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Abstract

The effect of digital transformation towards more efficient, place-based and bottom-up innovation policies at different spatial scales has proven significant, as digital technologies modify existing policy-design routines in cities and regions. Smart places (cities, districts, neighbourhoods, ecosystems) depend on the way digitalisation disrupts systems of innovation in cities, making it more open, global, participatory and experimental. We argue that the rise and interconnection of various types of intelligence (artificial, human, collective) could bring profound changes in the way smart places are being created and evolve. In this context, cyber-physical systems of innovation are deployed through multiple nodes acquiring digital companions, collaboration is deployed over physical, social, and digital spaces, and actors can use complex methods guided by software and get insights from data and analytics. The paper also presents the case study of OnlineS3, a two-year Horizon 2020 project, which developed and tested a digital platform composed of applications, datasets and roadmaps, which altogether create a digital environment for empowering the design of smart specialisation strategies for local and regional systems of innovation. The results indicate that digital transformation allows the operationalisation of multiple methodologies which have not been used earlier by policy makers, due to lack of capabilities. It can also increase the scalability of indicators facilitating decision making at different spatial scales and, therefore, better respond to the complexity of innovation systems providing dynamic and scale-diverse information.

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... The outcome of this task will 53 become the new normal. 54 The new rules of social distancing and the restrictive policies that were adopted in 55 most places around the world had a disruptive impact on the way we live and have re- 56 shaped urban mobility. In this setting, two opposite trends emerge, which may be de- 57 pendent on the specific cultural and economic environment. ...
... 259 Technology offered plenty of opportunities paving the way for the emergence of bot-260 tom-up initiatives targeting community self-help and mutual support through social me-261 dia and online platforms. These initiatives bring communities together, encourage net-262 working, develop innovative solutions and collaborative infrastructures in support of 263 those in need and, therefore, shape social resilience by mobilising collective intelligence 264 (Vermicelli et al., 2021;Panori et al., 2020;Komninos, 2020). 265 At a more technical level, the use of data, the exploitation of analytics and smart city 266 technologies have been proven very useful to understand the magnitude of the current 267 crisis and to design effective mitigation strategies (Bragazzi et al., 2020;James et al., 2020). ...
Preprint
The COVID-19 pandemic has put lifestyles in question, changed daily routines and limited citizen freedoms that seemed inalienable before. A human activity that was greatly affected since the beginning of the health crisis is mobility. Focusing on mobility, we aim to discuss the transformational impact that the pandemic brought on this specific urban domain, especially with regards to the promotion of the smart growth agenda and the acceleration towards the smart city paradigm. We collect 60 initial policy responses related to urban mobility from 86 cities around the world and analyse them based on the challenge they aim to address, the exact principles of smart growth and sustainable mobility that they encapsulate and the level of ICT penetration. Our findings suggest that emerging strategies, although mainly temporary, are transformational, in line with the principles of smart growth. As a result the pandemic becomes an opportunity for shifting towards more sustainable urban planning and mobility practices. However, most policy responses adopted during the first months of the pandemic fail to leverage advancements made in the field of smart cities, and to adopt off-the-shelf solutions such as in monitoring, alerting and operations management.
... Recently, the European Union (EU) has experienced a significant digital transition through which it tries to boost the resilience of various European regions towards making them more competitive, sustainable and inclusive towards external shocks. In this regard, investigating the interactions rising between the social and technical elements of regional systems is an essential point when considering the prospects of resilience at the regional level [4,5]. ...
Chapter
The relationship between humans and machines has been thoroughly investigated throughout existing literature focusing on various angles of everyday life. Research on cyber-physical systems and human-machine networks has tried to shed light on the connection between social and technological aspects, offering insights and helping on a better matching and exploitation of the revealed space amongst those elements. In several cases, the exploration of human-machine networks has offered new ways to engage with vulnerable and marginalized groups more effectively, as well as to foster the well-being of individuals and communities. This can be perceived as a hidden potential of cyber-physical systems and human-machine networks towards empowering resilience, which can be approached by various developmental dimensions, like community engagement, transport safety, energy production and consumption, as well as new techno-economic orientations. The study targets on mapping the links between elements being part of cyber-physical systems, human-machine networks and resilience, that have been created through research and innovation projects funded by the European Commission under the programme Horizon 2020, between 2014 and 2021. A total set of 7,859 projects are analyzed in relation to their title and abstract for revealing bridges that have been constructed between human-machine features and resilience. Our analysis further explores the main fields of application of projects on cyber-physical systems and human-machine networks and reveals the ways in which the relate to two resilience characteristics, connectivity and collaboration. It shows the increasing focus of European research projects on cyber-physical systems and human-machine networks and their rising potential for resilience.
... The quadruple helix actors' involvement (citizens, government, industry and research) is crucial for cocreation, combining intelligence by means of digital platforms. Thus, Smart Cities emerge and evolve [70]. ...
Article
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More and more digital 3D city models might evolve into spatiotemporal instruments with time as the 4th dimension. For digitizing the current situation, 3D scanning and photography are suitable tools. The spatial future could be integrated using 3D drawings by public space designers and architects. The digital spatial reconstruction of lost historical environments is more complex, expensive and rarely done. Three-dimensional co-creative digital drawing with citizens’ collaboration could be a solution. In 2016, the City of Ghent (Belgium) launched the “3D city game Ghent” project with time as one of the topics, focusing on the reconstruction of disappeared environments. Ghent inhabitants modelled in open-source 3D software and added animated 3D gamification and Transmedia Storytelling, resulting in a 4D web environment and VR/AR/XR applications. This study analyses this low-cost interdisciplinary 3D co-creative process and offers a framework to enable other cities and municipalities to realise a parallel virtual universe (an animated digital twin bringing the past to life). The result of this co-creation is the start of an “Animated Spatial Time Machine” (AniSTMa), a term that was, to the best of our knowledge, never used before. This research ultimately introduces a conceptual 4D space–time diagram with a relation between the current physical situation and a growing number of 3D animated models over time.
... This exercise revealed some important findings for Greece but also indicates some policy recommendations for other territories. Industry platforms address common challenges of companies belonging to an industry group and create favourable conditions for setting up business and innovation ecosystems (Panori et al. 2020). In every top-10 industry group we have identified production, trade, technology and environmental challenges. ...
Chapter
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The paper negotiates two main questions of the methodology of EDP in Smart Specialisation. First is the granularity level of detail in the analysis and the assessment of dynamism of economic activities. We argue that NACE three-digit codes offer the best combination of homogeneity of statistics and sectoral studies. Still, all NACE three-digit codes are not cadets for discovering business opportunities and new innovation activities and therefore, further research for the selection of priority fields is necessary. Second question is about the collective nature of interventions and investments developed through EDP. We argue that business ecosystems that unite large number of enterprises may exceed the risk of priority investments for specific businesses and groups. The demarcation of investments in relation to platform-based ecosystems as well as of ecosystems which are developed on top of value chains is of particular importance. Both methodological principles which are proposed in the paper (selection of three-digit NACE code ecosystems and platforms based on functions/needs of such ecosystems) can complement the theoretical weaknesses that reasonably exist in terms of discovery and innovation.
... Despite the recognised value of monitoring and evaluation within Smart Specialisation policy, in which monitoring and evaluation mechanisms build up the so-called 6 th step of the RIS3 methodological framework, the related literature remains still scattered. Only few research and policy paper tracks support unfolding literature on RIS3 evaluation and monitoring (Arnold, 2004;EC, 2014;Gianelle & Kleibrink, 2015;Magro & Wilson, 2013;Masana et al., 2019;Panori et al., 2020;Prause, 2014). Literature on design and modelling (Boschma, 2014;Woronowicz et a., 2016) as well as implementation of Smart Specialisation, i.e. process-based approach, is mounting, whereas monitoring and evaluation related issues are scarce (Gianelle & Kleinbrink, 2015). ...
Article
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The current funding period of the European Union 2014-2020 advocates the application of the Smart Specialisation approach that has to be implemented on regional level. European NUTS-2 regions shall evaluate and reconsider their regional strategies for the upcoming funding period. Due to the high differences among the regions in terms of existing monitoring systems and policies, the performance measurement lacks a solid basis for a sufficient comparison, exemplification and transfer. In order to reduce this research gap, within this paper, the authors developed a comprehensible methodological tool using a given number of NUTS-2 regions with their distinctive monitoring systems and indicators in Central Europe. The benchmarking process is focusing on deploying existing performance indicators. The project is based on the research and practical gaps highlighting the needs to support and enhance monitoring capacity of the regions in terms of Smart Specialisation. ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND SUSTAINABILITY ISSUES ISSN 2345-0282 (online) http://jssidoi.org/jesi/ 2020 Volume 8 Number 2 (December) http://doi.org/10.9770/jesi.2020.8.2(80) Make your research more visible, join the Twitter account of ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND SUSTAINABILITY ISSUES: @Entrepr69728810 1360 from each regional strategy, analysing them and aiming at developing one common set of indicators. As a result, the developed methodology approach enables sufficient performance comparison in terms of RIS3 implementation in the current funding period on the one hand, and provides a crucial input for the future monitoring system design. As a result, the novel methodological tool yields contribution to both scholarly literature and practitioners. Furthermore, the benchmarking method provides various selection and combination options that allow direct insights in different fields' performance, such as regional spending to facilitate RIS3 implementation and Entrepreneurial Discovery process implementation as well. With this tool concerned, policy recommendations for the upcoming funding period and updates on the regional strategies can be drawn up.
