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Abstract

The focus of this article is on the important need for educators in trauma-informed schools to receive ongoing support themselves. That K-12 teachers should attend to their students’ mental health is now commonly emphasized and indeed is invaluable for prevention purposes. At the same time, teachers in general are at high risk for burnout, and there can be much additional stress from routinely providing empathic support to troubled students in classrooms. After reviewing the relevant literature, we provide preliminary data – based on first-hand reports from 10 teachers in trauma-informed K-12 schools – about major challenges faced and ways in which these might be alleviated. These exploratory insights are then discussed within the framework of current recommendations in the field of resilience in childhood. The latter clearly indicates that if adults in major socializing roles (parents as well as teachers) contend with high everyday stress, the most important protective factor is their ongoing access to supportive relationships in everyday life settings. The paper concludes with directions for future work, highlighting areas where educational and school psychologists might spearhead and support training efforts, and help to incorporate support-based interventions within schools’ institutional cultures.
Running Head: TRAUMA-INFORMED SCHOOLS
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#International Journal of School & Educational Psychology
PRE-PUBLICATION VERSION
For published version, please email SLuthar@Authconn.com
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$ '%
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&'$
"'""
$%"%B$%%
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#&'$%$"
52'$02'&"
$.%$$
*"-$
$'
De'ning central terms: Trauma and its e*ects
'%0"%
%%"34
""6.''Ce"'"'
e2%"
"e*".
''''$-%D3'7E'>4
4
TRAUMA-INFORMED SCHOOLS
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364'$"$%
=''5%@388>4$
'CDCD63!
F%"'77745
'6'<356'784'''
*''-
'"G#'
6'=''5%'@388>4
6$"""'$%&
@''-'
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L%0'<'77M4
What does it mean for a school to be trauma-informed?
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0trauma-informed approachesC;D''C'
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5
TRAUMA-INFORMED SCHOOLS
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20'C-$
0-$
D3<'79'O4
-%"3'A'<='7>4
')37>4" 
0%-$%$"
L"
"-$-
%"'$
*"3@'L'<;'7>4
Bene'ts and challenges of using trauma-informed approaches
%0$$-
%.?'
""2
3''<'7J4%
."'$"'
 $.13'7>?'
)'<P'78?4'-'
6
TRAUMA-INFORMED SCHOOLS
 $.%""
'%%
*'%.-
"%"''
"$$.3'
7E4
'2'-'
$"% 
3=''<N*'7O?@<'774'
""2"

%3Q%'N$'<%"'79?%''L.('<
@'778?+'77J47EQ
'E9:%

;%-
"$?
3''%'('<)'
7M4$%%'
%$$-%'
%$$
$"3;'"&-N''<Q%'794#
'.%%
*3-;'7M4&"%
"$'%"1
*%$% ?
-0$3<6%'7M?
56'784
%%$""
?burden of caregiving. #
$%'$'
2"'
3)'7O?%-=<'77O?'
7>4%%% *
7
TRAUMA-INFORMED SCHOOLS
3N'7?'7J?'7?RN1<
'7794='C%D%
2$%23)'@'<'74'
$CD3'N'<='
7794
;'$'%trigger
painful re-experiencing .$34'$
%"$3'7J?'@'''<
)'7J4%$
%%$'
$%''"%
"'$"
3;'%'<@*'7O4
.involves their parents
"'$
%%2*'

.'$
$-"'
%"''"
'"3')'<P'4
&competent about their abilitiesto help
$3'N'('F'<'
7?@'Q '<'7794?%.$-%
1 $$3'74;
"gaps in training"
'"-%"
*-
3Q%'78?;'''F'<Q'74
=' traumatic events occurring at school 
*#'%
%""
3)'Q'@'6$'<5-;'77J4(
7J-9'$OMO'877327:4%
8
TRAUMA-INFORMED SCHOOLS
$$1%'7'O77
%3'P'@'P'<L'
784-*.$-%35'
777?@'('<'74'
"H$"
3('77M4'"'%'-"
 3'7?7>4$
CD%.
