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Valorar el modelamiento del ambiente físico de aprendizaje en la educación parvularia. Manual para la aplicación de Me.Mafa

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Abstract

Este es un manual para valorar y repensar los ambientes físicos de aprendizaje de la primera infancia. Está especialmente dirigido a quienes creen en el poder de este tercer educador y a todos los que se comprometen a transformar las oportunidades de aprendizaje y ciudadanía que ofrecen los jardines infantiles y las escuelas, ahora que es consecuencia natural de la publicación. Con este nuevo libro, los autores extienden lo realizado en su primera publicación "Pedagogías para Habitar el Jardín Infantil", y entregan un instrumento construido y validado para la educación parvularia chilena, que ilustra con elocuencia seis dimensiones, 15 sub dimensiones y 84 indicadores que permiten evaluar y configurar los ambientes físicos de aprendizaje para lograr un desarrollo integral de los niños.La contribución de este instrumento a la educación parvularia es determinante. Realizado según las últimas investigaciones del área y cuidadosamente diseñado para su uso práctico y fácil, puede aplicarse en papel o en un dispositivo móvil mediante la aplicación MAFA Analytics. Los autores nos invitan a revalorar y resignificar los ambientes físicos de aprendizaje en el convencimiento de que las aulas son ambientes físicos construidos para los niños y con los niños, para su mejor aprendizaje y desarrollo.
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designers of the Design School UC-to participate in the development of the project's structure. Thanks to the years of professional practice, the team could approach the problem in an integrated way. "We realized that the original request to adapt the existing furniture to the indicators of the anthropometric study, demanded much more than just changing the dimensions". Cynthia Adlerstein-from Pedagogy in Early Childhood Education of the School of Education UC-joined the team, as the director of the project. The inclusion of this discipline is a key factor, as the proposed system of modeling of the physical environment of learning (MAFA), focuses on the educational habit-ability of those who learn, interact and develop in preschool facilities. This can be described as a "third educator", a concept introduced by the preschool centers of Reggio Emilia, in which the physical environment is significant in the learning process. A space inhabited by children and adults where interactions and learning are favored. The MAFA® System is being developed since 2012 up to the date, by an interdisciplinary team of researchers of Pedagogy in Early Childhood Education and the School of Design UC, in the Tras el levantamiento de información sobre las tablas an-tropométricas de la población infantil chilena, que realizó Jimena Rojas-en ese momento académica de la Escuela de Diseño UC-junto con la Junta Nacional de Jardines infan-tiles (Junji), comenzó a tejerse la idea del diseño del nuevo mobiliario para la educación parvularia. Lo anterior, ya que no existían estudios con resultados locales y solo se toma-ban como referencias las cifras europeas o norteamericanas. Jimena invitó a participar a Patricia Manns y a Alberto González-diseñadores de la Escuela de Diseño UC-, en la estructura del proyecto. Gracias a los años de ejercicio pro-fesional, como equipo pudimos tener una mirada integra-da de las problemáticas. Nos dimos cuenta de que el encar-go original de adecuar el mobiliario actual a los indicadores del estudio antropométrico, necesitaba de mucho más que solamente cambiar las dimensiones. En esa instancia, se incorporó Cynthia Adlerstein, de Pedagogía en Educación Parvularia de la Facultad de Educación UC, como directora del proyecto. La inclusión de esta discipli-na es clave, ya que la propuesta del Sistema de Modelamiento del Ambiente Físico de Aprendizaje (MAFA) se centra en la habitabilidad educativa de quienes aprenden, interactúan y se desarrollan en los jardines infantiles. Se puede hablar de la presencia de un "tercer educador", concepto introducido por los centros preescolares de Reggio Emilia, en los cuales el ambiente físico es significativo en el proceso de aprendi-zaje. Un espacio habitable por niños y adultos donde las in-teracciones y el aprendizaje son favorecidos.
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We argue that the traditional physical environment is commonly taken for granted and that little consideration has been given to how this affects pupil–teacher interactions. This article presents evidence that certain physical environments do not allowequal visual interaction and, as a result, we derive a set of basic guiding principles that could contribute to the improvement of classroom design.Discussions about research on the design of classroomspaces and the methods to evaluate them articulate the rationale for this study.We seek to accomplish this by focusing on two fundamental variables of the face-to-face communication process: visual and distance. They are discussed in the context of four classroom case studies. The method is based on a hybrid approach composed of first-hand video-photographic records, isovist analysis and proxemic information regarding distances. The conclusions suggest that the proportion and spatial configuration of a classroomhave a substantial impact on the number of pupils receiving high-quality visual interaction with the teacher. Finally, the importance of integrating experiential analysis in the architectural design process to ensure the quality and equality of the interaction among the protagonists of the teaching and learning process is highlighted.
