. Whatareourinitialsuccessmetrics?
(4). Stakeholdermappingandanalysis.Inthissubstage,themainobjectiveistoidentifythe
stakeholdersoftheproject.Thissubstagewillallowtounderstandstakeholders,their
background,thoughts,beliefs,expectationsandrelations,withtheaimtofacilitateandenhance
thecocreationprocess.Forthisstage,theQHM,andtheinternalandexternalrolesofaULL
mustbetakenintoconsideration.
(5). Projectpreliminaryplanning.ThelastpartoftheCoExplorestageisthepreliminaryproject
planning.ThissubstagesetsthecontextforallsubsequentstepsoftheLCCCP.Inthissubstage,
Resources2020,9,3913of27
thetargetsandperformanceindicatorsareidentified,aswellasthemainmilestonestobe
achievedduringtheproject.Themainoutputofthissubstageistheroadmaptofollowduring
theproject,withthemainstakeholdersofeachmilestoneandtaskidentified.Thepreliminary
planningshouldbeavailableforallstakeholdersandshouldclearlystatetheobjectivesand
expectedresults.Thefollowingquestionscanhelpcreatethepreliminaryplanning[55]:
a. Whatistherealproblemwearetryingtosolve?
b. Whatareourobjectives,andhowwillsolvingthisproblemhelpachievethose
objectives?
c. Whatisourcurrenttargetaudienceandwhatistheidealaudience?Arethere
multipleaudiencesegments?
d. Whoareourstakeholdersandhowdoweexpectthemtoparticipateintheproject?
e. Whatarethestrengthsandweaknessesofourcurrentsystem?
f. Whatareourotherconstraints,suchastimelineandbudget?
g. Howwillsuccessbemeasured?
4.1.2.Stage2:Create—CoDesign
ThisstageismostlybasedontheDesignThinkingmethodology[27].Itallowsstakeholdersto
identifysolutionsandnewopportunitiestogetherand,intheend,createprototypesofthesolutions
tobetestedlaterintheprocess.Itstartswithempathisingwithinvolvedstakeholderstounderstand
theiractualneedsandwishes.Afteridentifyingwhatthestakeholdersconsideraspossiblesolutions,
adeeperanalysisoftheinformationneedstobeperformedastounderstandtheprimaryproblem(s)
orpainpointsthestakeholdershave.Thepainsandgainsidentificationwillallowforabettersolution
design,whichisdoneintheideationsubstage.Tofinalisethisstage,prototypesofthesolutionsare
built.ThissubstagereceivesconstantfeedbackfromtheCoExperimentstageuntilthemostdesirable
solution(s)areidentifiedandacceptedbythestakeholders.Thesubstagesthatarepartofthe
CoDesignstagearethefollowing:
(1). Empathise.Thissubstageallowsthestakeholderstoseetheproblem(s)andpotentialsolution(s)
fromdifferentperspectivesand,assuch,itallowsforadeeperunderstandingoftheunderlying
motivationsofthestakeholders.Itisimportanttonotonlyunderstandthephysicalneedsofthe
stakeholdersbutalsotheirpsychologicalneeds.Thissubstagewillallowthedesigners,
developersand/orplannerstosetasidetheirownassumptionsandneedsinordertogaininsight
intotheusersandtheirneeds[34].
(2). Define.Inthissubstage,alltheinsightsgainedduringtheempathisingprocessareputtogether
andanalysed.Themainobjectiveofthisstageistosynthesisetheinformationgatheredand
definethecoreproblemsthathavebeenidentified.Understandinghowthestakeholdersfeel
aboutthecurrentsolution(s)andwhytheythinktheyneednewand/orimprovedsolution(s),
canhelpsettheframeworkforthefollowingsteps[56].Questionssuchasthefollowingcanhelp
indefiningthecoreproblems[55]:
a. Whatistheproblemorpainpointtheuserisexperiencing?
b. Whatproductsand/orsolutionsdotheycurrentlyusetosolvethatproblemorpain
point?
c. Whataretheshortcomingsoftheircurrentsolution?
d. Howcouldthenew/improvedsolution(s)bebetter?
e. Whatfeatureshouldbeprioritisedinthenew/improvedsolution(s),andwhich
mightbeaddedlater?