Qualitative insights on teachers’ needs
@""
-'"
"%'".37>4
 %$" '
'$%$-
)-'$"

Methods
$-'&"%
-%$-)-
$"-*$
$%
.$%1
.2$-''
$%%"F
$0'C@%$%
2BD
Participants
?"%)-
5$$$$
6$.
"2 %13''
4'$%%%%'
$"'
9
TRAUMA-INFORMED SCHOOLS
'%%

Results
#2'2'
compassion fatigue2
"%
#'*
C"D1
'$"%%%
%
'"%feelings of inadequacy and even
fearfulness$.
$".'C#$
%%'%
S#$#%$
'$D'$*$
"

%physical aggression and violence at school $
$L"0CD
$C.$$.
%"%D%$
 physical restraint practices
$.%"
%'evaluative policies 
=2'
$"*
"%
2%'""%
.%/"%$%
./".
10$standardized testing
'%C$
T
10
TRAUMA-INFORMED SCHOOLS
D$3"4
$$C
"%D6%'C
%%"
.'D'-
 $$A$$$
-'

#%'
$.increasing the
number of professionals dedicated to children’s mental health needs
.""'&%
*.%"L
.$$C0
'D$'C$
U$VDL
022=
2'0$$
N-0N"3NN4"%
additional training$2%'$
0#.'
$""22'
%%".*'C
""
%$%$
"%'&%'"$"%'
%%.D
0&*
'"2overall policy changes
"CUV$'D
$$"
&$
$"$'
$%$%@'
11
TRAUMA-INFORMED SCHOOLS
2'$%%"
$"%3<)*'7O4?
'%$
#$
'C#1$%%"&0'
*'$##.$#.$
.%"
$$#.%/
SD
-.0
%%how much trauma information can or should be shared'$
$'%$"'
C#$%$$
.%
'$
D
='0mandated social-emotional
learning364#
$'C#6
-'$'$.
%$D
@2'
6'
'%%"3''
'4
Discussion
N$&"1
'21%$1
 $'$
"2'$
0"#'$%2
'"*
"%$%
$0'
12
TRAUMA-INFORMED SCHOOLS
2-'$34&"-
'$3%4&"a priori 
"$%
-'&"2
2$%
@0%
$"'
=$'$
$'%$%
Resonant themes
%$.'0'
$$
''$'*"
*$$
0"
"6"$'$2 
0$$"
%%*
?7E-7J'2'
"J773
'7J4$?
%' 7-7JJ
M9$3L6('
7>4'%%'
&-
"3''
784
%$
2$$
-""%.
."-'$""
C$D
%3'7>4=
'$"
13
TRAUMA-INFORMED SCHOOLS
$$
;'
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14
TRAUMA-INFORMED SCHOOLS
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5. )-%
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$#$$"
$$1$'DC$1
$'%N#$D
6'$ 
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C%$#%#$
'##$$$$
$#$$'DC#.W$'
''%'#.
0#%"%"."
&N.#X"YD35'
784
The critical missing ingredient: Ongoing support for the teachers
#'"
'2
ongoing supports forthemselves. '
$$K'
$'-'$
1%%$$-%'
$$CD
'%
"'%
15
TRAUMA-INFORMED SCHOOLS
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'0$0"
"3<'7J?<
6%'7M4'"
2"$'$
$'."1;
$"'"'"
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16
TRAUMA-INFORMED SCHOOLS
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'3%4".$-%"@
'X1%%%C"$
%'2'2D3='77'
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/'%'**/"
0%%
%$
%"2'"
-%"%1.$-%'
'%3<)'7>4
Conclusions
17
TRAUMA-INFORMED SCHOOLS
$"!
