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Les rongeurs du Plio-Pléïstocène de Thaïlande : systematique, phylogenie, biochronologie et paléoenvironnements /

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Thesis (doctoral)--Université Montpellier II-Sciences et techniques du Languedoc, 1997. Includes bibliographical references (p. 247-258).

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... Journal of Human Evolution (1998) 35, [47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54] During the field work organized under a Thai-French paleontological project, a single human tooth has been found among numerous fossil remains from a Quaternary cave. The cave occurs in Permian dolomitic limestones and is filled with Quaternary red clay deposits which are overlaid with a succession of stalagmitic floors (Chaimanee, 1997). The cave called ''Thum Wiman Nakin'' is located in the Kon San district (Province of Chaiyaphum) in Northern Thailand (Ginsburg et al., 1982;Chaimanee & Jaeger, 1993;Tougard et al., 1996) ( Figure 1). ...
... Twenty tons of the red clay sediments were first sieved by dry sieving and the concen-trate was then soaked in fresh water overnight. After defloculation, the sediments were screen-washed with 0·4 to 1 mm mesh sieves (Chaimanee, 1997). These operations resulted in the recovery of around 1500 mammalian remains, especially isolated teeth of small (rodents and bats) and large mammals (carnivores, ungulates, proboscidians and primates) (Ginsburg et al., 1982;Chaimanee & Jaeger, 1993;Tougard et al., 1996) and also some inner ear fragments that can not be referred to any taxon. ...
... Humans were the prey rather than the predator. Paleoclimatic (Heaney, 1991;van der Kaars & Dam, 1995) and paleoecological (Chaimanee, 1997;Tougard et al., 1996) studies conducted in Southeast Asia and at the ''Thum Wiman Nakin'' locality reveal an environment for the Late Middle Pleistocene humans that is not very different from the extant one in Thailand. However, the climatic conditions were characterized by lower temperature and humidity (Heaney, 1991;van der Kaars & Dam, 1995), and the vegetation zones were at lower altitudes than today (Morley, 1982;Newsome et al., 1988). ...
Article
In the context of a Thai-French paleontological project, a single human tooth, a right upper fourth premolar, has been discovered in Northern Thailand among mammalian fossil remains excavated from the "Thum Wiman Nakin" cave. Based on the fauna associated with the human tooth and the Uranium/Thorium datings from the overlying calcite beds, we attribute this site to the Late Middle Pleistocene. The human tooth was compared with teeth of Chinese and Javanese Homo erectus, Homo sapiens neanderthalensis and Homo sapiens sapiens as well as teeth of apes (Orang-utan). The tooth has archaic features of the crown which are similar to Homo erectus. It also has derived features of the root which makes it aligns with Neanderthals and modern humans. Consequently, it has been tentatively attributed to Homo sp. Homo remains have not been previously reported from Thailand, and the specimen described here is therefore the first and oldest fossil human remain from this country.
... The genus Bandicota is the sister genus to Rattus (Chaimanee and Jaeger 2001). The earliest fossil identified as Rattus sensu lato in Thailand is from the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene (Chaimanee 1997). Based on fossil records, Rattus including Bandicota split (Verneau et al. 1997), and while the fossil record in Southeast Asia is very incomplete, the oldest known Bandicota fossil was found in Thailand in Snake Cave dated about 170,000 years before present (late middle Pleistocene) (Chaimanee 1997). ...
... The earliest fossil identified as Rattus sensu lato in Thailand is from the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene (Chaimanee 1997). Based on fossil records, Rattus including Bandicota split (Verneau et al. 1997), and while the fossil record in Southeast Asia is very incomplete, the oldest known Bandicota fossil was found in Thailand in Snake Cave dated about 170,000 years before present (late middle Pleistocene) (Chaimanee 1997). This suggests an Indochinese, not Sunda, origin for the genus Bandicota, which implies that it must have reached Sundaland at a more recent time. ...
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The adaptive radiation of Rattus is examined at two levels, the divergence of this genus relative to its sister genera (Maxomys, Niviventer, Leopoldamys, Berylmys, Sundamys and Bandicota) and the diversification of numerous species within the genus Rattus in Southeast Asia and Australia.Molecular data suggest a recent origin for Rattus (8–6 Ma), followed much later by an exceptionally rapid diversification of species (since 2.5 Ma). According to these data, Maxomys represents the most distant sister group, followed by a Niviventer‐Leopoldamys group, then by a Sundamys‐Berylmys group. Bandicota is only as distinctive as a species of Rattus. We have reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships of Thai representatives of these taxa using molar characters. Our cladogram, based on 65 characters, is largely congruent with the molecular data. Here, Rattus appears earlier, relative to its sister group consisting of Bandicota‐Berylmys and Niviventer‐Leopoldamys. The early divergence of Maxomys and the close relationship between Niviventer and Leopoldamys are consistent with the molecular data.Palaeontological data from 20 karst or cave localities in Thailand indicate that Rattus s.s. was represented during the Pliocene by a single species. The Pliocene community of murid rodents was significantly different from the living one, with several genera but only one species of Rattus. The number of Rattus species increased rapidly during the Pleistocene. During the latest Tertiary, grasslands were more extensive compared with the present day, indicating more pronounced seasonality. The climate became wetter, with less seasonality and more widespread evergreen forests, during the Pleistocene. There was a downward shift in elevation of at least 1,000 meters in vegetational zones. We relate the radiation of Rattus which seems to have spread northwards from a southern refugium, to this development of evergreen forests. This climatic history is in good agreement with global climate models, in which cooling and increasing humidity through the Plio‐Pleistocene of Southeast Asia is correlated with uplift of the Tibetan plateau, and also with the effects of rising sea level.
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