... In cities organized as platforms, it is possible to take advantage of the creativity, intelligence, and knowledge of a large and indefinite group of people, increasing the likelihood of generating original ideas for urban development [57]. For the authors, the main contribution of digital technologies is the rise and interconnection of various types of intelligence-(a) artificial, (b) human, and (c) collective-supported by good public governance, to build smarter, more human, and more sustainable cities. ...
Article
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Since the advent of the second digital revolution, the exponential advancement of technology is shaping a world with new social, economic, political, technological, and legal circumstances. The consequential disruptions force governments and societies to seek ways for their cities to become more humane, ethical, inclusive, intelligent, and sustainable. In recent years, the concept of City-as-a-Platform was coined with the hope of providing an innovative approach for addressing the aforementioned disruptions. Today, this concept is rapidly gaining popularity, as more and more platform thinking applications become available to the city context—so-called platform urbanism. These platforms used for identifying and addressing various urbanization problems with the assistance of open data, participatory innovation opportunity, and collective knowledge. With these developments in mind, this study aims to tackle the question of “How can platform urbanism support local governance efforts in the development of smarter cities?” Through an integrative review of journal articles published during the last decade, the evolution of City-as-a-Platform was analyzed. The findings revealed the prospects and constraints for the realization of transformative and disruptive impacts on the government and society through the platform urbanism, along with disclosing the opportunities and challenges for smarter urban development governance with collective knowledge through platform urbanism.
... In regard to the challenges of complex self-organising cities, several suggestions have been advanced in recent years on how to promote planning and design measures capable of proactively relating to urban self-organisation. For example, attempts have been made to generate new kinds of planning rules (Alfasi and Portugali, 2007;Cozzolino et al., 2017), alternative systems of taxation (Minola et al., 2020;Hughes et al., 2020), open-ended design strategies for public spaces and infrastructure (Salingaros, 2005;Holcombe, 2012), piecemeal social experiments (Evans et al., 2016), city gaming to include a wider range of actors in the decision-making process (Tan, 2016), and smart platforms that facilitate interactions among individuals and help in the monitoring of city evolution and risk emergence (Kiesling, 2018;Panori et al., 2020). These measures have one purpose in common. ...
Article
The spatial dimension of property is underexamined in the planning literature. Above all, and surprisingly, this dimension is underestimated in the debate on complex self-organising cities. However, if we consider the importance of action in and for urban self-organisation, property cannot but be an aspect indispensable for understanding the propensity of cities to grow (more or less) spontaneously over time. This article first explores property patterns and their importance for self-organising cities. It then develops some ideas on how to increase the capacity of cities to rely on self-organisation. It shows that there is an urgent need to include the importance of property in the discourse, both from a descriptive/exploratory perspective and from a strategic/normative one.
... Social media and digital platforms provide new environments of social interactions that cultivate learning, networking, collaborative innovation, and behaviour adaptation based on a specific problem/need [96]. Through these flexible areas for participation, collaboration and creativity, innovative solutions to great societal challenges can emerge, facilitating thus and increasing the capacity of the official authorities with limited resources [97,98]. ...
Preprint
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Fundamental principles of modern cities and urban planning are challenged during the COVID-19 pandemic, such as the advantages of large city size, high density, mass transport, free use of public space, unrestricted individual mobility in cities. These principles shaped the development of cities and metropolitan areas for more than a century, but currently, there are signs that they have turned from advantage to liability. Cities Public authorities and private organisations responded to the COVID-19 crisis with a variety of policies and business practices. These countermeasures codify a valuable experience and can offer lessons about how cities can tackle another grand challenge, this of climate change. Do the measures taken during the COVID-19 crisis represent a temporal adjustment to the current health crisis? Or do they open new ways towards a new type of urban development more effective in times of environmental and health crises? We address these questions through literature review and three case studies that review policies and practices for the transformation of city ecosystems mostly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic: (a) the central business district, (b) the transport ecosystem, and (c) the tourism-hospitality ecosystem. We assess whether the measures implemented in these ecosystems shape new policy and planning models for higher readiness of cities towards grand challenges. And how, based on this experience, cities should be organized to tackle the grand challenge of environmental sustainability and climate change.
... Smart places (cities, districts, neighborhoods, ecosystems) depend on the way digitalization evolves and systems of innovation are enhanced, becoming more open, global, participatory, and agile. In smart cities, cyber-physical systems of innovation are created, the innovation nodes acquire digital companions, collaboration is deployed over digital spaces, actors can use complex methods guided by software, and get insights from data and analytics (Panori et al., 2020). The convergence of innovation and digital systems in cities and regions brought also new actors, users, and citizens and new forms of innovation, such as user-driven innovation, innovation crowdsourcing, open innovation, innovation driven by demand, free innovation (Von Hippel, 2006, 2016. ...
Article
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Smart cities constitute a new urban paradigm and a hegemonic phenomenon in contemporary city development. The concept envisages a data-enhanced future and efficiency gains made possible by automation and innovation in city activities and utilities. However, the way smart cities are created brings about two weaknesses. First, there is strong compartmentation of solutions and systems, which are developing in vertical markets for energy, transport, governance, safety, etc., silos with little interoperability and sharing of resources. Second, there is a low impact, some increase in efficiency, some reduction in costs, time gained, some decrease in CO2 emissions. There is an important knowledge gap about developing cross-sector, high-impact smart city systems. This paper deals with these challenges and investigates a different direction in smart city design and efficiency. We focus on ‘Connected Intelligence Spaces’ created in smart city ecosystems, which (a) have physical, social, and digital dimensions; (b) work as systems of innovation enabling synergies between human, machine, and collective intelligence; and (c) improve efficiency and performance by innovating rather than optimizing city routines. The research hypothesis we assess is about a universal architecture of high impact smart city projects, due to underlying connected intelligence spaces and cyber-physical-social systems of innovation. We assess this hypothesis with empirical evidence from case studies related to smart city projects dealing with safety (Vision-Zero), transportation (MaaS), and energy (positive energy districts). We highlight the main elements of operation and how high efficiency is achieved across these verticals. We identify commonalities, common innovation functions, and associations between functions, allowing us to define a common architecture enabling innovation and high performance across smart city ecosystems.
... Social media and digital platforms provide new environments of social interactions that cultivate learning, networking, collaborative innovation, and behaviour adaptation based on a specific problem/need [96]. Through these flexible areas for participation, collaboration and creativity, innovative solutions to great societal challenges can emerge, facilitating thus and increasing the capacity of the official authorities with limited resources [97,98]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Fundamental principles of modern cities and urban planning are challenged during the COVID-19 pandemic, such as the advantages of large city size, high density, mass transport, free use of public space, unrestricted individual mobility in cities. These principles shaped the development of cities and metropolitan areas for more than a century, but currently, there are signs that they have turned from advantage to liability. Cities Public authorities and private organisations responded to the COVID-19 crisis with a variety of policies and business practices. These countermeasures codify a valuable experience and can offer lessons about how cities can tackle another grand challenge, this of climate change. Do the measures taken during the COVID-19 crisis represent a temporal adjustment to the current health crisis? Or do they open new ways towards a new type of urban development more effective in times of environmental and health crises? We address these questions through literature review and three case studies that review policies and practices for the transformation of city ecosystems mostly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic: (a) the central business district, (b) the transport ecosystem, and (c) the tourism-hospitality ecosystem. We assess whether the measures implemented in these ecosystems shape new policy and planning models for higher readiness of cities towards grand challenges, and how, based on this experience, cities should be organized to tackle the grand challenge of environmental sustainability and climate change.
... Büyük şirketler, sürdürülebilirliklerini desteklemek için iş süreçlerindeki ayrıntıları anlamak ve yapısal olarak ele almak için bilgi akışına ihtiyaç duymakta ve bu yüzden bu tür teknolojik uygulamalara yatırım yapmaya daha meyilli olmaktadırlar (Aydıner ve Tatoğlu, 2019). Yönetim bilişim sistemleri, sosyal uygulamalar sağlayarak çalışanlarının bir arada olmasını sağlayan ve bu oluşumla birlikte bilgi paylaşımı yapmalarını kolaylaştırmakta ve inovasyon süreçlerine de büyük katkılar sunmaktadır (Panori, Kakderi, Komninos, 2020;Lill, Wald, Munck, 2020;Achi, Salinesi, Viscusi, 2016). ...