Resources2020,9,3914of27
(3). Ideate.Thecoretasktobeperformedinthissubstageisideageneration.Forthissubstagetobe
asuccess,theinformationgatheredinthepreviousstepsisessentialasitprovidestheinputto
generatepotentiallysuccessfulsolutions.Thissubstageintendstogobeyondtheobvious
solutionsandincreasetheinnovativepotentialofthesolution(s)whilebringingtogether
perspectivesandstrengthsofdifferentstakeholders.Inthissubstage,adivergentapproachto
ideationisused,inwhichasmanyideasaspossibleareconsidered[57].
(4). Prototype.Theobjectiveofthissubstageistoconvergetheideasandsolutionsobtainedinthe
Ideatesubstage.Aconsciousevaluationoftheideasisperformedinordertoidentifywhich
solution(s)bestalignwiththeobjectives.Whenthemostdesirableideasareidentified,
inexpensiveprototypesarecreatedforfurthertesting.Prototypingallowstotesthypothesisand
potentialsolutionswithinashortertimeframe,andwithfewerresources[58].Thissubstagehelps
tofindanswerstovitalquestions,suchasthefollowing[55]:
a. Arewesurewearesolvingtherightproblem?
b. Howwillourideameetourusers’needsandrelievetheirpains?
c. Isoursolutiontechnicallyfeasible?
4.1.3.Stage3:Evaluate—CoExperiment
TheCoExperimentstageallowstostudytheresults,evaluatetheeffectivenessanddecide
whetherthemostdesirablesolutionwasdeveloped.Thisstagegivescontinuousfeedbacktothe
CoDesignstageinordertofinetunethesolutionsandidentifythemostdesirablesolution(s).It
consistsoftwosubstages,thefirstonecoveringtheexperimentationinwhichtheprototypescreated
inthelastsubstageoftheCoDesignstagearetested;thesecondonecoversthedecisionofwhether
thesolutiontestedisthebestoneorwhetheritneedstobediscardedorimproved.Thenumberof
iterationsbetweenCoDesignandCoExperimentcanbeasmanyasneeded,inordertoidentifythe
mostdesirablesolution(s)fortheidentifiedproblem.ThesubstagesthatarepartoftheCoExperiment
stagearethefollowing:
(1). Experiment.Thissubstagefocussesonusabilitytesting,astosharetheprototypewithrealusers
andtoreceivetheirfeedback.Besidesreceivingfeedback,thissubstagealsoprovidesadeeper
understandingoftheusers,astheycouldpotentiallyexpressdesiresorpreoccupationthatdiffer
fromthealreadyidentifiedones.Itallowsempathisingevenmorewiththeusers.Theresultsof
thisstagemightleadtonewinformationthatchangesthewaytheproblemwasdefinedinthe
Definesubstage.Itmayalsogeneratenewsolution(s)intheIdeatesubstageandleadtoanew
iterationofthePrototypesubstage[59].
(2). Decide.ThissubstagecomplementstheExperimentsubstage,asitoccurswhenadecision
regardingtheprototypeismade.Forthisstage,theinformationabouttheobjectives,constraints,
needsandwisheswouldneedtobeclearforthedesignteam,astomakethedecisionaboutwhich
ofthetestedprototypesrepresentsthemostdesirablesolution.Inthecasethatthemostdesirable
solutionisnotyetidentified,feedbackissenttotheCoDesignstageinordertobeginanew
iteration.Thefollowingquestionswillprovidethenecessaryinformationtomakeadecision
regardingthetestedprototype:
a. Doesthesolutionworkasintended?
b. Doesitsolveourusers’primaryproblem(s)andpainpoints?
c. Howcoulditbeimproved?