'$-$'
% %%%
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$''
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and Practice, 38394'9J-9J8
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('+' '''6'<%" '3794
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Health'83794'9O/M9HHH777MHO7-79-8MM-7
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374
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and Consumer Sciences,903O4'O
='+'''<N*'F37O4"
F#Handbook of resilience in children3
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Social Psychology of Education, 5(3),8-J
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20
TRAUMA-INFORMED SCHOOLS
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Theory and Practice'173E4'EM8/E89
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;'F"!"
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F"Child and Adolescent
Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 2434'O8/OOO
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Review of Educational Research, 7934'E8/JJ
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Managerial Psychology, 20'M>/>M
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Psychology, 313M4'>EO/>J9HHH77>7H7EEOE7797>9J7
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 'Clinical Supervisor, 3234'E/EO
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21
TRAUMA-INFORMED SCHOOLS
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5'(;37774R#(<
N364'Violence in American schools: A practical guide for counselors
3O/742'R
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23
TRAUMA-INFORMED SCHOOLS
[\%*7%J<[\<[\%<
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L6(37>4L6(3-" 4
62M+78
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$BClinical Psychology Review, 233O4'EE8/
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$"6F>=='
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Future of Children, 2734'OM/JJ
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24
TRAUMA-INFORMED SCHOOLS
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Forward, American Medical Association.
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Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 4534'9/9>
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25
TRAUMA-INFORMED SCHOOLS
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... When placing the teacher at the centre, this type of model can help to conceptually and visually represent how their practice may be impacted as they interact with other people and systems. The literature supports the idea that, if given the right input, conditions and settings, an effective trauma-informed pedagogy may be developed (Howard, 2018a;Kataoka et al., 2018;Luthar & Mendes, 2020). ...
... Identifying the type of support required is a necessary component of seeking or providing support. Luthar and Mendes (2020) explain that "what teachers under stress need in order to maintain good functioning is, in fact, the same as what children need to maintain resilience in the face of adversity: ongoing access to dependable, nurturing supports" (p. 153). ...
... It is proposed that this can minimize educator attrition rates and address concerns with the impact that supporting trauma-impacted learners can have on the personal and professional wellbeing of educators. It is suggested that unless education sites maintain the wellbeing of educators, the wellbeing of trauma-impacted learners will suffer (Baweja et al., 2016;Luthar and Mendes, 2020). ...
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The National Guidelines for Trauma-Aware Education in Australia were developed in response to a rapidly growing interest in trauma-aware education across the country and to address the lack of site- and system-level guidance for application of trauma-aware practices in schools and early childhood services. Although research into trauma-aware education was increasing and resources and training and support programs were being developed across Australia, there were no nationally agreed upon guidelines providing consistency to thinking, policy, and practice. Drawing from public health and health promotion models for establishing guidelines for trauma-aware policy and practice, the Guidelines were developed through a thorough process of incorporating research evidence and expert and end-user input. The Guidelines were developed across 2017–2019 and were finalized in 2021 and provide an important first step in a national response to trauma-aware education in Australia. This article will describe the “story” behind the development of the Guidelines. It is hoped that this “story” will help others considering development of systemic resources to inform the establishment and enhancement of trauma-aware policy and practice in schools and early childhood education services.
... These resources support the varying influences of engagement such as peer interactions and addressing the digital divide. Also, in trying to promote these relationships, it is important to consider the needs of caregivers at home and in other settings (school, afterschool, etc.) as well because adults in caregiving roles are also experiencing significant stress from the pandemic (Luthar & Mendes, 2020). ...
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After-school programs provide a range of support for students. During school closures due to the COVID-19 pandemic, many after-school programs were also forced to close or to find new ways to provide services to youth, such as through virtual after-school programming. We surveyed 244 youth who participated in virtual after-school programs about their access to virtual programming as well as their experiences. We considered their pre-closure experiences as well. We also surveyed 8 program directors of after-school programs who were providing virtual programming. We found that Internet access hindered the ability of more than 1 in 4 students to access the programs. Pre-closure program experiences, including ongoing relationships with program staff and positive peer relationships contributed to more positive experiences with virtual programming. Whenever students were able to access the programs, they generally reported positive experiences. This work has implications for after-school program providers, parents, and policymakers.
