ArticlePDF Available


Antioxidants are tremendously important substances that possess the ability to protect the body from damage caused by free radicals induced oxidative stress. This study aims to investigate the antioxidant effect of hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) from the Mid-Atlas Mountains of Morocco as a potential source of new bioactive natural compounds. Hawthorn is a medicinal plant widely used in phytotherapy for the treatment of many cardiovascular diseases. In this study, flowers, leaves, ripe and unripe fruits were analyzed. The antioxidant activity was measured by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) free radical scavenging method. Then, Folin-Denis and aluminum chloride colorimetric assays were used to determine total polyphenol and total flavonoid contents of the plant extracts, respectively. The results obtained showed that all the plant parts studied expressed important antioxidant properties. Unripe fruits and flowers revealed the highest antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 7.3 and 8.3 μg/ml, respectively. Total polyphenol content in different plant parts ranged from 105.1 to 280.4 µg Gallic Acid Equivalent /100 mg Extract and total flavonoid from 4.7 to 70.8 µg Quercetin Equivalent/100 mg Extract. Antioxidant activity presented a significant correlation with total polyphenol content. These results indicate that C. monogyna extracts exhibit an important antioxidant activity and thus can present a great potential as a source of natural antioxidants.
Academia Journal of Medicinal Plants 7(2): 030-035, February 2019
DOI: 10.15413/ajmp.2019.0100
ISSN: 2315-7720
©2019 Academia Publishing
Research Paper
Antioxidant activity of hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) from Morocco
Accepted 10th January, 2019
Antioxidants are tremendously important substances that possess the ability to
protect the body from damage caused by free radicals induced oxidative stress.
This study aims to investigate the antioxidant effect of hawthorn (Crataegus
monogyna) from the Mid-Atlas Mountains of Morocco as a potential source of new
bioactive natural compounds. Hawthorn is a medicinal plant widely used in
phytotherapy for the treatment of many cardiovascular diseases. In this study,
flowers, leaves, ripe and unripe fruits were analyzed. The antioxidant activity was
measured by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) free radical scavenging
method. Then, FolinDenis and aluminum chloride colorimetric assays were used
to determine total polyphenol and total flavonoid contents of the plant extracts,
respectively. The results obtained showed that all the plant parts studied
expressed important antioxidant properties. Unripe fruits and flowers revealed
the highest antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 7.3 and 8.3 μg/ml, respectively.
Total polyphenol content in different plant parts ranged from 105.1 to 280.4 µg
Gallic Acid Equivalent /100 mg Extract and total flavonoid from 4.7 to 70.8 µg
Quercetin Equivalent/100 mg Extract. Antioxidant activity presented a significant
correlation with total polyphenol content. These results indicate that C.
monogyna extracts exhibit an important antioxidant activity and thus can present
a great potential as a source of natural antioxidants.
Key words: C. monogyna, total polyphenol content, total flavonoid content,
antioxidant activity.
Free radicals and their precursors are parts of a reactive
chemical family named reactive oxygen species (ROS)
which are produced constantly by the human body during
its metabolism. ROS have fundamental and positive roles in
some physiological functions such as production of energy
in vivo systems, regulation of cell growth, inter or intra
cellular signal transfer, phagocytosis and synthesis of
important biological compounds (Halliwell, 1991; Keser et
al., 2012). Normally, the rates of generation and
elimination of reactive oxygen species are in equilibrium.
However, an oxidative stress may occur, resulting from a
disequilibrium between pro-oxidant sources of radicals
and antioxidant systems. The main source of free radicals is
endogenous. These radicals are produced from enzymatic
reactions mainly related to breathing and defense
functions. Other exogenous factors may also contribute to
their formation such as UV radiation, Ȣ or X-rays, smoking,
alcohol, prolonged exposure to the sun and intense
physical effort (Pham-Huy et al., 2008; Birben et al., 2012).
Free radicals initiate chain oxidation reactions that have
a detrimental action on the body. All tissues and all their
components can be affected by oxidative stress (lipids,
proteins, carbohydrates and even DNA). Free radicals are
implicated in more than one hundred disorders in humans
(Pourmorad et al., 2006). They are reported to be involved
in triggering several diseases such as cancer, diabetes,
rheumatism, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, acute
respiratory distress syndrome, pulmonary edema,
Hakima Bahri1,3*, Chaymae Benkirane1,3
and Bouchra Tazi2,3
1Laboratory of Genetic Resources and
Plant Breeding,
EcoleNationaled’Agriculture de Meknes,
Meknes, Morocco.
2Laboratory of Chemistry, Department of
Basic Sciences,
EcoleNationaled’Agriculture de Meknes,
Meknes, Morocco.
3Km 10, Route HajKaddour, BP S-40
Meknes 50000, Morocco.
*Corresponding author. E-mail: Tel: +212 661
482 344.