... Digital government is a government digital innovation solution to societal, economic, and other pressures (Janowski, 2015;Panori et al., 2020;Pérez-Morote, Pontones-Rosa & Núñez-Chicharro, 2020). The digital innovation of government services is an essential element in a wider social innovation ecosystem. ...
Article
Purpose This paper aims to identify the dynamic capabilities of government organisations in Woredas of Ethiopia that digitally innovate on the existing government digital platform, the WoredaNet. Design/methodology/approach The study adopted a qualitative interpretive case study strategy using three government administrative regions in Ethiopia (called Woredas), which digitally innovate using the government digital platform, the WoredaNet. A structured interview protocol was implemented for data collection. In total, 5 respondents representing users, information and communication technology (ICT) staff and management were selected from each of the Woredas (districts), yielding a total of 15 respondents. Findings Drawing from the dynamic capabilities literature, the findings reveal that the digital platform governance model plays the strongest role in digital government innovation. Specifically, the Woredas exhibit highly developed adaptive capabilities through learning from the affordances offered by the digital platform. Also, despite the collaborative nature of their absorptive capabilities, there are no clear organisational structures to manifest these capabilities (integrating new learnings). The innovative capabilities (creating digital government products or service innovations) are constrained by the governance model, which is centralised in one ICT unit. Research limitations/implications The research is limited to one of the Regional States of Ethiopia. Further studies would be needed to consider other regional states and more Woredas. Practical implications The research provides a means through which dynamic capabilities can improve digital innovation on government digital platforms, despite the scarcity of resources, especially in low-income countries. Originality/value The paper contributes to digital government and dynamic capability literature in revealing how digital innovations in government agencies might be organisationally enhanced through distributed digital platform governance models.
... Technology offered plenty of opportunities to pave the way for the emergence of bottom-up initiatives targeting community self-help and mutual support through social media and online platforms. These initiatives bring communities together, encourage networking, develop innovative solutions and collaborative infrastructure in support of those in need, and, therefore, shape social resilience by mobilizing collective intelligence [25,52,53]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has put lifestyles in question, changed daily routines, and limited citizen freedoms that seemed inalienable before. A human activity that has been greatly affected since the beginning of the health crisis is mobility. Focusing on mobility, we aim to discuss the transformational impact that the pandemic brought to this specific urban domain, especially with regards to the promotion of sustainability, the smart growth agenda, and the acceleration towards the smart city paradigm. We collect 60 initial policy responses related to urban mobility from cities around the world and analyze them based on the challenge they aim to address, the exact principles of smart growth and sustainable mobility that they encapsulate, as well as the level of ICT penetration. Our findings suggest that emerging strategies, although mainly temporary, are transformational, in line with the principles of smart growth and sustainable development. Most policy responses adopted during the first months of the pandemic, however, fail to leverage advancements made in the field of smart cities, and to adopt off-the-shelf solutions such as monitoring, alerting, and operations management.
... Embedding crowdsourcing and -funding capabilities into instruments and initiatives is an example of how to empower the civil society in the development of RIS3, thereby potentially allowing faster, broader, cheaper, and more resilient learning-to-learn and learning-to-learn-how-to-learn dynamics (Carayannis and Grigoroudis 2016). Recent research has shown that the use of digital platforms may boost the impact of stakeholders' engagement (Panori et al. 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
Prior research has emphasized the importance of bringing together quadruple helix (QH) actors (academia, industry, government and civil society) to strengthen regional innovation. The QH model forms an integral part of European innovation policy, which aims to create sustainable and inclusive growth in Europe. As part of this policy, European Union (EU) regions are to design and implement research and innovation strategies for smart specialization (RIS3) through the participatory entrepreneurial discovery process (EDP). Despite the strong emphasis on the QH model, the model is still far from a well-established concept in innovation research and policy, and civil society participation in RIS3 has remained low. Our paper aims to support regional governments to engage with and facilitate the participation of civil society in a territorial EDP based on two case studies from Finland and Sweden. It contributes to the literature on regional innovation systems through identifying mechanisms to foster the QH model and suggests lessons learnt for the operationalization of the QH model as part of RIS3.
... Intergovernmental organisations and national governments, for example, recommend designing technological innovation policies by adopting an smart specialisation approach (Panori et al., 2020). But these recommendations entail the risk that more prosperous industrial sectors continue to prosper, whereas slow-emerging but promising technological niches suffer from the presence of an adverse technological regime (Geels, 2014). ...
... Zuzul, 2019). In particular, the active involvement of diverse urban civil society groups, communities and individual citizens appears challenging (de Hoop et al., 2018;Khan et al., 2020;Mancebo, 2020;Panori et al., 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper highlights the need and opportunities for constructively combining different types of (analogue and data-driven) knowledges in evidence-informed policy decision-making in future smart cities. Problematizing the assumed universality and objectivity of data-driven knowledge, we call attention to notions of “positionality” and “situatedness” in knowledge production relating to the urban present and possible futures. In order to illustrate our arguments, we draw on a case study of strategic urban (spatial) planning in the Cambridge city region in the United Kingdom. Tracing diverse knowledge production processes, including top-down data-driven knowledges derived from urban modeling, and bottom-up analogue community-based knowledges, allows us to identify locationally specific knowledge politics around evidence for policy. The findings highlight how evidence-informed urban policy can benefit from political processes of competition, contestation, negotiation, and complementarity that arise from interactions between diverse “digital” and “analogue” knowledges. We argue that studying such processes can help in assembling a more multifaceted, diverse and inclusive knowledge-base on which to base policy decisions, as well as to raise awareness and improve active participation in the ongoing “smartification” of cities.
... A literatura recente tem mostrado que a revolução de dados contínua e a inteligência de dados é cada vez mais evidente na criação de inovação e nas decisões de negócios [21]. Segundo Lopes, Guimarães, & Santos [22], as organizações têm armazenado grandes quantidades de dados na expectativa que estes contenham informações valiosas. ...
... This is due to the social and institutional inertia of cities and defensive behaviours of city actors against novelties, especially when a radical change of the existing city routines is introduced. Looking at the transformation of cities with smart systems and technologies from the perspective of routines allows one to understand the rise of city smartness from an innovation theory perspective, depending on innovation systems that are also becoming hybrid, cyber-physical-social [54]. ...
Chapter
The aim of this paper is to shed light on projects transforming cities through smart systems, digital technologies, and e-services. The concepts of “smart city” or “intelligent city” appeared in the mid-1980s and since then an extensive array of articles and reports have been published. However, there is still fuzziness about what projects exactly make cities “smart”. This is primarily due to complexity, as smart technologies, IoT infrastructure, crowdsourcing platforms, user engagement, co-design, and new decision-making processes overlap, creating hybrid systems and complex environments in which humans, communities, and machines interact. To understand the projects that make cities smart, we combine a literature review of the smart city supply chain, surveys on smart city projects, and case studies of projects to whose design or development we have contributed. Using data from 20 smart city reviews, we identify how different cities have organised their smart city transformation through projects, tease out the core features of smart city projects, relationships between projects and technologies, and the typology of projects and architectures of integration. In the conclusion, we define the drivers of smart city projects and city smartness along three axes (city ecosystem, connected intelligence, innovation) and nine properties of those axes. We argue that more so than technology, the smart city transformation is determined by systems integrating physical infrastructure, platforms for user engagement, digital technologies, and e-services. System integration rather than smart technologies is the major driver for a radical transformation of city routines.
... Pavitt (1984), Freeman (1982Freeman ( ,1987, Freeman y Pérez, (1988), Dosi, Freeman, Nelson, Silverberg y Soete (1988), Lundvall (1992), Freeman y Soete (1997), Nelson (1993), Niosi (2002) y Godinho et al. Digitalización cómo nuevo patrón tecnológico dominante: Implicaciones en… 27 utilizar al SNI como elemento de adaptación del patrón tecnológico dominante (Panori et al., 2020). ...
Thesis
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La presente investigación pretende ampliar los conocimientos teóricos-prácticos y metodológicos sobre el análisis del cambio tecnológico y su relación con la gestión de innovación. Los hallazgos logrados buscan contribuir en los estudios del campo de la innovación, dado que uno de sus desafíos actuales es analizar la complejidad de los cambios tecnológicos y su comprensión para el desarrollo de la capacidad innovativa de los países. En sintonía con estos desafíos, es que aquí se plantean formas distintas de abordar tal complejidad analizando la digitalización. Con base a ello, el objetivo general de la investigación es; identificar en el contexto de la complejidad de los cambios tecnológicos nuevos componentes teóricos y prácticos de la digitalización como patrón tecnológico dominante y su vinculación con la gestión de innovación universitaria en México. El análisis desarrollado se estructura de la siguiente manera: Primero, se presenta un marco conceptual y un marco referencial de contexto sobre los elementos estratégicos, organizativos y operativos de la innovación y su relación con la digitalización. Segundo, se desarrolla un análisis teórico que describe la digitalización como patrón tecnológico dominante y como expresión del cambio tecnológico actual, planteándose aquí modelos representativos del Sistema Nacional de Innovación (SNI), con los que son posible observar el carácter dominante de este patrón tecnológico en contextos geográficos diferentes. El análisis teórico permitió la caracterización y operacionalización de los “componentes integrados” que se constituyen en variables de tipo cualitativas. Estas unidas a los modelos representativos del SNI hizo factible describir la complejidad en que se desenvuelve la digitalización. Tercero, siendo la complejidad el elemento característico del fenómeno de estudio, se operacionalizan los “componentes integrados” a través del QCA (Qualitative Comparative Analysis); allí se valida el carácter complejo y dominante de la digitalización en el contexto de la gestión de innovación universitaria en México. Al final, se presentan un conjunto de conclusiones que resaltan hallazgos, evidencias teóricas y empíricas logrados en la presente investigación. Palabras claves: Complejidad, Digitalización, Gestión de Innovación, Patrón tecnológico dominante y Sistema Nacional de Innovación.