... Additional elements supporting change included increasingly consistent school-wide approaches to behavior, a shared language for adults and students to discuss emotions and coping skills, an improved sense of trust and communication within the schools consistent with SAMH-SA's principles of trustworthiness and transparency, and empowerment and collaboration. Well-being is considered a critical element in the delivery and sustainability of TR school approaches (Bloom, 2019;Luthar & Mendes, 2020) and was viewed as a critical element of ReLATE. Actualization of well-being processes was strongly linked to leadership initiatives and integration into school-wide practice change, capitalizing on the everyday schedule and routine for teachers. ...
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Staff perceptions and attitudes regarding the introduction of the Reframing Learning and Teaching Environments (ReLATE) trauma-responsive school-wide approach were investigated in three Catholic primary schools in Victoria, Australia. School leaders, teachers, and support staff were interviewed regarding their experiences of the approach either individually or in focus groups. Educator attitudes towards trauma-responsive education was evaluated using the ARTIC–ED Scale, prior to and after participating in the six-month intervention. Qualitative data were interpreted using ecological analysis of the themes arising guided by the trauma informed principles and frameworks of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) and the Trauma Learning Policy Initiative (TLPI). Findings indicated significant shifts towards trauma-responsive practice following the introduction of ReLATE. Strong themes emerged relating to the influence of improved trauma knowledge on perceptions of student behavior, consequent reported adaptations to behavior management practices, strengthened sense of trust and respect in the school climate, the centrality of leadership to effect change, and importance of school-fit to program uptake. Strengths and limitations of ReLATE are considered, along with implications for teacher professional learning, the role of leadership in effecting change and significance of perceived school-fit and collaboration.
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International interest in trauma-responsive schools to counter the impact of trauma on students and educators is unprecedented. The purpose of this exploratory qualitative study across the United States was to inform emergent trauma-responsive practice in Australian schools by learning from the US experience. Using interviews and focus groups, this research sought to describe the core elements of, and key issues for, trauma-responsive school practice, insights into the implementation process and challenges. Findings signal a need for a paradigm shift in education that is based on a relational pedagogy of care focused on educators ‘being’ trauma-responsive rather than ‘doing’. Key elements included collective care, collaboration, and mutuality. Leadership, professional learning, readiness, and teacher wellbeing were emphasized as central drivers of change. Attention is drawn by participants to the intersecting issues of human-rights, cultural trauma, equity, and schools as environments of healing and hope. Knowledge gaps and suggestions for future research are presented.
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This descriptive qualitative study aimed to describe how guidance and counseling services were implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic. This was conducted among five (5) counselors who were determined through purposive sampling. The data were gathered using a semi-structured interview and analyzed using conventional qualitative content analysis. Challenges, initiatives, and insights in implementing guidance and counseling services were revealed. There were seven (7) meaningful categories taken from data transcripts. Counselors were challenged by (1) inadequate support and (2) restrictions in delivering guidance and counseling services. Their initiatives included (3) using technology-aided services, (4) conducting online activities, and (5) strengthening of school and community partnerships. The two (2) essential insights of counselors on their experience were about (6) counseling as a value-laden helping profession and (7) efficient implementation of services. Since counselors faced both personal and professional challenges highly influenced by technology during unprecedented times, their motivation to deliver guidance and counseling services comes from a genuine desire to serve the school and community. This proves that guidance and counseling is not only a profession but also a vocation.