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How can teachers ensure a pedagogy of possibility underpinned by social justice, and what has literacy got to do with this? This book explores the positive synergies between critical literacy and place-conscious pedagogy. Through rich classroom research it introduces and demonstrates how a synthesis of insights from theories of space and place and literacy studies can underpin the design and enactment of culturally inclusive curriculum for diverse student communities, and illustrates how making place and space the objects of study provide productive resources for teachers to design enabling pedagogical practices that extend students� literate repertoires. The argument is that systematic study of and engagement with specific elements of place can enable students� academic learning and literacy. Literacy, Place, and Pedagogies of Possibility. is informed by critical literacy, place-conscious pedagogy and spatial theory. is richly illustrated with examples from classroom research, including teacher and student artifacts. provides new directions for classroom practice in critical literacy. This novel combination of multidisciplinary theory and classroom research extends previous work in critical literacy pedagogy, drawing on two decades of ethnographic and collaborative inquiry in classrooms situated in culturally and linguistically diverse classrooms.
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This article critically reviews the methodologies and methods that have been used for the evaluation of physical learning environments. To contextualize discussion about the evaluation of learning spaces, we initially chart the development of post-occupancy evaluation (POE) for non-domestic buildings. We then discuss the recent evolution of POE into the broader evaluative framework of building performance evaluation. Subsequently, a selection of approaches used to evaluate higher education and school learning environments are compared and critically analyzed in view of contemporary approaches to teaching and learning. Gaps in these evaluative approaches are identified and an argument is put forward for the evaluation of physical learning environments from a more rigorous pedagogical perspective.
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Negative representations of parts of our cities are endemic in the Australian media, where certain suburbs function as motifs for failure--past, present, and future. Indeed, as one journalist put it after invoking the "interchangeable" triumvirate of Sydney's Mount Druitt, Melbourne's West Heidelberg, and Brisbane's Inala, "geography is destiny" (Wynhausen, 2006). This article critiques the discourses at play in the media and explores the possibilities and limitations of a pilot project wherein an urban place-based pedagogy is taken up as a mode of critical response as high school students begin to document in text and images what they love about "Our place." Further possibilities for engaging critically with place are explored in the concluding section of the article. (Contains 2 figures and 7 notes.)
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There has recently been an emphasis within literacy studies on both the spatial dimensions of social practices (Leander & Sheehy, 200426. Leander , K. and Sheehy , M. 2004 . Spatializing literacy research , New York : Peter Lang . View all references) and the importance of incorporating design and multiple modes of meaning-making into contemporary understandings of literacy (Cope & Kalantzis, 200012. Cope , B. and Kalantzis , M. 2000 . Multiliteracies: Literacy learning and the design of social futures , Melbourne, , Australia : Macmillan . View all references; New London Group, 199632. New London Group . 1996 . A pedagogy of multiliteracies: Designing social futures . Harvard Educational Review , 66 ( 1 ) : 60 – 92 . [Web of Science ®], [CSA]View all references). Kress (2003)22. Kress , G. 2003 . Literacy in the new media age , London : Routledge . [CrossRef]View all references, in particular, has outlined the potential implications of the cultural shift from the dominance of writing based on a logic of time and sequence in time to the dominance of the mode of the image based on a logic of space. However, the widespread redesign of curriculum and pedagogy by classroom teachers to allow students to capitalise on the various affordances of different modes of meaning-making—including the spatial—remains in an emergent stage. We report on a project in which university researchers' expertise in architecture, literacy, and communications enabled two teachers in one school to expand the forms of literacy that primary school children engaged in. Starting from the school community's concerns about an urban renewal project in their neighbourhood, we worked together to develop a curriculum of spatial literacies with real-world goals and outcomes.