... Since the late 1990s e-government development has been considered as a potential tool for (a) increasing transparency and citizen's engagement in the provision of public sector services (Jaeger and Bertot 2010); (b) decreasing corruption and opportunistic behaviour in public sector service delivery (Saxena 2005) and (c) inducing managerial innovations (Gatto 2020;Aldieri et al. 2020a;Moon and Norris 2005;Panori et al. 2021;Homburg 2018). Carr and Jago (2014) refer to the digitalisation of public administration as an antipode of petty corruption. ...
Article
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The present inquiry addresses the nexus between the development of electronic government and corruption in the provision of public sector services in developing and transition economies. The study analyzes the potential contribution of electronic government in combating petty corruption within the framework of two superimposed principal-agent model and show that electronic government could potentially limit bureaucratic corruption. To address the research question empirically, the study applies random tobit and linear random effects panel estimators to a dataset made of 121 countries, which covers the time period between 2008 and 2018. Estimations reveal that the adoption of electronic government in the delivery of public sector services has been the central factor that contributed to the reduction of petty corruption in developing and transition economies. The level of per capita income, political rights, civil liberties and share of natural resources in gross exports also correspond with less bribery in the public sector service delivery. Furthermore, the study finds that a lower level of socioeconomic development corresponds with a greater level of petty corruption. Hence, e-government presents one of the utmost opportunities for socio economic development and offers solutions for the improvement of the efficiency and effectiveness of public administration.
... Path creation reflects a complex system of dynamics arising between various local actors. Hence, understanding the wider context of energy transition needs to be complemented by exploring perceptions and attitudes of relevant stakeholders [29,31]. ...
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Energy transition is characterised by processes referring to new path creation. These new paths are formed based on existing or novel resources that are often closely related to the social aspect. Hence, social acceptance and new path creation can be considered as mutually reinforcing processes that are crucial in energy transition. The study focuses on the use of agricultural biomass (or “agrobiomass”) as a renewable energy source for heating and tries to investigate the interaction between resource formation processes during path creation, referring to knowledge creation, market formation, investment mobilization and technology legitimation, and social acceptance. A web-based survey with a sample size of 3,725 convenience-based responses from 22 European countries is used to generate the primary data for analysis. Two levels of social acceptance are used, focusing on the overall perceptions and the intention to install agrobiomass heating systems locally. Results indicate that knowledge creation acts as a booster for overall perceptions through awareness and public information, whilst existing knowledge and previous experience can increase the willingness to install agrobiomass heating systems. Regarding market formation, social acceptance is empowered by sourcing agrobiomass and technology through local farmers and manufacturers. Cost savings and positive local impacts are significant investment mobilization aspects, whereas agrobiomass initiatives supported by trusted organizations and/or companies act as significant technology legitimation channels for promoting social acceptance. Small variations exist between urban and rural areas showing that the territorial context matters. The study provides policy insights relevant to energy transition through the uptake of agrobiomass heating solutions.
... Comprehensively, Ellen MacArthur Foundation (2019) compares the circular city as a complex ecosystem capable of exploiting advanced digital technologies in circular economy practices in order to simultaneously consider social, economic and environmental aspects. In this sense, according to Paiho et al. (2020) andD'Amico et al. (2021a), the urban metabolism of circular cities is characterised by a multitude of actors such as municipalities, municipal, regional and state owned utilities, citizens, universities, start-ups, research centres, companies and non-profit organizations, that interact continuously and systematically in order to plan, monitor, develop and evaluate increasingly sustainable and digitalized urban processes and operations (Panori et al., 2020;Perng et al., 2018;Rajakallio et al., 2018). ...
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This paper examines empirically the contribution of public investment expenditures to regional resilience. Analysis is based on a novel dataset including public investment expenditures data decomposed by sub-categories and disaggregated at NUTS III Greek regions over the period 2000–2017. Results indicate that public investment expenditures had a positive influence on regional resilience during the period of the economic crisis. Decomposing public investment expenditures by type the analysis provides evidence that the decentralized public investment expenditures that were executed through the tiers of local government and those that were related with the secondary and tourism sectors asserted a positive and significant impact on regional resilience. These results are signifying the importance of public policy in regional resilience and could be utilized for the formulation of regional policy during recessions.
Chapter
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Book
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Untangling Smart Cities: From Utopian Dreams to Innovation Systems for a Technology-Enabled Urban Sustainability helps all key stakeholders understand the complex and often conflicting nature of smart city research, offering valuable insights for designing and implementing strategies to improve the smart city decision-making processes. The book drives the reader to a better theoretical and practical comprehension of smart city development, beginning with a thorough and systematic analysis of the research literature published to date. It addition, it provides an in-depth understanding of the entire smart city knowledge domain, revealing a deeply rooted division in its cognitive-epistemological structure as identified by bibliometric insights. Users will find a book that fills the knowledge gap between theory and practice using case study research and empirical evidence drawn from cities considered leaders in innovative smart city practices. Key features: Provides clarity on smart city concepts and strategies; Presents a systematic literature analysis on the state-of-the-art of smart cities' research using bibliometrics combined with practical applications; Offers a comprehensive and systematic analysis of smart cities research produced during its first three decades; Generates a strong connection between theory and practice by providing the scientific knowledge necessary to approach the complex nature of smart cities; Documents five main development pathways for smart cities development, serving the needs of city managers and policymakers with concrete advice and guidance.
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In the European Union (EU) multiple levels of governance interact in the design of public policies. Multi-level policies require a variety of evidence to define problems appropriately, set the right objectives and create suitable instruments to achieve them. How such a variety of evidence is used in practice, however, remains largely elusive. In 2013, the reformed EU Cohesion Policy brought about a sea change in the way governments must justify their investment priorities to support innovation and economic development. One of many new 'ex-ante conditionalities' sought to improve the design of regional innovation policies by putting strong emphasis on the underlying evidence base of policy strategies. A multitude of data sources had to be combined to meet this novel requirement in 120 regional and national strategy documents. Combining various data sources meaningfully was a necessary first step to engage with stakeholders from relevant business and research communities to jointly develop and decide on priorities for public investments. Stakeholder organisations had the opportunity to contest insights coming from official statistics. But how do governments reconcile insights from socio-economic analyses with differing views from stakeholders? We illustrate how such contestation of evidence has unfolded in the Basque Country. In this region, socio-economic analysis and broader stakeholder consultation rapidly confirmed three investment priorities that had been already quite established. Stakeholders from local governments, universities and other government departments contested this choice as not fully representative of the local potential and societal needs. Through their participation in a multi-stakeholder body advising the government they succeeded in adding four priorities that address local societal issues: sustainable food, urban living, culture and environmental protection. Our findings underline that rational planning using statistics gets governments only so far in meeting pressing societal challenges. Stakeholders contesting and complementing statistical insights make policies more responsive to local needs.
Conference Paper
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This paper reports on the findings of the Online-S3 project, funded under the Horizon 2020 Programme (ISSI-4-2015), which tries to address the challenge of strengthening regional smart growth policies by developing an online platform for policy advice. The Online-S3 Platform offers a web-based environment for supporting the design, implementation and assessment of Research and Innovation Strategies for Smart Specialisation (RIS3) aiming to enrich the methodological framework that is being used towards enhancing smart growth policy design processes in EU regions. The paper first provides an overview of the Online-S3 platform, and then, focuses on the applications that could be used to help regional and national authorities during the priority setting phase of a RIS3 strategic planning process. Given that this phase relates to the identification and selection of specific sectors that can be used as flagships to support regional growth, the Online-S3 Platform offers a great tool towards enhancing the effectiveness of the smart growth paradigm.
Conference Paper
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This article suggests the Entrepreneurial Discovery Process (EPD) that underlies Research and Innovation Strategies for Smart Specialisation (RIS3) is not so much caught in the transition from the Triple to the Quadruple Helix, as rooted in a division within civil society. In particular, rooted in a division within civil society, over public trust in the EDP and around the democratic deficit of RIS3. Over public trust in the EDP and around the democratic deficit of RIS3 as a transgression, which centers attention on the participatory governance of science and technology, which is regressive in nature and whose knowledge economy seeks to overcome such limitations as part of the search for sustainable regional growth that serves civil society.