Academia Journal of Medicinal Plants; Bahri et al. 031
restenosis, AIDS, cardiovascular diseases,
neurodegenerative diseases and accelerated aging
(Montagnier et al., 1998; Sohal et al., 2002). Following an
oxidative attack, the body can deploy two strategies, (i)
active detoxification which relies primarily on enzymes
(Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Catalase, Glutathione
Peroxidase, etc…) and (ii) passive detoxification which
includes all non-enzymatic antioxidants that can neutralize
free radicals (Halliwell, 1991). Recently, many studies have
focused on the high toxicity of synthetic antioxidants and
the potential health problems that may arise from their
long-term use, such as tetragenic, mutagenic and
carcinogenic effects (Chavéron, 1999).
Medicinal plants have played a vital role in protecting
human health for thousands of years through their richness
in bioactive compounds. Natural phytochemicals from
plants have been receiving increased interest from
researchers and consumers for their health benefits and
particularly for their lack of toxicity as compared with
synthetic molecules. Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) is a
shrub or small tree belonging to the Rosaceae family and
wide spreading in almost all temperate zones of the
northern hemisphere (Bruneton, 2009). Its flowers, leaves
and fruits are used in phytotherapy for the treatment of
many health problems. It is commonly known for its
cardiovascular, sedative, antioxidant and antibacterial
properties (Nabavi et al., 2015; Walker et al., 2002; Bouzid
et al., 2011; Benmalek et al., 2013).
This study aims to determine the polyphenols and
flavonoids contents of Moroccan hawthorn (C. monogyna)
and to investigate its antioxidant activity as a potential
source of new bioactive natural compounds.
Plant material and Study area
Samples of C. monogyna were collected from the Middle
Atlas mountain area East of the city of Azrou (Latitude N
33.42°; Longitude W 5.16°; Altitude 1680 m). This areas
hosts a great diversity of spontaneous plant species
collected by the local population for their medicinal vertus.
The plant samples were collected on 2016/2017 season,
from all sides of the tree, on a chronological sequence
according to the organ concerned. Leaves and flowers are
collected at full bloom (mid- may), while immature fruits
(green in color) and ripened fruits(red in color) are
collected in early autumn (September) and late autumn
(November), respectively. Plant samples were air dried in
the shade on a laboratory bench, then powdered and
passed through a 1 mm sieve.
Plant extracts
Extraction was carried out by maceration in methanol, and
extracts were evaporated at 35C under reduced pressure,
dissolved in methanol at 10 mg/ml and stored at 4C for
subsequent use in colorimetric assay and antioxidant
Total polyphenols and flavonoids
Determination of total polyphenols was carried out
according to Li et al. (2007) using Folin Denis reagent
instead of Folin Ciocalteu. 75 ml of distilled water, 10 g of
sodium tungstate, 2 g of phosphomolybdic acid and 15 ml
of Phosphoric Acid were mixed and boiled for 2 h. After
cooling, the mixture was completed to 100 ml with
deionised water. 200 μl of each hawthorn extract solution
was mixed with 1 ml of the Folin-Denis solution diluted
ten-fold. After 4 min, 800 μl of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3)
(75 mg/ml in distilled water) was added to the solution
and incubated for 2 h in the dark. Then, polyphenol
absorbance was determined at 765 nm using a Shimadzu
spectrophotometer. Gallic acid solutions ranging from 0 to
200 μg/ml were prepared and used to establish a standard
calibration curve..
Aluminum Chloride (AlCl3) method was used to quantify
flavonoids according to the method used by Bahorun et al.
(1996). Hawthorn extract solutions, ranging from 0 to 35
μg/ml, were prepared and mixed with AlCl3 (2% in
methanol) (V/V). After 10 min, the absorbance was
measured at 430 nm. A calibration curve was established
with quercetin (0 - 35 μg/ml).
Scavenging of DPPH radicals
Antioxidant power of methanolic extracts of flowers, leaves
and fruits of C. monogyna against DPPH radical was
evaluated by spectrophotometry using the method
described by Selles et al. (2012). A series of dilutions were
performed in order to obtain concentrations ranging from
5 μg/ml to 0.4 mg/ml for hawthorn extracts and from 1
μg/ml to 0.4 mg/ml for ascorbic acid. A methanolic
solution of DPPH 0.8mM was prepared and 0.25 ml of this
solution was added to 3.75 ml of hawthorn extract
solutions. The resulting mixtures were kept in the dark at
room temperature for 30 min. Then absorbance was
measured at 517 nm. The results were compared with the
negative control (for which no plant extract was added).
Ascorbic acid was used as a reference anti-oxydant.
The results were expressed as percent inhibition of
DPPH radical using the formula:
Academia Journal of Medicinal Plants; Bahri et al. 032
Table 1: Polyphenols and flavonoids contents and antioxidant activity of Crataegusmonogynaplant parts(mean ± SD; n=3 , and p <0.05).