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Globally, adolescent self-harm rates remain high, while help-seeking behaviour remains low. School staff are in a position to facilitate access to appropriate care for young people who self-harm (YPS-H), but little is known about gatekeepers’ attributions of self-harm or whether these attributions influence the support they provide. This study investigates the perceived functions of self-harm reported by potential gatekeepers and examines how these compare to the self-reported functions of self-harm in young people; 386 students from postgraduate teaching ( n = 111), school counselling ( n = 37), and undergraduate psychology ( n = 238) programs completed a survey regarding their beliefs about YPS-H, which included the Inventory of Statements about Self-Harm. Responses were compared to those of 281 young people attending treatment at a suicide prevention program who completed the same measure. Preservice teachers, school counsellors and psychology students endorsed all functions of self-harm at a higher rate than treatment-seeking young people themselves. In particular, they endorsed interpersonal functions to a greater extent than the clinical reference group. The potential effect of greater endorsement of interpersonal influence as a function of self-harm gatekeeper’s responding to YPS-H is discussed.
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The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a multipronged, trauma-informed professional development for teachers at a K-8, Title I public school in an urban city. The instructional approach involved four elements: (1) training on trauma-informed care related to student development, learning, and skill-building, (2) prepared lesson plans for classroom implementation, including classroom scripts, activities, and student handouts, (3) specialized support during class application, and (4) expert feedback on self-reflective journal entries. Qualitative results underscored two main themes regarding the professional development influence on teachers. First, as teachers opened a window into their students’ lives, their understanding, responsiveness, and relatedness changed. They began to view their students as children first and learners second, allowing them to relate in a manner of empathy and compassion. Secondly, teachers began to change themselves as they altered their responses beyond the classroom to their own families and others around them. Thus, gaining access to students’ inner emotional worlds helped change teachers’ internal experiences and interactions with their outer world. Quantitative results highlighted significant pre-and posttest differences in compassion satisfaction and secondary traumatic stress (STS) despite instructional disruptions due to the COVID-19 global pandemic. Implications include offering school-wide trauma-informed professional development for school personnel to understand their students’ life experiences better and thus their learning environment beyond the classroom.
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Despite the growing interest in creating trauma-informed schools, including for trauma-affected refugee students, little research has focused on the perspectives of teachers supporting these youths. This qualitative study focused on one school district in southwestern Ontario, Canada; it examined 11 narratives from seven teachers that centered on Syrian refugee student trauma disclosures in the classroom. Two full narratives are provided to illustrate the key thematic findings: teachers feel unsettled by unexpected disclosures, teachers are disturbed by students’ lack of affect, tension exists between emotional expression and containment, and teachers engage in meaning making when hearing the stories students want to tell. These findings are discussed within the wider research context of emotional labor, vicarious trauma, and burnout, and indicate that additional support is needed for teachers given the reported professional and personal strain that trauma disclosures can cause. This is not only important for the well-being of teachers but is also critical for Syrian refugee and other trauma-affected students to learn within a more equitable educational environment. School social workers are discussed as a possible resource for providing this ongoing training and support for teachers.
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In interventions for at-risk children, Tom Dishion strongly exhorted programs that are short term, cost-effective, and delivered in families’ own communities, just as resilience researchers underscore the need for programs that provide ongoing support for children's primary caregivers, and are implementable on a large scale. Presented here are preliminary results on a short-term intervention for mothers, the Authentic Connections Virtual Groups. A previous randomized trial of the in-person version of this program, conducted with mothers at high risk for stress and burnout, showed significant benefits. There had been zero dropouts across the 3-month program, and participants showed significant improvements on psychological indices as well as cortisol, even 3 months after the program ended. In the present study, virtual groups were conducted with five sets of women, all white-collar professionals with highly stressful, exacting careers, and most also primary caregivers of their children. Again, there were zero dropouts. Mean satisfaction ratings were 9.6 of 10, and the Net Promoter Score (promoters vs. detractors) fell in the “world class” range. To illuminate mechanisms of change, participants’ responses to open-ended questions on the groups’ value are presented verbatim. Recurrently mentioned were the development of new, authentic connections and invaluable ongoing support. These results, with the low costs and ease of women's attendance, attest to the value of expanding offerings such as these, toward benefiting even more highly stressed mothers themselves as well as the children for whose care they are responsible.