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Purpose This paper investigates the potential contribution of smart city approaches and tools to sustainable urban development in the environment domain. Recent research has highlighted the need to explore the relation of smart and sustainable cities more systematically, focusing on practical applications that could enable a deeper understanding of the included domains, typologies and design concepts, and this paper aims to address this research gap. At the same time, it tries to identify whether these applications could contribute to the “zero vision” strategy, an extremely ambitious challenge within the field of smart cities. Design/methodology/approach This objective is pursued through an in-depth investigation of available open source and proprietary smart city applications related to environmental sustainability in urban environments. A total of 32 applications were detected through the Intelligent/Smart Cities Open Source (ICOS) community, a meta-repository for smart cities solutions. The applications are analyzed comparatively regarding (i) the environmental issue addressed, (ii) the associated mitigation strategies, (iii) the included innovation mechanism, (iv) the role of information and communication technologies and (v) the overall outcome. Findings The findings suggest that the smart and sustainable city landscape is extremely fragmented both on the policy and the technical levels. There is a host of unexplored opportunities toward smart sustainable development, many of which are still unknown. Similar findings are reached for all categories of environmental challenges in cities. Research limitations pertain to the analysis of a relatively small number of applications. The results can be used to inform policy making toward becoming more proactive and impactful both locally and globally. Given that smart city application market niches are also identified, they are also of special interest to developers, user communities and digital entrepreneurs. Originality/value The value added by this paper is two-fold. At the theoretical level, it offers a neat conceptual bridge between smart and sustainable cities debate. At the practical level, it identifies under-researched and under-exploited fields of smart city applications that could be opportunities to attain the “zero vision” objective.
Conference Paper
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Smart specialisation can be considered an entrepreneurial discovery process which makes it possible to identify where regions can benefit from specialising in specific areas of science and technology. The European Commission suggests the development of research and innovation strategies for smart specialisation (RIS3) should concentrate resources on the most promising areas of comparative advantage, e.g. on clusters, existing sectors and cross-sectoral activities, eco-innovation, high value-added markets or specific research areas. This calls for regions to assess their assets, single out competitive advantages and highlight the cohesive qualities of territories. The RIS3 Key and Self-Assessment Guides both advise regions on how to prepare for smart specialisation, by identifying existing strengths and the potential for future development efforts, spotting remaining gaps and bottlenecks in the innovation system and mobilizing the relevant institutions involved in the entrepreneurial discovery process. The paper sets out the results of the Online S3 project's open consultation on these guides and the 29 RIS3 methods developed to guide this process of entrepreneurial discovery under the post-linear era of research and innovation.
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This paper analyses the ‘big picture’ of the smart city research field by means of a bibliometric analysis of the literature on smart cities produced between 1992 and 2012. The findings show that this new field of scientific inquiry has started to grow significantly only in recent years, mainly thanks to European universities and US companies. Its intellectual structure is complex and lacks cohesion due to the infinite possible combinations among the building blocks and components characterizing the smart city concept. However, despite this complexity, the bibliometric analysis made it possible to identify three structural axes that traverse the literature, capture the main research perspectives, and reveal some key aspects of this new city planning and development paradigm
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This paper reports on the first two decades of research on smart cities by conducting a bibliometric analysis of the literature published between 1992 and 2012. The analysis shows that smart-city research is fragmented and lacks cohesion, and its growth follows two main development paths. The first one is based on the peer-reviewed publications produced by European universities, which support a holistic perspective on smart cities. The second path, instead, stands on the gray literature produced by the American business community and relates to a techno-centric understanding of the subject. Divided along such paths, the future development of this new and promising field of research risks being undermined. For while the bibliometric analysis indicates that smart cities are emerging as a fast-growing topic of scientific enquiry, much of the knowledge that is generated about them is singularly technological in nature. In that sense, lacking the social intelligence, cultural artifacts, and environmental attributes, which are needed for the ICT-related urban innovation that such research champions.
Technical Report
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This report provides an overview of the use of various analytical methods in the design of regional smart specialisation strategies (RIS3). It then sets out and explain the rationale and justification for the selection of 30 methods currently applied in or applicable to RIS3 development. Using this background information tailored online tools will be designed to enable policy-makers to make full use of these methods in all phases of RIS3 process – designing suitable governance mechanisms, analysing the regional context, building a shared vision, setting priorities, undertaking implementation, and ensuring monitoring and evaluation. This note elaborates on the key findings from the mapping of methodologies used in a sample of RIS3 strategies and a literature review to support the selection of methodologies. Each of the selected methods is described in more detail in Annex 1. The selection of the RIS3 methods is based on: 1) analysis of the methodologies applied in RIS3 design in 30 European regions; 2) literature review on the (good) practices for the application of various analytical methods in smart specialisation process; and 3) review of wider sources exploring the state-of-art practices in data-driven applications and online tools for knowledge-based policy making.
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This article discusses the idea of city as a platform. The analysis focuses on the forms and implications of citizen involvement in publicly-supported participatory innovation platforms that facilitate urban economic development in the welfare society context. The discussion opens with a review of the smart city discourse, which in the context of economic development policy translates into cities' need to support innovativeness by creating smart environments. Participatory innovation platform is a prime example of such an environment. The empirical section discusses three cases, those of the Finnish cities of Helsinki, Tampere, and Oulu. The analysis shows that platformization in the first half of the 2010s became a strategic focal area supported by national and EU programs. Platforms are used to support both urban revitalization and economic development, of which the former is based on representative and the latter on instrumental modes of participation. Platforms are well integrated with city governments, even though they vary greatly in terms of organizational forms and scopes. Democratic culture, welfarism, and redistributive policy provide contextual support for platformization by strengthening social inclusion, taming the growth machine, and easing the tensions between pro-growth and anti-growth coalitions.
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Rapid and pervasive digitization of innovation processes and outcomes has upended extant theories on innovation management by calling into question fundamental assumptions about the definitional boundaries for innovation, agency for innovation, and the relationship between innovation processes and outcomes. There is a critical need for novel theorizing on digital innovation management that does not rely on such assumptions and draws on the rich and rapidly emerging research on digital technologies. We offer suggestions for such theorizing in the form of four new theorizing logics, or elements, that are likely to be valuable in constructing more accurate explanations of innovation processes and outcomes in an increasingly digital world. These logics can open new avenues for researchers to contribute to this important area. Our suggestions in this paper, coupled with the six research notes included in the special issue on digital innovation management, seek to offer a broader foundation for reinventing innovation management research in a digital world.
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This exploratory study has been carried out to better understand the development process of strategies that allow large European cities to become smart. This aim is achieved through the analysis of the Amsterdam’s smart city strategy. By using case study research with a descriptive approach, the activities undertaken during the implementation of this successful initiative have been mapped and organized in a step-by-step roadmap. This made it possible to obtain a detailed description of the entire development process, useful knowledge to consider for other similar initiatives, and a conceptual framework for future comparative research. All these results will support the construction of a holistic and empirically valid theory able to explain how to build effective smart city strategies in this type of urban area.
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This book concludes a trilogy that began with Intelligent Cities: Innovation, Knowledge Systems and digital spaces (Routledge 2002) and Intelligent Cities and Globalisation of Innovation Networks (Routledge 2008). Together these books examine intelligent cities as environments of innovation and collaborative problem-solving. In this final book, the focus is on planning, strategy and governance of intelligent cities. Divided into three parts, each section elaborates upon complementary aspects of intelligent city strategy and planning. Part I is about the drivers and architectures of the spatial intelligence of cities, while Part II turns to planning processes and discusses top-down and bottom-up planning for intelligent cities. Cities such as Amsterdam, Manchester, Stockholm and Helsinki are examples of cities that have used bottom-up planning through the gradual implementation of successive initiatives for regeneration. On the other hand, Living PlanIT, Neapolis in Cyprus, and Saudi Arabia intelligent cities have started with the top-down approach, setting up urban operating systems and common central platforms. Part III focuses on intelligent city strategies; how cities should manage the drivers of spatial intelligence, create smart environments, mobilise communities, and offer new solutions to address city problems. Main findings of the book are related to a series of models which capture fundamental aspects of intelligent cities making and operation. These models consider structure, function, planning, strategies toward intelligent environments and a model of governance based on mobilisation of communities, knowledge architectures, and innovation cycles.
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During the last decade, there has been an increased interest on cloud computing and especially on the adop-tion of public cloud services. The process of developing cloud-based public services or migrating existing ones to the Cloud is considered to be of particular interest—as it may require the selection of the most suitable applications as well as their transformation to fit in the new cloud environment. This paper aims at presenting the main findings of a migra-tion process regarding Smart City applications to a cloud infrastructure. First, it summarises the methodology along with the main steps followed by the cities of Agueda (Portugal), Thessaloniki (Greece) and Valladolid (Spain) in order to implement this migration process within the framework of the STORM CLOUDS project. Furthermore, it illustrates some crucial results regarding monitoring and validation aspects during the empirical application that was conducted via these pilots. These findings should be received as a helpful experience for future efforts designed by cities or other organisations that are willing to move their applications to the Cloud.