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Análisis de los sentimiento de apego que las personas desarrollan hacia determinados lugares, especialmente los lugares de residencia, para determinar el ámbito de apego preferido, analizar las variables predictoras del apego al lugar, demostrar la existencia de apego a la dimensión física de los lugares, además de la dimension social, y comprobar la adecuación de los estilos de apego infantil y adulto. Se comprueba que el ámbito de apego más importante para los sujetos es la casa, seguido de la ciudad, y en último lugar del barrio. En cuanto a las variables predictoras, el apego al lugar no depende básicamente de características sociodémográficas tales como la edad, el sexo o la clase social. Por otra parte, el apego al lugar se dirige no sólo hacia la dimensión social de los lugares, sino también hacia el componente físico del lugar, y ese apego no depende de las interacciones sociales desarrolladas en dicho lugar. Por último, se observa que la clasificación del apego infantil y adulto en tres estilos (seguro, ansioso y evidente) no es adecuada para el apego al lugar,obteniendo unicamente dos estilos
Book
The importance of education in a global economy is undisputed, and in the wake of international assessment studies schools and kindergartens have become the focus of considerable public interest. As a new generation of educational environments are designed and built, this Design Manual helps architects to grasp the underlying educational theories and how they can be realized in built form, so that the building fulfils its role as a 3-dimensional curriculum plan. Over 80 international case studies covering all school types are examined and explained in the context of varying national and cultural education approaches. Among the key themes analyzed are the impact of modern communication technology, acoustic and lighting design, sustainability, internal circulation and outdoor spaces, renovation and adaptation to changing requirements.
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This paper examines inequality of opportunity for Chilean children starting from an early age. It uses a psychometric test designed to assess children’s receptive vocabulary (PPVT), height, and weight as opportunity measures. We consider traditional circumstances such as parental income and educational level, but improve on the previous literature including mother’s cognitive skills in our assessment. Our results indicate that Chilean children do not exhibit significant differences in height or weight either as newborns or at two to four years old. Nevertheless, there is evidence of inequality of opportunities for vocabulary skills. Maternal cognitive ability is the greatest contributor. Finally, the evidence also suggests that inequality of opportunity on vocabulary skills increases with age.
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Taking the position that “critical pedagogy” and “place-based education” are mutually supportive educational traditions, this author argues for a conscious synthesis that blends the two discourses into a critical pedagogy of place. An analysis of critical pedagogy is presented that emphasizes the spatial aspects of social experience. This examination also asserts the general absence of ecological thinking demonstrated in critical social analysis concerned exclusively with human relationships. Next, a discussion of ecological place-based education is offered. Finally, a critical pedagogy of place is defined. This pedagogy seeks the twin objectives of decolonization and “reinhabitation” through synthesizing critical and place-based approaches. A critical pedagogy of place challenges all educators to reflect on the relationship between the kind of education they pursue and the kind of places we inhabit and leave behind for future generations.
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Recently critical scholars have shown a renewed interest in spatial relations in educational contexts. In this essay we use selections from Gulson and Symes's edited volume Spatial theories of education as a point of departure to examine what spatial analysis can contribute to the critical education traditions. We argue that, when done thoughtfully, spatial theory can shed new light on existing and taken-for-granted social relations in education, though we raise cautions regarding particular forms of its application. In the process we connect the more recent attempts to ‘spatialize’ critical education to the ways in which space has been dealt with in past moments of critical work. Finally, we conclude by advocating for the expansion of the types of methodological tools used by critical theorists of spatial relations and of critical projects more broadly.
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The paper introduces the current debate in the human sciences between the opposing conceptual positions of 'modernism' and 'postmodernism' and discusses its implications for organizational analysis. The debate focusses on the nature of 'discourse' (information, knowledge, communication) and its role in social systems. The discourse of modernism rests on transcendent yet anthropocentric criteria such as 'progress' and 'reason' which are varyingly exemplified in the work of Bell, Luhmann and Habermas. In contrast, postmodern discourse (represented here mainly by the work of Lyotard, Derrida, Foucault, Deleuze and Guattari) analyzes social life in terms of paradox and indeterminacy, thus rejecting the human agent as the centre of rational control and understanding. The paper then considers two contrasting views of the organizing process which follow from these opposing approaches to discourse. In the modernist model, organization is viewed as a social tool and an extension of human rationality. In the postmodern view, organization is less the expression of planned thought and calculative action and a more defensive reaction to forces intrinsic to the social body which constantly threaten the stability of organized life. The implications of the latter view for orthodox organizational analysis are discussed in some detail.
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Studies of preschool indicate that: (1) valid and reliable measures of the environment are possible; (2) environments vary across programs; and (3) there is a relationship between the environment and development of children in those environments. The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale shows promise for both research and training. (Author/LC)
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