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Growing acknowledgement that adverse childhood experiences are widespread and can threaten healthy development has led to advocacy for schools to systematically incorporate trauma-sensitive practices and policies. While the background and training of school psychologists would seem to make them the ideal professionals to lead such work, little is known regarding their preparedness to engage in these school-based practices. The current pilot study examines the experiences, education and training, confidence and competence, current and desired roles, and perceived barriers and supports of school psychology trainers, trainees, and practitioners to engage in trauma-informed practices within schools. Results indicated that high majorities reported scant knowledge or competencies across domains of professional practice considered essential to trauma-informed care delivery. Findings and implications are discussed. Keywords: trauma-informed care, post-traumatic stress disorder, complex trauma, training, school psychology
Chapter
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In this chapter, we review evidence on a group recently identified as "at-risk", that is, youth growing up in the context of high achieving schools (HAS), predominated by well-educated, white collar professional families. Though these youngsters are thought of as "having it all", they are statistically more likely than normative samples to show serious disturbances across several domains including drug and alcohol use, as well as internalizing and externalizing problems. We review data on these problems with attention to gender-specific patterns, presenting quantitative developmental research findings along with relevant evidence across other disciplines. In considering possible reasons for elevated maladjustment, we appraise multiple pathways including aspects of family dynamics, peer norms, and pressures at schools. All of these pathways are considered within the context of broad, exosystemic mores: the pervasive emphasis, in contemporary American culture, on maximizing personal status, and how this can threaten the well-being of individuals and of communities. The chapter concludes with ideas for future interventions, with discussions on how research-based assessments of schools can best be used to reduce pressures, and to maximize positive adaptation, among youth in highly competitive, pressured school environments.
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Teachers are the engine that drives social and emotional learning (SEL) programs and practices in schools and classrooms, and their own social-emotional competence and wellbeing strongly influence their students. Classrooms with warm teacher-child relationships support deep learning and positive social and emotional development among students, writes Kimberly Schonert-Reichl. But when teachers poorly manage the social and emotional demands of teaching, students’ academic achievement and behavior both suffer. If we don’t accurately understand teachers’ own social-emotional wellbeing and how teachers influence students’ SEL, says Schonert-Reichl, we can never fully know how to promote SEL in the classroom. How can we boost teachers’ social-emotional competence, and how can we help them create the kind of classroom environment that promotes students’ SEL? Teachers are certainly at risk for poor social-emotional wellbeing. Research shows that teaching is one of the most stressful occupations; moreover, stress in the classroom is contagious-simply put, stressed-out teachers tend to have stressed-out students. In the past few years, several interventions have specifically sought to improve teachers’ social-emotional competence and stress management in school, and Schonert-Reichly reviews the results, many of which are promising. She also shows how teachers’ beliefs-about their own teaching efficacy, or about whether they receive adequate support, for example-influence the fidelity with which they implement SEL programs in the classroom. When fidelity is low, SEL programs are less successful. Finally, she examines the extent to which US teacher education programs prepare teacher candidates to promote their own and their students’ social-emotional competence, and she argues that we can and should do much more.