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Over the last decade, there has been an increasing focus on service across socioeconomic sectors coupled with transformational developments in information and communication technologies (ICTs). Together these developments are engendering dramatic new opportunities for service innovation, the study of which is both timely and important. Fully understanding these opportunities challenges us to question conventional approaches that construe service as a distinctive form of socioeconomic exchange (i.e., as services) and to reconsider what service means and thus how service innovation may develop. The aim of this special issue, therefore, is to bring together some of the latest scholarship from the Marketing and Information Systems disciplines to advance theoretical developments on service innovation in a digital age.
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Purpose – This Special Issue of the European Journal of Innovation Management sheds new light on the burning issue of Research and Innovation Strategies for Smart Specialisation (RIS3), both in terms of their policy formulation and their practical implementation in the field. This new policy approach refers to the process of priority setting in national and regional research and innovation strategies in order to build “place-based” competitive advantages and help regions and countries develop an innovation-driven economic transformation agenda. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach – This is an important topic both in the current debate about a new industrial policy for Europe and as a policy option for a successful crisis exit strategy led by public investments in the real economy. Moreover, smart specialisation is promoted by the European Commission as an ex ante conditionality for all regions in Europe to receive European Structural and Investment Funds in the field of innovation. Thus, it has become a pre-requisite for accessing fresh funds for investing in badly needed innovation-driven productivity growth throughout the European Union (EU). Findings – The six papers in this Special Issue are the fruit of ground-breaking research and policy testing by nearly 20 leading academics and policy makers throughout the EU. They explore the early smart specialisation concept and its further developments, examine the methodological tools at its disposal and advance specific policy proposals and governance considerations based on actual experimentation in the field. Originality/value – All these make the present Special Issue of the European Journal of Innovation Management an important research milestone. This Special Issue is the fruit of a call towards the European academic and research community to help shaping and advancing the smart specialisation concept and thus contribute to better position regions and countries in the global economy through innovation-driven policies.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the factors playing a role in the engagement of end-users to participate in Living Lab field trials. Design/methodology/approach – Multiple case study analysis of three Living Lab cases in which field trials were organized. Findings – Based on academic literature on field trials, user engagement and the technology acceptance model, the authors argue that several factors play a role in the participation of users in field trials. An influential factor that emerged is the functional maturity of the innovation, the extent to which a prototype resembles the functionalities and the processes of the final, go-to-market product at the moment of the field trial. Within this exploratory paper, we propose the “user engagement model for field trials” to explain the factors that play a role in the engagement of end-users in field trials. Research limitations/implications – The methodological limitations of a case study design make it difficult to extrapolate the findings toward a larger sample. Therefore, this paper focuses on making an in-depth analysis rather than making general claims. However, the insights regarding user engagement for participation pave the way for future validation on a larger scale and suggest future research directions. Practical implications – The findings of this paper suggest that Living Lab field trials should carefully take into account the (perceived) functional maturity of the innovation and the specific characteristics of the innovation when engaging end-users for field trials. Interaction and trust between the test-users and the other stakeholders is of great importance for the active engagement of test-users during field trials. Originality/value – This exploratory paper adds to a general understanding of end-user involvement in innovation development processes and suggests guidelines to engage end-users to participate in field trials. In addition, it introduces the concept of functional maturity of innovations and the user-engagement model for field trials.
Article
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to assess how national and regional authorities in south-east Europe in a period of crisis perceive and set in motion research and innovation strategies for smart specialisation (RIS3) and the options that these strategies offer to overcome the current fiscal and development crisis. Design/methodology/approach – The paper starts with a literature review on the guiding principles of smart specialisation strategies and the differences from previous rounds of regional innovation strategies. Evidence on smart specialisation efforts is provided by cases studies in Greece, Slovenia, and Cyprus, focusing on the elaboration of such strategies in three countries with precarious innovation systems under severe conditions of crisis. The case studies are organised around key aspects of the smart specialisation logic, such as the selection of specialisation priorities, bottom-up governance, private sector leadership, and engines of innovation and competitiveness. Findings – The paper explores the obstacles encountered in running effective RIS strategies under crisis conditions. The paper highlights the main challenges to address, such as the readiness and credibility of public authorities to design and implement sound RIS3 strategies, the willingness of companies to be involved in strategic planning, the availability of private investment funds, innovation and diversification during a crisis, and the drivers of specialisation that could lead to competitiveness and growth. In the conclusions the paper identifies three routes towards smarter productive diversification and five critical stages in the entrepreneurial discovery process. Originality/value – The paper has both practical and theoretical significance. It focuses on the main challenges of smart specialisation and offers guidance in the elaboration of RIS3 in peripheral EU economies. On the other hand, it proposes a model for the entrepreneurial discovery process, based on the assessment of areas and futures of productivity and added-value increase, as productive diversification and crisis exit route.
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Emphasizing the dynamics in economies and industries, Schumpeter points to entrepreneurs carrying out 'new combinations'. His work, and in particular the Theory of Economic Development, is often interpreted as praising individual entrepreneurs setting up new firms to contribute to an industry's innovativeness. This has come to be referred to as the Schumpeter Mark I perspective. Later, however, in his Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy, Schumpeter has rather suggested that large incumbents are best positioned to contribute to an industry's innovativeness (Schumpeter Mark II). In this discussion, however, the possibly different effects of structural as opposed to dynamic industry competitiveness is often not taken into account. In addition, the contribution of new and small firms to industry innovativeness are often conflated. Using New Product Announcements as a measure of innovation, we find that industries dominated by small firms prove consistently and significantly more innovative than industries where large firms dominate. Taking account of industries' structural and dynamic levels of competition, we find that high existing and increasing levels of new firms entering an industry, exercising what Schumpeter called the 'entrepreneurial function', actually decrease industry innovativeness. We conclude that the contribution of small firms in terms of industry innovativeness is different from that of large as well as new firms, suggesting a Schumpeter Mark III perspective.
Chapter
Cities have been experiencing significant transformations during the last decades, by introducing novel approaches to problem-solving and governance paradigms. The adoption of smart systems and technologies in cities was made through an interdisciplinary process that connects theories, methodologies, and practices from diverse research fields, like informatics and data science, urban planning and development, engineering, economics, knowledge and innovation management. In this context, the ‘smart city’ or ‘intelligent city’ paradigm has been widely used to describe an enhanced model of urban development, where traditional and disruptive elements coexist and interact. Having this in mind, the aim of this chapter is to identify and discuss different layers of intelligence in smart cities. It is based on extensive literature review. We try revealing how different layers of intelligence are activated by awareness, collaboration, and positive externalities and the connections between them. Identifying architectures of intelligence is an essential step towards making the most of smart cities. Also, it is important to investigate whether is feasible to define an overall architecture of intelligence in cities and smart ecosystems, encompassing aspects of human, artificial, and collective and collaborative capabilities.
Chapter
The following text intends to give an introduction into some of the basic ideas which determined the conception of this book. Thus, the first part of this article introduces the terms “City”, “Smart City” and “Cognitive City”. The second part gives an overview of design theories and approaches such as Action Design Research and Ontological Design (a concept in-the-making), in order to deduce from a theoretical point of view some of the principles that needs to be taken into account when designing the Cognitive City. The third part highlights some concrete techniques that can be usefully applied to the problem of citizen communication for Cognitive Cities (namely Metaheuristics, Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic, Computing with Words, Computational Intelligence Classifiers, and Fuzzy-based Ontologies). Finally, we introduce the articles of this book.