Extraction yield
(g/100g dry weight)
Polyphenols content
(µg EqGA/mg extract)
Flavonoids content
(µg EqQ/mg extract)
24.68 ± 1.81 b
244.26 ± 10.68 b
40.78 ± 2.02 a
13.79 ± 1.28 c
196.49 ± 04.57 c
38.08 ± 0.73 a
Ripened fruit
34.31 ± 0.91 a
105.10 ± 02.09 d
04.69 ± 0.18 c
Immature fruit
10.74 ± 1.01 c
280.36 ± 02.50 a
14.56 ± 0.46 b
Ascorbic acid
With: Abs Control=Absorbance of the negative control, Abs
Test=Absorbance of the test sample.
The percent inhibition of DPPH radical was plotted
against extract concentration (log scale) and the IC-50
values were determined graphically using GraphPad Prism
Chemical reagents
DPPH (2-2 Diphenyl-1-picylhydrazyl), Quercetin (C15H10O7)
and Methanol (CH3OH) were purchased from Sigma-
Aldrish. Sodium Tungstate-2hydrate (Na2WO4,2H2O) and
Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3) were purchased from
Polysciences. Gallic Acid (C7H6O5) was purchased from
Fluka. Phosphomolybdic Acid × Hydrate (H3PMo12O40xH2O)
was purchased from Panreac. Ascorbic Acid (C6H8O6) was
purchased from Fisher Scientific. Phosphoric Acid was
purchased from Gerraw. Aluminium Chloride was
purchased from Riedel-deHaën.
Statistical analysis
All tests were conducted in triplicates; the results were
expressed as mean ± standard deviation. A multiple
comparison of means was performed using Tukey-test with
a probability level of 0.05. Correlations between different
parameters were computed as Pearson’s correlation
coefficient (r). Statistical analyzes were performed using
SPSS software version 20.0.
Total polyphenols
Total polyphenol content was derived using the Gallic acid
calibration curve and the absorbance value of each test
extract. The results obtained showed that C. monogyna is
rich in polyphenols with significant differences among
plant parts (Table 1). Immature fruits contained the
highest concentration (280.36 μg GAE/mg extract),
followed by flowers (244.26 μg GAE/mg extract), then
leaves (196.49 μg GAE/mg extract), while ripened fruits
registered the lowest value (105.10 μg GAE/mg extract).
Total flavonoids
Total flavonoid content, derived using the Quercetin
calibration curve and the absorbance value of each test
extract, showed significant differences among plant parts
(Table 1). Flowers and leaves presented the highest values
(40.78 and 38.08 μg QE/mg extract respectively), followed
by immature fruits (14.56 μg QE/mg extract). Mature fruits
presented the lowest value (4.69 μg QE/mg extract).
Scavenging of DPPH radicals
The principle of analyzing antioxidant activity is based on
the color change of diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)
solution from purple to yellow. The intensity of the color
change is proportional to the amount of antioxidants.
Figure 1 shows the antioxidant capacity of methanolic
extracts of hawthorn plant parts. The antioxidant activity
profiles obtained presented a dose-dependent activity.
Inhibition of DPPH radical increased with increasing
concentrations of plant extracts. Inhibition percentages
were stabilized at varying concentrations according to the
organ studied (0.1 mg/ml for immature fruit, 0.05 mg/ml
for flower, leaf and ripened fruit and 0.005 mg/ml for
ascorbic acid). Immature fruit reached the highest percent
inhibition of DPPH radicals (89%) followed by ripened
fruit, flower and leaf (83%). However, the maximum DPPH
radical inhibition of ascorbic acid (76%) was relatively
lower as compared with that exhibited by hawthorn plant
The IC50 values were obtained graphically using
GraphPad Prism 8 (Table 1).These values are defined as
the inhibitory extract concentration necessary to decrease
by 50% the initial concentration of DPPH and are
expressed in µg/ml. The results obtained showed
significant differences among different plant parts, with
IC50 values ranging from 7.27 to 23.67 μg/ml against 2.83
μg/ml for ascorbic acid. Immature fruits and flowers
% inhibition = (Abs Control Abs Test)
Abs Control 100
Academia Journal of Medicinal Plants; Bahri et al. 033
Figure 1: Percent inhibition of DPPH radical of Crataegus monogyna plant parts and ascorbic acid.
exhibited the lowest IC-50 values (7.27 and 8.27 μg/ml
respectively), followed by leaves (15.47 μg/ml) and then
ripened fruit (23.67 μg/ml).
Polyphenol content of different plant parts presented a
strong and significant correlation with their corresponding
antioxidant activity (r = 0.97), while flavonoid content was
moderately correlated (r = 0.49). This clearly shows that
antioxidant potential of hawthorn extracts is mainly
associated with its polyphenols content.
Polyphenols and flavonoids contents
Plants produce accumulate a large variety of secondary
metabolites along their growth and development cycle.