4.1.4.Stage4:Implement—CoImplement
Resources2020,9,3915of27
Afteridentifyingthemostdesirablesolution(s),thisstagecoverstheimplementation.The
productionandimplementationofsolutionsvarydependingonthesolutionitselfand,assuch,only
ageneraldescriptionofthesubstagesisgiven.Thisstagecoversthemanagementoftheplanned
solutionanditsoverallbudget.Majoractivitiesinvolvedinthisstagearethedetailedplanningand
designofthesolutions,commissioning,riskmanagementandthefinaldeliveryofthesolution[55].
ThesubstagesthatarepartoftheCoImplementstagearethefollowing:
(1). Production.Thissubstagecoverstheproductionofthesolution(s)andoverallcontrolofthe
budget.Themajoractivitiesthatcomprisethisstagearethefollowing[60]:
a. Detailedplanninganddesignofinitiatives;
b. Construction(forinfrastructureinitiatives)andcommissioning;
c. Riskmanagementrelevanttotheseactivities;and
d. Deliveryontime,withinbudgetandtoagreedqualityspecifications.
(2). Implementation.Afterthesolution(s)isdelivered,itsimplementationneedstotakeplace.This
meansgatheringthestakeholdersinordertohandinthesolution(s),justifyandexplainit,and
shareinformationabouthowitcanbemaintained.Thisstageiscrucialasitwillsettheground
forfutureimplementationsandenhancetrustbuilding.
4.1.5.Stage5:Control—CoManagement
Afterthesolution(s)areimplemented,thecontrolstagestartsinwhichadefinedgovernance
structuremustbedeterminedandputinplace.Themaintenanceofthesolution(s)mustalsobe
considered,asitmightrelytoomuchonafewstakeholdersand,assuch,endupbeingforgotten.
ThesubstagesthatarepartoftheCoManagementstagearethefollowing:
(1). CoGovernance.Forthissubstage,acleargovernancestructuremustbedefinedandsharedwith
allstakeholders.Consideringtheprocessfollowedinaparticipatoryapproach,itisimportantto
understandthatthegovernance,orcogovernance,ofthesolutionsmustcontinuealongthesame
line.Cogovernanceimpliesthatthedecisionsaremadeatthelowestlevelspossible,recognising
thatthedecisionpowerofeachstakeholderisequitable:“ratherthanviewing[collaborativeandco
governancearrangements]as‘solutionstoproblems’wemustviewthesearrangementsasastartingpoint
for[neworrestored]relationships,whichwillcontinuetoevolveastimepasses”[61].Thefollowing
shouldbetakenintoaccountwhensettingupcogovernancearrangements[60]:
a. Newrequirementsforlocalgovernment(s)toregularlyreviewarrangementsfor
deliveringservices;
b. Publicexpectationsofincreasedparticipationandaccesstodecisionmakers;and
c. Theincreaseinandcomplexityof“wickedproblems”requiringinnovativesolutions.
(2). CoMaintenance.Inrelationtotheconceptofcoownership,itneedstobedefinedwhowillbe
theowner(s)oftheimplementedsolution(s).Someoftheresponsibilitymustrestwiththeend
usersastheyshouldbecoownersofthesolution(s)giventhattheyaretheonesdirectlyaffected
byit.Thechallengeofthissubstageistoconvincestakeholdersthattheytakepartinthe
ownershipofthesolution(s)and,assuch,shouldalsotakepartinthemaintenanceofit[62].
Goodandopencommunicationduringtheentireprojectiscrucialinordertomaintainand
supportthemotivationofstakeholders.Allstakeholdersshouldbegiventheopportunitytoprovide
inputonaformalaswellasaninformalbasisduringtheentireprocess.Giventhattherearemany
communicationtoolsthatvaryinreachandcomplexity(e.g.,teleconference,email,filesharing,
website,newsletter,socialmedia,phonecalls,eventsandmobileapps),thecommunicationchannels
Resources2020,9,3916of27
shouldbeadjustedaccordingtotherelevance,closenessandtechnologicalcapacityofthe
stakeholders[63].