Article
Bibliometrics is a powerful tool for analyzing knowledge domains and revealing their cognitive-epistemological structure. Different mathematical models and statistical techniques have been proposed and tested to carry out bibliometric analyses and demonstrate their effectiveness in uncovering how fields of research are intellectually structured. These include two hybrid techniques that allow clusters of related documents obtained from a co-citation analysis to be labeled using textual data. This paper reports on the findings of a bibliometric study in which these hybrid techniques are combined to: (1) build and visualize the network of publications shaping the intellectual structure of the smart city research field by considering the first two decades of literature dealing with this subject; (2) map the clusters of thematically-related publications; and (3) reveal the emerging development paths of smart cities that each thematic cluster represents and the strategic principles they embody. The five development paths which the analysis uncovers and the strategic principles each stands on are then compared by reviewing the most recent literature on smart cities. Overall, this bibliometric study offers a systematic review of the research on smart cities produced since 1992 and helps bridge the division affecting this research area, demonstrating that it is caused by the dichotomous nature of the development paths of smart cities that each thematic cluster relates to and the strategic principles they in turn support
Article
Recent studies reveal a deep-rooted division in research on smart cities, which surfaces as a set of dichotomies that question whether smart city development should be based on a: (1) technology-led or holistic strategy; (2) double or quadruple-helix model of collaboration; (3) top-down or bottom-up approach; (4) mono-dimensional or integrated intervention logic. These dichotomies generate a critical knowledge gap because they suggest divergent hypotheses on what principles need to be considered when implementing strategies for enabling smart city development. This paper starts filling such a gap by reporting on the findings of a multiple case study analysis which is conducted into European best practices. In meeting this aim, four European cities considered to be leaders in the field of smart city development are analyzed to test the validity of the hypotheses emerging from each dichotomy. These cities are Amsterdam, Barcelona, Helsinki and Vienna. The results of this best practice analysis offer a series of critical insights into what strategic principles drive smart city development in Europe and generate scientific knowledge which helps to overcome the dichotomous nature of smart city research
Article
In the theory of urban development, the evolutionary perspective is becoming dominant. Cities are understood as complex systems shaped by bottom-up processes with outcomes that are hard to foresee and plan for. This perspective is strengthened by the current turn towards smart cities and the intensive use of digital technologies to optimize urban ecosystems. This paper extends the evolutionary thinking and emerging dynamics of cities to smart city planning. It is based on recent efforts for a smart city strategy in Thessaloniki that enhances the economic, environmental, and social sustainability of the city. Taking advantage of opportunities offered by the IBM Smarter Cities Challenge, the Rockefeller 100 Resilient Cities, the World Bank, and the EU Horizon 2020 Program, Thessaloniki shaped a strategy for an inclusive economy, resilient infrastructure, participatory governance, and open data. This process, however, does not have the usual features of planning. It reveals the complex dimension of smart city planning as a synthesis of technologies, user engagement, and windows of opportunity, which are fuzzy at the start of the planning process. The evolutionary features of cities, which until now were ascribed to the working of markets, are now shaping the institutional aspects of planning for smart cities.
Article
In this conceptual piece we suggest that the institutional perspective is a prolific lens to study digital innovation and transformation. Digital innovation is about the creation and putting into action of novel products and services; by digital transformation we mean the combined effects of several digital innovations bringing about novel actors (and actor constellations), structures, practices, values, and beliefs that change, threaten, replace or complement existing rules of the game within organizations and fields. We identify three types of novel institutional arrangements critical for digital transformation: digital organizational forms, digital institutional infrastructures, and digital institutional building blocks. From this vantage point, an institutional perspective invites us to examine how these novel arrangements gain social approval (i.e. legitimacy) in the eyes of critical stakeholders and their interplay with existing institutional arrangements. Questioning the disruptive talk associated with digital transformation, we draw on the institutional change literature to illustrate the institutionalization challenges and that existing institutional arrangements are pivotal arbiters in deciding whether and how novel arrangements gain acceptance. We close this essay with discussing the implications of an institutional perspective on digital transformation for policy, practice and research.
Chapter
Processing information in a city is simultaneously a primary task and a pivotal challenge. Urban data are usually expressed in natural language and thus imprecise but can contain relevant information that should be processed to advance the city. Fuzzy cognitive maps (FCMs) can be used to model interconnected and imprecise urban data and are therefore suitable to both address this challenge and to fulfil the primary task. Cognitive cities are based on connectivism, which assumes that knowledge is built through the experiences and perceptions of different people. Hence, the design of a cognitive learning process in a city is crucial. In this article, the current state-of-the-art research in the field of FCMs and FCMs combined with learning algorithms is presented based on an extensive literature review and grounded theory. In total, 59 research papers were gathered and analyzed. The results show that the application of FCMs already facilitates the acquisition and representation of urban data and, thus, helps to make a city smarter. However, using FCMs combined with learning algorithms optimizes this smartness and helps to foster the development of cognitive cities.
Chapter
Regions in the European Union (EU) are called to design and implement Research and Innovation Strategies for Smart Specialisation (RIS3), as a prerequisite to receive funding for research and innovation from the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF). To facilitate and streamline this process, the European Commission (EC) has published a Guide to RIS3 and a handbook for implementing Smart Specialisation, providing a set of methodological steps on how to design a RIS3 strategy. Although these publications provide valuable resources to facilitate RIS3 design and implementation, their inputs are focused mostly on the methodological framework, without pointing out any operational directions that could support an undertaking of the proposed methodological tasks in a streamlined and user-friendly way. The Online-S3 project, funded under the Horizon 2020, tries to address this challenge, by developing an online platform for policy advice. This study explores the information links amongst a set of methodologies, across the six phases of RIS3 design process, highlighting underlying relationships in a logical manner, based on the information flows that are detected. The results reveal parts of the overall mechanism for RIS3 policy making processes, providing guidance to regional authorities and encouraging them to use additional methods throughout their RIS3 strategy-design process, that could be managed and delivered through online platforms and applications. This prepares the grounds for future, empirical investigations of this currently under-researched topic, which appears to be crucial for policy-makers.
Chapter
This paper organizes Schumpeter’s core books in three groups: the programmatic duology, the evolutionary economic duology, and the socioeconomic synthesis. By analysing these groups and their interconnections from the viewpoint of modern evolutionary economics, the paper summarises resolved problems and points at remaining challenges. Its analyses are based on distinctions between microevolution and macroevolution, between economic evolution and socioeconomic coevolution, and between Schumpeter’s three major evolutionary models (called Mark I, Mark II and Mark SC).
Article
en Digital platforms are not just software‐based media, they are governing systems that control, interact, and accumulate. They also solidify markets; that is, social networks of exchange that do not necessarily leave data traces, into infrastructure, that is, material arrangements of traceable activity. This article examines the forms of domination found in this digital platform model, and corrects some existing simplistic theoretical conclusions about digital platforms. It first provides a schematic overview of digital infrastructures of governance, and the attendant systemic mechanics they engender. It then argues that we need a more syncretic, interdisciplinary approach to the platform‐based economy. The shifting emphases of different academic disciplines in relation to digital platforms are only partially grounded in their different normative biases; they can also be attributed to use of different disciplinary lenses. The field of information systems management and design studies is chiefly concerned with direct, technical interplatform affordances and connections, and with providing observations of certain systemic attributes of digital platforms. Critical political economy, by contrast, mainly considers the emerging transnational, geopolitical formations of platform capitalism. The interplay between these different systemic mechanics is summarized and presented here in the concept of “platform logic.” Abstract zh 摘要 数字平台并不仅仅是基于软件的媒体, 它们还是负责控制、相互影响和积累的治理系统。同时还可以巩固市场, 也就是说, 相互交流的社交网络并不会将数据跟踪留给基础结构, 这也是可追溯活动的重要安排。本文检测了该数字平台模型中发现的主导形式, 并纠正了现存的一些被过分简单化的数据平台理论总结。文章首先为数字治理的基础结构, 以及结构产生的系统性力学提供了严谨的概述。之后本文认为: 我们需要整合跨学科方法来对待平台经济。关于数字平台, 不同学术学科间的重点转移仅部分基于各自不同的规范性偏见;它也可以被归因为使用了不同的学科观点。信息系统管理和设计研究主要与直接的, 技术性的平台间功能可见性和关联相联系, 同时还和数据平台的某些系统属性相联系。相比而言, 批判性政治经济主要考虑兴起的跨国性平台资本主义, 以及该主义形成的地缘政治。本文简要总结了这些不同系统性力学之间的相互影响, 并以“平台逻辑”的概念进行呈现。 Abstract es Resumen Las plataformas digitales no solo son medios basados en software, también son sistemas de gobierno que controlan, interactúan y acumulan. Adicionalmente, solidifican los mercados, es decir, las redes sociales de intercambio que no necesariamente dejan rastros en la infraestructura, es decir, los arreglos materiales de actividad rastreable. Este artículo examina los métodos de dominación que se encuentran en este modelo de plataforma digital y corrige algunas conclusiones teóricas simplistas que ya existían acerca de las plataformas digitales. Esto provee un panorama esquemático de las infraestructuras digitales de gobernanza, y de la mecánica sistémica inherente que estas mismas afectan. Después argumenta que necesitamos un método interdisciplinario más sincrético para la economía basada en plataformas. Los énfasis cambiantes de las diferentes disciplinas académicas en relación a las plataformas digitales están solo parcialmente basados en sus diferentes sesgos normativos; también se le puede atribuir al uso de diferentes enfoques disciplinarios. El estudio de la gestión y diseño de sistemas de información se concentra principalmente en el funcionamiento y las conexiones inter plataforma de carácter directo y técnico, y en proveer observaciones de ciertos atributos sistémicos de las plataformas digitales. La economía política crítica, en contraste, principalmente contempla las formaciones emergentes, transnacionales y geopolíticas del capitalismo de plataformas. La interacción entre estos diferentes mecanismos sistémicos se resume y presenta claramente aquí en el concepto de ‘lógica de plataformas.’