These compounds have potential roles in signalization and
protection against different biotic or abiotic stresses and
represent adaptive traits that allow plants to survive in
their environment. Polyphenols are an important class of
secondary metabolites found ubiquitously in plants.
Our findings showed that C. monogyna from the mid
Atlas Mountains of Morocco contains important amounts of
polyphenols in its reproductive plant parts, with
differential distribution among the different organs. In fact,
several authors (N’Guessan, 2011; Mraihi et al., 2013;
Simirgiotis, 2013) have reported unequal distribution of
polyphenols in different organs of a plant.
A study conducted on C. monogyna collected from
Portugal (Barros et al., 2011) showed that immature fruits
are the richest in polyphenols, followed by flowers and
finally ripened fruits, a trend similar to our findings. The
levels of polyphenols content reported were much higher,
especially in the case of immature fruit (701.65 μg GAE/mg
extract). Similarly, another study on C. monogyna collected
from France (Bahorun et al., 1994) showed that foliar and
reproductive organs were rich in polyphenols. Their
results follow perfectly the same trend as those of our
study, with a maximum polyphenols content for immature
fruits. However, Bouzid et al. (2011), working on C.
monogyna ripened fruits from Algeria, reported lower
polyphenol contents (21.72 μg GAE/mg extract) as
compared with the finding of the present study. The high
content of polyphenols reported specifically for immature
fruits by all studies may be the strategy of the plant to
discourage herbivores, thus avoiding early dispersal of
immature seeds as reported by Barros et al. (2011).
Concerning flavonoids, our results showed that flowers
and leaves are the richest parts of the plant, followed by
fruits. Flavonoid contents obtained in the present study are
very close to those of Bouzid et al. (2011), who reported
that methanolic extract of ripened hawthorn fruits from
Algeria recorded a flavonoids content of 3.2 μg QE/mg
extract. The same trend is also reflected in the results of
Bahorun et al. (1994) who expressed their results in terms
of Vitexin and Hyperoside equivalent. Other studies also
confirm that polyphenols and flavonoids contents of
Academia Journal of Medicinal Plants; Bahri et al. 034
immature fruits are much higher than those of mature
fruits. This could be explained by their use as antioxidants
along fruit maturity, thus resulting in a phenolic content
decrease in advanced maturity stages (Simirgiotis, 2013;
Barros et al., 2011).
Several factors can affect the content of phenolic
compounds. The literature highlights the influence of both
intrinsic and extrinsic factors as well as their interaction.
Some studies suggested that the phenolic content of plants
is influenced mainly by genetic factors (Atanasova and
Ribarova, 2009; Bouzid et al., 2011; Kostić et al., 2012).
Extrinsic factors may also influence phenylpropanoid
metabolism (kostić et al., 2012), such as environment and
its characteristics (altitude, temperature, light, soil nutrient
content, etc.). Indeed, Kirakosyan et al. (2003) showed that
hawthorn plant extracts subjected to drought and cold
stress did not only give higher yields of polyphenolic
compounds but also have greater antioxidant capacity as
compared with control plants. In addition, several authors
linked the variation of phenolic content with the intensity
of the sun (Urbonaviciute et al., 2006; Atanasova and
Ribarova, 2009), and concluded that solar radiation can
induce their biosynthesis. Furthermore, the date of harvest,
the maturity of the plant, the spatial distribution of the
sample, and storage conditions may also exert an
important effect on the observed variations (Proestos and
Komaitis, 2008; Bouzid et al., 2011; kostić et al., 2012;
Rodriguez et al., 2012; Bahorun et al., 1994; Urbonaviciute
et al., 2006). In addition, the extraction methods adopted
and the solvents used also exert an important effect on the
yield of phenolic compounds (Ignat et al., 2013; Tahirović
and Bašić, 2014; Bouzid et al., 2011).
Antioxidant activity
Various hawthorn organs have been described in the
literature as antioxidants in several studies. In terms of IC50
values, a study conducted by Simirgiotis (2013) on
different plant part of C. monogyna reported that: (i)
samples with IC50 values less than 50 µg/ml possess high
antioxidant activity, (ii) those with IC50 values ranging from
50-100 µg/ml are considered as intermediate antioxidant
activity, (iii) while samples with IC50 value greater than
200 µg/ml are considered as no relevant antioxidant
According to this classification, all hawthorn plant parts
expressed a high antioxidant activity. Since IC50 value is
inversely related to antioxidant capacity, the relative
comparison of the various organs activity allows
concluding that immature fruits and flowers expressed the
highest antioxidant activity (IC-50 of 6.42 and 6.78 µg/ml
respectively); leaves presented an intermediate activity
(11.02 µg/ml), whereas ripened fruits were the lowest
(17.66 µg/ml). A similar trend was reported by Bahorun et
al. (1994) and Barros et al. (2011). Our study revealed
greater DPPH scavenging activities as compared with
hawthorn fruits collected from Serbia (IC50 = 52.04 μg/ml,
Tadić et al., 2008). In contrast, ripened fruits (IC50 = 3.61
μg/ml) and leafy branches (IC50 = 3.34 μg/ml) of chilean C.
monogyna presented a higher antioxidant activity as
compared with the results of our study (Simirgiotis, 2013).