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Teachers in the US are now considered integral to promoting students’ mental health; here we report on two major challenges for educators in high achieving schools (HAS). The first involves high adjustment disturbances among students. We present data on nine HAS cohorts showing elevated rates of clinically significant symptoms relative to norms; rates of anxious-depressed symptoms, in particular, were six to seven times those in national norms on average. As high achieving youth often keep internalizing symptoms hidden, their teachers will need help in understanding how to identify early signs of these types of distress, and to ensure appropriate, timely interventions. The second challenge we consider has to do with relationships between service providers and parents. Data obtained from the former showed that they tend to perceive relatively wealthy parents more negatively, and as more likely to threaten litigation, compared to parents from middle- or low-income backgrounds. We discuss the importance of proactively addressing such potentially adversarial relationships for the success of both the early detection of HAS students’ adjustment problems, and appropriate interventions for them. Next, we appraise how the aforementioned challenges can greatly exacerbate risks for burnout among educators in HAS settings, and how this might be alleviated via evidence-based, institutional-level interventions. Schools must ensure ongoing support for educators who carry the weighty, dual charge of tending to the emotional needs of a group of highly stressed students, in addition to ensuring their continued, exemplary levels of educational accomplishments.
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Excessive pressures to excel, generally in affluent contexts, are now listed among the top 4 "high risk" factors for adolescents' mental health, along with exposure to poverty, trauma, and discrimination. Multiple studies of high-achieving school (HAS) cohorts have shown elevated rates of serious symptoms relative to norms, with corroborating evidence from other research using diverse designs. Grounded in theories on resilience and ecological influences in development, a conceptual model is presented here on major risk and protective processes implicated in unrelenting achievement pressures facing HAS youth. These include forces at the macrolevel, including economic and technological changes that have led to the "middle class squeeze," and proximal influences involving the family, peers, schools, and communities. Also considered are potential directions for future interventions, with precautions about some practices that are currently widespread in HAS contexts. In the years ahead, any meaningful reductions in the high distress of HAS youth will require collaborations among all stakeholders, with parents and educators targeting the specific areas that must be prioritized in their own communities. Leaders in higher education and social policy could also help in beginning to curtail this problem, which is truly becoming an epidemic among today's youth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
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Secondary traumatic stress (STS) impacts many helping professionals and staff who are indirectly exposed to the graphic details of others’ traumatic experiences and to the posttraumatic stress symptoms of those persons. A nascent but growing database documents the nature and effects of STS, but no consensus definition exists for STS. As a result, there has not been a systematic program of research and development for STS preventive, and ameliorative interventions. Current STS interventions tend to focus on generic wellness, health promotion, workplace safety, worker morale, and self-care rather than addressing the specific effects of indirect exposure to others’ traumatic events or traumatic stress reactions. To address this gap, a scientific meeting of STS experts convened to consider the science regarding STS interventions and to create an agenda for advancing the field toward the development of evidence-based treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder following indirect exposure. This article reports on meeting findings, reviews the evidence supporting treatment of STS, and identifies symptom targets, best practice treatment approaches, and strategies for moving the field forward.
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Promoting children’s mental health in education environments has many advantages. In the United States, preschool education and the care of children is not organized or consistent across jurisdictions or income levels. Consequently, the first time society pays attention to the development of children in an organized way is when they enter Kindergarten or grade one. Therefore, the investment in promoting children’s mental health, which is critical to child development and to society, can be universally supported by the educational system. The goal of this chapter is to highlight approaches to strengthening educational systems for the promotion of mental health from implementation and scaling research and systems science perspectives. We introduce theoretical and practical frameworks that incorporate both perspectives and deduce strategies of creating enabling contexts for promoting children’s mental health in educational environments.
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Hundreds of thousands of children are confronted with traumatic experiences each year in the United States. As trauma-informed care begins to take hold in schools, school mental health providers (e.g., school psychologists, counselors, and social workers) desire concrete service-delivery options for students affected by trauma. This article provides examples from the literature via a narrative review of assessment, intervention, and practitioner support options related to childhood trauma. Specific attention is paid to framing concrete school-based trauma service-delivery options within a multitiered systems of support model to align with existing school practices. Given the large amount of literature on this topic, this article aims to reduce the barriers practitioners face when looking to implement trauma services in their schools by organizing example practices from the literature in a commonly used service-delivery framework.