Engagingstakeholders,includingthecommunity,duringcocreationprocessescanleadtoa
morecomprehensiveprocess.Itcouldprovideinsightintoproblemsthatwerenotidentified
previouslyorshedanewlightonknownproblems.Aplanningordevelopmentprocessthatdoes
notengagewithstakeholderscouldriskidentifyingandtacklingonlythebestknownormostacute
problemswithoutabroaderstrategiccontext[9,49,53,63].
4.2.StakeholdersPerStageandSubstage
Thissectionpresentsthemostcrucialstakeholdersoractorsthatshouldbeincludedineachof
theabovementionedstagesandsubstages.Thisshouldnotbetakenasadefinitivelistofstakeholders
but,instead,asguidance.Stakeholdersvaryconsiderablydependingontheprojectandwhetherthe
projectinvolvespublicorprivateinstitutionsor,alternatively,whethertheprojectisdevelopedin
public–privatepartnerships.ThesummaryoffindingsregardinginternalandexternalactorsofULL
[48]isusedasabasisforthedefinitionoftheactors.Thestakeholdersproposedtobeincludedat
eachstageandsubstageareshowninFigure8.
Figure8.StakeholdersacrossthestagesandsubstagesoftheLCCCP.Adaptedfrom[48].
Theengagementofthestakeholderscanvaryacrossthedifferentstagesandsubstagesofthe
project,whichallowsfordifferentmethodsandtoolstobeusedduringthedifferentstagesand
substagesoftheprocess.Thestagesinwhichstakeholderengagementismoreprominentarethe
CoDesignandCoExperimentstages,whilelessstakeholderengagementisneededintheCoExplore
andCoImplementstages[1].Eventhoughanimportantlevelofengagementfromstakeholdersis
expectedintheselatterstages(mostlytheplannersordevelopersoftheproject),theserequiremostly
goodandopencommunicationchannelswiththerestofthestakeholders.TheCoManagementstage
needstopromotefurtherengagementofthestakeholdersasithappenstowardstheendoftheproject.
Aspreviouslyindicated,goodcommunicationandengagingactivitiesarecrucialtoprovidethe
necessarymethodsandtoolsforstakeholderstoremainengagedwiththesolutionevenafterthe
projectisfinished.Figure9showsthelevelofengagementthatisexpectedbythestakeholdersacross
eachofthestagesandsubstages.
Resources2020,9,3917of27
Figure9.Levelofengagementexpectedfromstakeholdersacrossthedifferentstagesandsubstages
oftheLCCCP.Adaptedfrom[1,48].
4.3.MethodsandToolsforStakeholderEngagement
Consideringthatstakeholderengagementhasbeenidentifiedasanimportantfactorforthe
benefitidentificationofaproject,methodsandtoolstopromotestakeholderengagementareofhigh
importanceduringthecocreationprocess.Benefitsofcocreationareimprovedwhenmultiple
pointsofviewareintegrated,astheidentifiedsolutionsaremorelikelytoreflecttheneedsofdiverse
stakeholdersand,accordingly,facilitatestakeholderbuyintotheproject[44].
Inthisstudy,themaingoalsoftheengagementprocess[50]werematchedwiththefive(5)
stagesoftheLCCCPinordertoprovideacomprehensiveframeworkforselectingstakeholder
engagementmethodsandtools.Someexamplesofstakeholderengagementmethodsandtoolsthat
canbeusedinthesubstageswereselected.Toolkitsforcocreationandusercentreddesign,suchas
theonedevelopedfortheU4IoTproject[64],MindTools[37],ServiceDesignTools[38]andUNaLab
project[39],wereusedasthemainsourceofinformation.Theselectedmethodsandtools
correspondingtoeachofthestagesandsubstagesareshowninFigure10anddescribedinSection
4.3.1toSection4.3.4.