Our results showed that Hawthorn flowers and unripe
fruits exhibited a relatively higher maximum DPPH radical
inhibition activity as compared with that of ascorbic acid
used as a reference antioxydant. This increased intensity
could be attributed to potential synergetic effects among
different compounds contained in the extract
(Bernatonienė et al., 2008; Rodrigues et al., 2012; Ignat et
al., 2013; Simirgiotis, 2013). In addition, the antioxidant
activity of hawthorn extracts presented a strong
correlation with polyphenol content (r = 0.973). This is in
agreement with the reports of other researchers (Tahirović
and Bašić, 2014; Mraihi et al., 2013; Bahorun et al., 1994).
C. monogyna collected from Morocco showed a high DPPH
anti-radical scavenging activity, especially immature fruits
and flowers. These findings substantiate the traditional
uses of C. monogyna in treating various disorders and
increase its interest for potential use as a natural source of
The authors wish to thank the Ecole Nationaled’
Agriculture de Meknes, Morocco for providing the
necessary facilities to carry out this study.
Atanasova M, Ribarova F (2009). Phénols et flavonoïdes totaux dans les
extraits secs des feuilles des bouleaux argentés bulgares (Betula
pendula). Revue génie industriel, 4: 21-25.
Bahorun T, Grinier B, Trotin F, Brunet G, Pin T, Luncky M, vasseur J, Cazin
M, Cazin C, Pinkas M (1996). Oxygen species scavenging activity of
phenolic extracts from Hawthorn fresh plant organs and
pharmaceutical preparations. Arzneimittelforschung. 46(11): 1086-
Bahorun T, Trotin F, Pominery J, Vasseur J, Pinlcas M (1994). Antioxidant
Activities of Crataegus monogyna Extracts. Planta Med. 60(4): 323-328.
Barros L, Carvalho AM, Ferreira IC (2011). Comparing the composition
and bioactivity of Crataegusmonogyna flowers and fruits used in Folk
Medicine. Phytochem. Anal. 22(2): 181-188.
Benmalek Y, AitYahia O, Belkebir A, Fardeau ML (2013). Antimicrobial and
antioxidant activities of Illiciumverum, Crataegus oxyacantha ssp.
monogyna and Allium cepa red and white varieties. Bioengineered.
4(4): 244-248.
Bernatonienė J, Masteikova R, Majienė D, Savickas A, Kėvelaitis E,
Bernatonienė R, Dvoráčková K, Civinskienė G, Lekas R, Vitkevičius K,
Pečiūra R (2008). Free radical-scavenging activities of Crataegus
monogyna extracts. Medicina (Kaunas). 44(9): 706-712.
Birben E, Sahiner UM, Sackesen C, Erzurum S, Kalayci O (2012). Oxidative
Stress and Antioxidant Defense. World Allergy Organ. J. 5(1): 9-19.
Academia Journal of Medicinal Plants; Bahri et al. 035
Bouzid W, Yahia M, Abdeddaim M, Aberkane MC, Ayachi A (2011).
Evaluation de l’activite antioxydante et antimicrobienne des extraits de
l’aubepine monogyne. Leban Sci. J. 12(1): 59-69.
Bruneton J (2009). Pharmacognosie, phytochimie, plantes médicinales.
4ème Edition.Tec & Doc, Lavoisier. Paris, France. 1292pp.
Chavéron H (1999). Molécules toxiques. InIntroduction à la toxicologie
nutritionnelle. Tec & Doc, Lavoisier. Paris, France. p 214 .
Halliwell B (1991). Reactive oxygen species in living systems: Source,
biochemistry, and role in human disease. Am. J. Med. 91: 14-22.
Ignat I, Radu DG, Volf I, Pag AI, Popa VI(2013). Antioxidant and
antibacterial activities of some natural polyphenols. Cellulose Chem.
Technol. 47(5-6): 387-399.
Keser S, Celik S, Turkoglu S, Yilmaz O, Turkoglu I (2012). Hydrogen
peroxide radical scavenging and total antioxidant activity of Hawthorn.
Chem. J. 2(1): 9-12.
Kirakosyan A, Seymour E, Kaufman PB, Warber S, Bolling S, Chang SC
(2003). Antioxidant capacity of polyphenolic extracts from leaves of
Crataegus laevigata and Crataegus monogyna (Hawthorn) subjected to
drought and cold stress. J. Agric. Food Chem.51(14): 3973-3976.