Conference Paper
This keynote presentation explores the role of Ambient Intelligence in current technical and social contexts related to smart cities. Having identified some undesirable tendencies, conclusions and design recommendations are provided on how to remedy the situation. This includes the need for redefining the ‘smart everything’ paradigm, in order to reconcile humans and technology.
Article
Cloud-based design manufacturing (CBDM) refers to a service-oriented networked product development model in which service consumers are enabled to configure, select, and utilize customized product realization resources and services ranging from computer-aided engineering software to reconfigurable manufacturing systems. An ongoing debate on CBDM in the research community revolves around several aspects such as definitions, key characteristics, computing architectures, communication and collaboration processes, crowdsourcing processes, information and communication infrastructure, programming models, data storage, and new business models pertaining to CBDM. One question, in particular, has often been raised: Is cloud-based design and manufacturing actually a new paradigm, or is it just “old wine in new bottles”? To answer this question, we discuss and compare the existing definitions for CBDM, identify the essential characteristics of CBDM, define a systematic requirements checklist that an idealized CBDM system should satisfy, and compare CBDM to other relevant but more traditional collaborative design and distributed manufacturing systems such as web- and agent-based design and manufacturing systems. To justify the conclusion that CBDM can be considered as a new paradigm that is anticipated to drive digital manufacturing and design innovation, we present the development of a smart delivery drone as an idealized CBDM example scenario and propose a corresponding CBDM system architecture that incorporates CBDM-based design processes, integrated manufacturing services, information and supply chain management in a holistic sense.
Article
This article introduces the special issue on the increasing role of cities as a driver for (open) innovation and entrepreneurship. It frames the innovation space being cultivated by proactive cities. Drawing on the diverse papers selected in this special issue, this introduction explores a series of tensions that are emerging as innovators and entrepreneurs seek to engage with local governments and citizens in an effort to improve the quality of life and promote local economic growth.
Chapter
A smart specialisation strategy for research and innovation (S3) aims to concentrate public funds and leverage private finance to foster territorial economic transformation. Agreeing on strategic priorities is only the first step in a policy cycle and we explore how S3 are translated into programmes notably in terms of the types of instruments applied. We assess whether the entrepreneurial discovery process is extended beyond priority setting and into implementation. We examine the cases of Finland, Scotland, Poland and Greece and how existing policy frameworks and governance arrangements were adapted to the S3 concept. We find that there are promising EDP processes in all four countries but that implementation has proven more difficult. The two advanced countries have experimented with multi-actor-multi-instrument ‘open innovation platforms’. In contrast, the EU Structural Fund programming procedures have hindered an alignment between S3 vertical priorities and horizontal instruments in Greece and Poland.
Article
Intelligent Cities and Globalisation of Innovation Networks combines concepts and theories from the fields of urban development and planning, innovation management, and virtual / intelligent environments. It explains the rise of intelligent cities with respect to the globalisation of systems of innovation; opens up a new way for making intelligent environments via the connection of human skills, institutional mechanisms, and digital spaces operating within a community; and describes a series of platforms and tools for the making of intelligent cities.
Book
This book studies the rise of social media in the first decade of the twenty-first century, up until 2012. It provides both a historical and a critical analysis of the emergence of networking services in the context of a changing ecosystem of connective media. Such history is needed to understand how the intricate constellation of platforms profoundly affects our experience of online sociality. In a short period of time, services like Facebook, YouTube and many others have come to deeply penetrate our daily habits of communication and creative production. While most sites started out as amateur-driven community platforms, half a decade later they have turned into large corporations that do not just facilitate user connectedness, but have become global information and data mining companies extracting and exploiting user connectivity. Offering a dual analytical prism to examine techno-cultural as well as socio-economic aspects of social media, the author dissects five major platforms: Facebook, Twitter, Flickr, YouTube, and Wikipedia. Each of these microsystems occupies a distinct position in the larger ecosystem of connective media, and yet, their underlying mechanisms for coding interfaces, steering users, filtering content, governance and business models rely on shared ideological principles. Reconstructing the premises on which these platforms are built, this study highlights how norms for online interaction and communication gradually changed. "Sharing," "friending," "liking," "following," "trending," and "favoriting" have come to denote online practices imbued with specific technological and economic meanings. This process of normalization is part of a larger political and ideological battle over information control in an online world where everything is bound to become "social."
Article
Several organizations have developed ongoing crowdsourcing communities that repeatedly collect ideas for new products and services from a large, dispersed "crowd" of nonexperts (consumers) over time. Despite its promises, little is known about the nature of an individual's ideation efforts in such an online community. Studying Dell's IdeaStorm community, serial ideators are found to be more likely than consumers with only one idea to generate an idea the organization finds valuable enough to implement, but they are unlikely to repeat their early success once their ideas are implemented. As ideators with past success attempt to again come up with ideas that will excite the organization, they instead end up proposing ideas similar to their ideas that were already implemented (i.e., they generate less diverse ideas). The negative effects of past success are somewhat mitigated for ideators with diverse commenting activity on others' ideas. These findings highlight some of the challenges in maintaining an ongoing supply of quality ideas from the crowd over time.
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to focus on the distinction between smart specialisation and smart specialisation policy and it studies under what conditions a smart specialisation policy is necessary. Design/methodology/approach – A conceptual framework is built based on historical evidence of successful dynamics of structural changes at regional level qualified as “smart specialisation”. The identification of market and coordination failures that are likely to impede the occurrence of spontaneous process of smart specialisation makes a good case for a smart specialisation policy. Findings – The paper highlights important design principles for the policy process that should help to minimise potential risks of policy failures and policy capture. Research limitations/implications – The paper does assess the effect of smart specialisation on innovation and growth at regional level because it is too early to observe and measure effects. The paper confines itself to conjectures about the effects of such a policy. Practical implications – The paper makes recommendations and explains some of the practicalities about the implementation of the policy at regional level. Originality/value – The paper is one of the first dealing with the topic of smart specialisation policy.
Article
This paper provides an empirical typology of online decision-making purchasing behaviour. The study explores how the online purchase process is affected by individual decision-making style and knowledge of product. Drawing from the decision analysis and consumer behaviour literatures, we present a typology of online purchase decision-making behaviour and introduce four archetypes of online consumers. A number of experiments have been conducted in two online settings: retail banking and mobile networks. Based on an extensive video analysis, we have captured four process-related dimensions (number of cycles, duration, number of alternatives and number of criteria) using a business process modelling approach. Significant differences in all process-related dimensions were found across the four archetypes. The study improves understanding of the different types of online consumers and their process outcomes. The findings are useful for online retailers seeking to improve the way they support the four archetypes of online shoppers throughout the decision-making purchasing process.
Article
Purpose – This paper aims to investigate which organizational measures can facilitate the use of open data. Implementation of open government data initiatives is commonly supply-driven, as it is difficult to predict the possible uses and users of data. Nonetheless, the value of open data materializes only upon its use – either to achieve societal benefits or economic value. Design/methodology/approach – First, a list of organizational measures to facilitate open data use from the literature is collated. Then, four case studies to examine the challenges faced in practice when implementing them are carried out. The case sample includes two types of organizations (statistical agency and municipality) in two country settings (Sweden and The Netherlands). Findings – Public organizations find it challenging to set up support for open data users having various requirements and skills. Most public organizations have no or limited interaction with data users and are often selective with regards to with whom and how to communicate. Research limitations/implications – Given the fragmented and emerging state of research on open data use and engagement, to date no systematic framework existed which would be dedicated to user engagement strategies. The authors systematized the literature and identified the themes pertaining to this issue. Their contribution is a list of measures for public organizations to improve open data use. Practical implications – An important deliverable of this research is the list of possible organizational measures, which can be used by public managers to plan their open data engagement strategies. The authors suggest that data publishers adopt a problem-oriented approach for selecting which data to publish and put more efforts into stimulating stakeholder participation. Originality/value – The novelty of this study lies in the fact that it addresses a previously overlooked area of open data research, namely, the use of open data and ways to stimulate it.
Article
This paper focuses on customers' participation in a product development process through crowdsourcing practices. Results from five case studies of consumer goods companies suggest that the implementation of crowdsourcing operations affects the components of an existing business model and requires rethinking the marketing function. Moreover, despite some organizational constraints and fears, crowdsourcing generates a win-win relationship, creating value for both firms and customers. However, the findings reveal two negative consumer reactions to crowdsourcing practices, i.e., feelings of exploitation and being cheated, that may jeopardize their success. The results suggest the need to establish an open business model based on crowdsourcing.
Article
Smart, sustainable and inclusive growth is the key goal of several EU initiatives, strategies and programmes in the short, medium and long term and at the regional, national and pan-European levels. In this paper, we attempt to explore, explain and enact the conceptual as well as practical linkages between theory, policy and practice related to the ingredients of such growth based on regional innovation smart specialisation strategies and viewed via the ‘multi-focal lens’ of the Quadruple and Quintuple Innovation Helixes (also Quadruple/Quintuple Helix) perspective.