Resources2020,9,3918of27
Figure10.Methodsandtools(ingrey)forstakeholderengagementacrossthestagesandsubstagesof
theLCCCP.Adaptedfrom[50].
4.3.1.MethodsandToolsforStage1:CoExplore
ThesubstagesthatarepartoftheCoExplorestageare‘Spottheproblem’,‘Preliminaryresearch’,
‘Definetheproblemandobjectives’,‘Stakeholdermappingandanalysis’and‘Projectpreliminary
planning’.Inthe‘Spottheproblem’substage,thefollowingmethodsaresuggested:
Brainstorm.Thisisaneffectivemethodtogenerateideasonaspecificissueduetothe
combinationofarelaxed,informalapproachtoproblemsolvingwithlateralthinking.This
methodencouragespeopletocomeupwiththoughtsandideasthatcanbeseenascrazyornon
plausibleatfirst.Whentheparticipantsfeelfreetorelaxandjokearoundduringtheactivity,
morecreativeideaswillbeproduced[65].Thismethodcouldbecomplementedwiththe
CreativeMatrix,whichallowsexpandingtheboundariesofthebrainstormingprocess[66].
Crowdsource.Thismethodisusedtoengagestakeholderswithacommongoal.Itiscommonly
poweredbytechnologies,socialmediaandweb2.0.Itreliesontheevergrowingconnectivity
andtargetslargegroupsofstakeholders[67].Thisisanevolutionofparticipatorymethods,such
asworkshops,focusgroupsorworldcafés,inwhichgroupsofstakeholdersarebroughttogether
todiscussdifferentquestionsledbyamoderator.
Inthe‘Preliminaryresearch’substage,thefollowingtoolissuggested:
Wallofideas.Alsoknownasresearchwall,designwall,researchboard,ideationwall,
inspirationboard,moodboardorpinboard.Themainideaofthistoolistohavealargevertical
surfacetodisplaydataandideas.Thistoolallowsabetterexplorationandvisualisationprocess
whilegatheringinputfromthestakeholders[68].
Inthe‘Defineproblemandobjectives’substage,thefollowingmethodandtoolaresuggested:
Fiveboldstepsvisioncanvas.Thistoolallowsforthevisionoftheprojecttobeviewedfroma
criticalandrealisticperspective.Visionthemesneedtobeidentified,andconcreteexamplesin
whichthosethemesareshownneedtobedescribed.Afterobtainingtheinformationrelatedto
thevision,fiveboldstepsaredefinedthatwillhelpachievethevision—henceoutliningthepath
towardsaconcretestrategy[69].
Tomorrowheadlines.Thismethodcreatesfictionalarticlespublishedinmagazinesorjournals,
inwhichthedevelopersandplannersprojectthemselvesinthefutureandtrytounderstand
whatkindofimpactthesolutionmayhave.Thismethodallowsunderstandinghowthesolution
willbepresentedtotheusersandwhatreaction(s)itmaygenerate[70].
Inthe‘Stakeholdermappingandanalysis’substage,thefollowingmethodsaresuggested:
Actorsmap.Thismethodsupportsthevisualisationofcommunities,helpingtheactorsto
understandanddiscusstheirrelativepositionandrelationswithinasystem.Themapreveals
whichactorsareinvolvedinanetwork,howtheyarelinked,howmuchinfluencetheyhaveand
whattheirgoalsare[71].
Socialnetworkanalysis.Thismethodisusedtoinvestigateandvisualisesocialstructuresusing
networks.Itismostlyusedtoinvestigatetherelationsamongststakeholdersbutcouldalso
providesupportwhencategorisingthem[49].
Finally,inthe‘Projectpreliminaryplanning’substage,thefollowingmethodandtoolaresuggested:
Wallofideas.SeeSection4.3.1.(MethodsandToolsforStage1:CoExplore).
Roadmap.Thisisaflexiblemethodthatisusedforstrategicandlongtermplanning.Theend
resultofthetoolisastructuredmeanstoexploreandcommunicatethedifferentcomponentsof
Resources2020,9,3919of27
aproject,suchasobjectives,existingandfuturetechnologies,measures,stakeholdersand
challenges[72,73].