Kostić DA, Velicković JM, Mitić SS, Mitić MN, Randelović SS
(2012). Phenolic content, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities
of Crataegus oxyacantha L. (Rosaceae) Fruit extract from southeast
Serbia. Trop. J. Pharm. Res. 11(1): 117-124.
Li HB, Cheng KW, Wong CC, Fan KW, Chen F, Jiang Y (2007). Evaluation of
antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of different fractions of
selected microalgae. Food Chem. 102: 771-776.
Montagnier L, Olivier R, Pasquier C (1998). Oxidative stress in cancer,
AIDS and neurodegenerative diseases. Marcel Dekker, New York.
Mraihi F, Journi M, Chérif JK, Sokmen M, Sokmen A, Trabelsi-Ayadi M
(2013). Phenolic contents and antioxidant potential of Crataegus fruits
grown in Tunisia as determined by DPPH, FRAP, and 𝛽-
Carotene/Linoleic acid assay. J. Chem. pp.
N’Guessan AHO, Déliko CED, Mamyrbékova-Békro JA, Békro YA (2011).
Teneurs en composés phénoliques de 10 plantes médicinales
employées dans la tradithérapie de l’hypertension artérielle, une
pathologie émergente en Côte d’Ivoire. Rev génie ind. 6: 55-61.
Nabavi SF, Habtemariam S, Ahmed T, Sureda A, Daglia M, Sobarzo-Sánchez
E,Nabavi SM (2015). Polyphenolic composition of Crataegus monogyna
Jacq.: From chemistry to medical applications. Nutrients. 7(9): 7708-
Pham-Huy L, He H, Pham-Huy C (2008). Free Radicals, Antioxidants in
Disease and Health. Int. J. Biomed. Sci. 4(2): 89-96.
Pourmorad F, Hosseinimehr SJ, Shahabimajd N (2006). Antioxidant
activity, phenol and flavonoid contents of some selected Iranian
medicinal plants. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 5(11): 1142-1145
Proestos C, Komaitis M (2008). Application of microwave-assisted
extraction to the fast extraction of plant phenolic compounds. LWT-
Food Sci. Technol. 4 (4):652-659
Rodrigues S, Calhelha RC, Barreira JCM, Dueñas M, Carvalho AM, Abreu
RMV, Santos-Buelga C, Ferreira IC (2012). Crataegus monogyna buds
and fruits phenolic extracts: growth inhibitory activity on human
tumour cell lines and chemical characterization by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS.
Food Res. Int. 49: 516-523.
Selles C, El Amin Dib M, Allali H, Tabti B (2012). Evaluation of
antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of solvent extracts of Anacyclus
pyrethrum L., from Algeria. Mediterr. J. Chem. 2(2): 408-415.
Simirgiotis MJ (2013). Antioxidant capacity and HPLC-DAD-MS profiling of
Chilean Peumo (Cryptocarya alba) fruits and comparison with German
Peumo (Crataegus monogyna) from southern Chile. Mol.18(2): 2061-
Sohal RS, Mockett RJ, Orr WC (2002). Mechanisms of aging: an appraisal of
the oxidative stress hypothesis. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 33(5): 575-586
Tadić VM, Dobrić S, Marković GM, Dordević SM, Arsić IA, Menković NR,
Stević T (2008). Anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, free-radical
scavenging, and antimicrobial activities of hawthorn berries ethanol
extract. J. Agric. Food Chem. 56(17): 7700-7709.
Tahirović A, Bašić N (2014). Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of
Crataegus monogyna l. Fruit extracts. Works Fac. For. Univ. Sarajevo. 2:
Urbonaviciute A, Jakstas V, Kornysova O, Janulis V, Maruska A (2006).
Capillary electrophoretic analysis of flavonoids in single-styled
hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) ethanolic extracts. J. Chromatogr.
A. 1112(1-2): 339-344.
Walker AF, Marakis G, Morris AP, Robinson PA (2002). Promising
hypotensive effect of Hawthorn extract: A randomized double-blind
Pilot study of mild, essential hypertension. Phytother. Res.16(1): 48-54.
Cite this article as:
Bahri H, Benkirane C, Tazi B (2018). Antioxidant activity of
hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) from Morocco. Acad. J. Med.
Plants. 7(2): 030-035.
Submit your manuscript at:
... Anti-oxidant activities of phytochemical compounds from a variety of plants are considered to have protective and Academia Journal of Medicinal Plants; Bahri et al. 270 curative effects on many health ailments. Phenolic compounds, particularly the flavonoids, have been established to possess a wide range of biochemical activities, including antioxidant, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, antiarthritic, protein-kinase inhibition, immune-stimulant, etc. (Bahri et al., 2018;Zaidi, 2013;Bendjeddou et al., 2003;Ren et al., 2003;Dalila et al., 2010;Pahuja et al., 2012;Sulaiman and Balachandran, 2012;Jalayer-Naderi et al., 2016;Kumar, 2017;Tungmunnithum et al., 2018). Cancer is a major health concern, and is largely due to lifestyle and environmental factors (Gonzalez and Riboli, 2010). ...
Full-text available
This study aims to investigate the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of two ecotypes of Anacyclus pyrethrum, an indigenous medicinal plant prized for its roots for various medicinal virtues. Plant samples were collected from the Central Mid-Atlas Mountains of Morocco and root extracts were prepared. Total polyphenols and total flavonoids contents were determined in the extracts and antioxidant activity was measured using DPPH free radical scavenging method. Cytotoxicity effect was assessed for two cell lines, HeLa (human cervical cancer) and N2a (mouse neuroblastoma) against increasing concentrations of test extracts of 12.5,25, 50, 100, 150 and 200 µg/ml and cell viability was quantified using ATP assay. The results obtained showed that total polyphenols were relatively high, with 83.9 mg GAeq/g for ecotype-1 as compared with 57.3 mg GAeq/g for ecotype-2. Total flavonoids presented moderate values of about 19.3 mg Qeq/g for ecotype-1, but low of about 2.3 mg Qeq/g for ecotype-2. Both ecotypes expressed a strong antioxidant effect against DPPH radicals, with comparable IC50 values of 44 and 46 µg/ml for ecotype-1 and ecotype-2, respectively as compared with 11.7µg/ml for ascorbic acid used as the reference antioxidant. The cytotoxicity assay revealed a strong inhibitory effect of root extracts of both ecotypes against the two cancer cell lines evaluated. The IC50 values were 106.7 and 165.7 µg/ml, respectively for Hela and 34.1 and 73.7 µg/ml, for N2a, indicating a higher potency of pyrethrum extracts against N2a Cells as compared with HeLa Cells, with a higher effect of ecotype-1 as compared with ecotype-2. These findings highlight the pharmaco-therapeutic properties of A. pyrethrum roots as an important and natural source of polyphenols with important antioxidant activity and high cytotoxicity effect against cancer cells.
Full-text available
The total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of dry extract of Bulgarian white birch (Betula pendula) leaves was evaluated using the methods Folin-Ciocalteu and measured by aluminum chloride colorimetric assay. Recently, interest in plant-derived food additives has grown, mainly plant extracts of Bulgarian white birch (Betula pendula) leaves have been shown to possess health-promoting properties. The present paper shows the results of total phenolic and total flavonoid contents in dry extract of Bulgarian white birch (Betula pendula) leaves during the period of 2005-2008 years.
Full-text available
The abundance of scientific evidence has shown that many synthetic drugs can cause serious adverse effects in patients. Recently, the search of natural therapeutic agents with low adverse effects has attracted much attention. In particular, considerable interest has focused on edible and medicinal plants, which play an important role in human diet, and have been used for disease treatment since ancient times. Crataegus monogyna Jacq. (hawthorn) is one of the most important edible plants of the Rosaceae family and is also used in traditional medicine. Growing evidence has shown that this plant has various interesting physiological and pharmacological activities due to the presence of different bioactive natural compounds. In addition, scientific evidence suggests that the toxicity of hawthorn is negligible. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to provide a critical review of the available scientific literature about pharmacological activities as well as botanical aspects, phytochemistry and clinical impacts of C. monogyna.
Full-text available
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced by living organisms as a result of normal cellular metabolism and environmental factors, such as air pollutants or cigarette smoke. ROS are highly reactive molecules and can damage cell structures such as carbohydrates, nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins and alter their functions. The shift in the balance between oxidants and antioxidants in favor of oxidants is termed "oxidative stress." Regulation of reducing and oxidizing (redox) state is critical for cell viability, activation, proliferation, and organ function. Aerobic organisms have integrated antioxidant systems, which include enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants that are usually effective in blocking harmful effects of ROS. However, in pathological conditions, the antioxidant systems can be overwhelmed. Oxidative stress contributes to many pathological conditions and diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, atherosclerosis, hypertension, ischemia/perfusion, diabetes, acute respiratory distress syndrome, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma. In this review, we summarize the cellular oxidant and antioxidant systems and discuss the cellular effects and mechanisms of the oxidative stress.
Full-text available
The aim of this research is to determine H 2 O 2 radical scavenging and total antioxidant activity of Crataegus monogyna (hawthorn) water and ethanol extracts of leaves, flowers and fruits. Hawthorn leaves, flowers, and berries are used in traditional medicine in the treatment of chronic heart failure, high blood pressure, arrhythmia, and various digestive ailments, as well as geriatric and antiarteriosclerosis remedies. In this study, ethanol and water extracts were prepared from powdered C. monogyna flowers, leaves and fruits. Antioxidant activities were measured by ferric thiocyanate method, H 2 O 2 radical scavenging assays with UV-Vis spectrophotometer. In conclusion, C. monogyna flowers, leaves and fruits had H 2 O 2 radical scavenging, total antioxidant activity, and these antioxidant activities were compared with BHA and α-tocopherol as reference antioxidants. The results of this study show that the water and ethanol extracts of C. monogyna can be used as easily accessible source of natural antioxidants and as a possible food supplement or in pharmaceutical industry.