4.3.2.MethodsandToolsforStage2:CoDesign
ThesubstagesthatarepartoftheCoDesignstageare‘Empathise’,‘Define’,‘Ideate’and
‘Prototype’.Inthe‘Empathise’substage,thefollowingmethodsandtoolsaresuggested:
Empathymap.Thisisacollaborativetool,developedbytheconsultinggroupin
communicationsandbusinessesXPLANE,whichprovidesinsighttopotentialproblemsthat
canariseindifferentstagesofthecocreationprocess.Theultimategoaloftheempathymapis
forastakeholdertoempathisewithanotherstakeholderinordertogaininsighttothedifferent
aspectsoftheirsensoryexperience[74].
Journeymap.Thisisatoolusedtocreateanarrativethatfollowsusers’interactionswiththe
proposedsolution(s).Thismapcanhelpempathisewiththeusersandbetterunderstandtheir
needsandfeelingsandprovidesavisualrepresentationoftheelementsthataffecttheuser’s
experience[75].
FiveWhys.Thisisaneasyandeffectivemethodthatallowstheidentificationoftherootcause
ofaproblem.Itcanbeusedfortroubleshooting,qualityimprovementandproblemsolving,
beingmoreefficientwhenusedtoresolvesimpleormoderatelydifficultproblems.Themethod
followsaninterviewtechniquethatallowstheresearcherandparticipantstogainadeeper
understandingoftherootcauseduringtheinterviews[76].
Inthe‘Define’substage,thefollowingmethodandtoolaresuggested:
Userpersona.Thisisamethodthatallowscreatingafictionalrepresentationoftheidealuserof
aproductand/orservice.Theuserpersonaneedstoincorporateneeds,goalsandobserved
behaviourpatternsofthetargetaudience.Onepersonashouldbecreatedforeachidentified
usergroup[77].
Valuepropositioncanvas.Thistoolallowstheteamtothinkdifferentlyabouttheusersand
whatcanbeofferedtothem,allowingtheuserstoalsothinkdifferentlyaboutthe
product/serviceproviderastheirneedsand/orwishesareaddresseddirectly[78].Thecanvas
comprisestwodifferentsections:thecustomersegmentandthevalueproposition.Itis
importanttostartwiththecustomerand,inturn,definethejobstobedone,painsandgains.
Inthe‘Ideate’substage,thefollowingmethodsandtoolaresuggested:
Brainstorm.SeeSection4.3.1.(MethodsandToolsforStage1:CoExplore).
Wallofideas.SeeSection4.3.1.(MethodsandToolsforStage1:CoExplore).
Legoseriousplay.Thismethodisusedformanypurposesandfacilitatestheexchangeof
thoughtsandideasbetweenparticipantsfromdifferentdisciplines.LegoSeriousPlaycanbe
usedatanystageofdevelopmentbuttendstobemostsuitableatanearlystageoftheprocess
(tocreateideas)oratpivotalpointsintheproject(todiscussexperiences)[79].Participantsare
facedwithaquestionandaskedtoanswerthequestionbybuildingaLegomodelasa
metaphoricalrepresentationoftheiranswerand/oridea.
Inthe‘Prototype’substage,thefollowingmethodsaresuggested:
Minimumvalueproposition(MVP).Thisisaprototypingmethodinwhichasolutionis
developedwithenoughfeaturestosatisfyearlyusers.Thecompletesetofcharacteristicsofthe
solutionsareonlydesignedanddevelopedafterreceivingenoughfeedbackfromtheusers.Itis
thefirstprototypethatismade[80].
Resources2020,9,3920of27
Hackathon.Aneventofanydurationinwhichpeoplegettogethertosolveproblems.Usinga
competitionscenario,participantsarefacedwithaquestionorobjectiveandaskedtoanswerit
bycomingupwith<