Full-text available
The present study provides information on separation and identification of natural bioactive compounds from different vegetal materials with potential applications as antibacterials and plant growth modulators. Natural extracts were obtained by alcoholic and water extraction from spruce bark, grape seeds, Crataegus monogyna (hawthorn) and Asclepias syriaca (milkweed). HPLC-DAD analysis revealed that gallic acid (12.54 mg/100 g) and catechin (85.52 mg/100 g) were the most abundant compounds in hawthorn and grape seed extracts, vanillic acid (71.9 mg/100 g) was found in high concentrations in spruce bark wood, while milkweed extracts were characterized by the presence of hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids. The DPPH assay indicated that the highest radical scavenging activity was registered by grape seeds (EC50 = 45.75 µg) and hawthorn (EC50 = 17.8 µg) alcoholic extracts. The same extracts exhibited antibacterial properties on Staphylococcus aureus, while the samples obtained from spruce bark and milkweed extracts inhibited the development of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa species. Furthermore, the toxicity of the natural extracts was evaluated by their application in germination tests of Phaseolus vulgaris. The obtained results demonstrated that a high concentration of polyphenols has an inhibitory effect on plant development, while lower concentrations determine a considerable stimulation of plantlet elongation.
UDK: 547.56:582.711.714 582.711.714:581.47 The aim of this work was to determine the content of total polyphenols, total flavonoids, total monomeric anthocyanins, total proanthocyanidins, and antioxidant activity of Crataegus monogyna L. fruit in water, hydroalcohol and alcohol extracts. Phenolic content and antioxidant assay of the different fruit extracts was determined using spectrophotometric methods. Obtained results indicated that the content of total polyphenols in the investigated extracts varied from 2.01 to 4.60 mg GAE g-1 of fresh hawthorn fruit. The content of flavonoids ranged from 0.254 to 0.595 mg RUE g-1 fresh fruit extracts. Total monomeric anthocyanins varied from 0.004 to 0.132 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside g-1 of fresh fruit and total proanthocyanidins varied from 0.187 to 1.168 mg cyanidin chloride g-1 fresh fruit. The best antioxidant activity was obtained for hawthorn extract with 80% methanol. A good correlation between antioxidant activity and total polyphenols (R² = 0.9473) and proanthocyanidins (R² = 0.7469) was observed.
Purpose: The aim of this work was to determine the content of total phenols, total flavonoids, anthocyanins, as well as antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha L.) alcohol, hydroalcohol and aqueous extracts. Methods: The content of total phenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins of the alcohol, hydroalcohol and aqueous extracts of hawthorn were determined using spectrophotometric methods. Antioxidant assay was based on the measurement of DPPH absorbance at 517 nm caused by the reaction of DPPH with the test sample. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by measuring the zone of inhibition against selected test microorganisms: Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella abony while antifungal activity was tested against two organisms: Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. Results: The results of spectrophotometric investigations indicate that the content of total phenol compounds in the investigated extracts varied from 2.12 to 30.63 mg GAE g -1 of fresh hawthorn sample. The content of anthocyanins ranged from 0.3207 to 3.168 mg of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside g -1 of fresh hawthorn fruit. The fruit extracts showed high antioxidant activity with DPPH radical transformation value as high as 89.9 % in the methanol-water (50/50, v/v%)) extract. The ethanol extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against all test microorganisms except two, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, and one species of fungi, Aspergillus niger. Flavonoid structure influenced the extract's selectivity towards Gram-positive and Gram negative bacteria. Conclusion: Extracts of the fruit of Crataegus oxyacantha L. can be used as natural antioxidant and antimicrobial preparations.
Crataegus monogyna has been extensively studied due to its various alleged health benefits. This study aimed to determine the human tumor cells growth inhibitory activity of phenolic extracts of its flower buds and fruits in three phenological stages, and further characterize the extracts by HPLC–DAD–ESI/MS. Flower bud extract showed the highest antiproliferative activity as indicated by the lowest GI50 values obtained in all the tested cell lines: MCF-7, breast adenocarcinoma; NCI-H460, non-small cell lung cancer; HeLa, cervical carcinoma; HepG2, hepatocellular carcinoma. Furthermore, porcine liver primary cell culture (PLP2) was used to evaluate toxicity to non-tumor cells. Flavonoids, particularly flavonols and flavones (higher in flower buds) and proanthocyanidins (higher in unripe fruits) were the main classes in the studied samples. Phenolic acids (mainly hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives) were also detected in significant amounts, especially in flower bud extract. Regarding anthocyanins, over ripened fruits gave the highest content. The higher bioactivity observed in flower buds might be related with its higher content in phenolic compounds.