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Can Flow Alleviate Anxiety? The Roles of Academic Self-Efficacy and Self-Esteem in Building Psychological Sustainability and Resilience

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Abstract

A growing number of studies suggest that flow experience is associated with life satisfaction, eudaimonic well-being, and the perceived strength of one’s social and place identity. However, little research has placed emphasis on flow and its relations with negative experiences such as anxiety. The current study investigated the relations between flow and anxiety by considering the roles of self-esteem and academic self-efficacy. The study sample included 590 Chinese university students, who were asked to complete a self-report questionnaire on flow, anxiety, self-esteem, and academic self-efficacy. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM) with AMOS software, in which both factorial analysis and path analysis were performed. Results revealed that the experience of flow negatively predicted anxiety, and both self-esteem and academic self-efficacy fully mediated the path between flow and anxiety. Specifically, self-esteem played a crucial and complete mediating role in this relationship, while academic self-efficacy mediated the path between self-esteem and anxiety. Our findings enrich the literature on flow experience and help with identifying practical considerations for buffering anxiety and more broadly with fostering strategies for promoting psychological sustainability and resilience.

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... Jin 2011). Flow is reported to be significantly negatively correlated with anxiety (Tse et al. 2022;Mao et al. 2020), particularly music performance anxiety (Kirchner et al. 2008;Moral-Bofill et al. 2022), and anxiety and presence synergistically linked during VR immersion with phobic and non-phobic participants (Robillard et al. 2003). In the short term anxiety can cause many physical symptoms, such as shaking, dizziness, fatigue, aches, increased blood pressure, heart palpitations and breathing problems, and left unchecked can cause long-term issues such as migraines, heart disease, bowel disorders, lowered immune responses, and memory problems (Banyan Mental Health 2022). ...
... While VR is known to induce presence and promote flow (Tse et al. 2022;Mao et al. 2020), and has been used for clinical psychology in clinical cases (Robillard et al. 2003), studies comparing the effects of creative VR programs in reducing anxiety with more traditional methods of creating art are limited. Hence, this study compares the effect on anxiety between creating visual art using a VR drawing application, Tilt Brush (the experimental condition) and traditional paper and pen (the control condition), and the relationship of anxiety with presence and flow. ...
... Consistent with prior literature (Tse et al. 2022;Mao et al. 2020), flow was significantly negatively correlated with anxiety, in this case both state and trait anxiety. While trait anxiety did not significantly decline in both groups, this was expected as trait anxiety is more stable as compared to state anxiety, which is more reactive (Spielberger et al. 1983). ...
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Recent advancement in technology has made virtual reality (VR) more accessible and immersive than ever before, resulting in its increasing utility in various industries. Despite this, VR has remained an underutilised tool within clinical psychology. This study aimed to explore the potential of using VR for therapeutic benefits through examining the level of flow and anxiety-reducing effects of freeform drawing in real life (on paper) versus drawing in VR (using Tilt Brush) via a randomised-controlled trial with 40 participants. State and trait anxiety was measured using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, level of flow was measured using the Long Flow State Scale, and level of presence was measured using the iGroup Presence Questionnaire. Overall level of flow was not significantly different between both groups, implying drawing in VR induces as much flow as drawing in real life. Level of flow was positively correlated to level of presence experienced in the VR group ( p < .01). Although there was no significant interaction effect, both groups experienced an overall decrease in state anxiety, with the VR group experiencing a significant reduction of state anxiety from pre- to post-test ( p < .01).
... Seligman (2006) developed a 5-pillar model that includes Positive Emotion, Engagement, Relationships, Meaning, and Accomplishment (PERMA), interpreting the critical elements for promoting the individuals' well-being. Existing research on factors for life satisfaction of Chinese university students has been focussing on social support (Zhu, 2015), self-efficacy (Mao et al., 2020), and emotional intelligence (Kong et al., 2012), whereas academic self-efficacy, positive relationships, and psychological resilience are underexplored. Chinese university students' life satisfaction is much more complex in the collectivist cultural context, as their interpersonal relationships (Chang et al., 2003) and selfesteem are salient. ...
... In addition, ASE is correlated with and significant predictor of academic resilience (Cassidy, 2015). It is affirmed to mediate the path between self-esteem and anxiety, thereby contributing to psychological sustainability and resilience (Mao et al., 2020). ...
... The six-item Academic Self-efficacy Scale, developed by Stagg et al. (2018) and validated in Chinese culture (e.g. Mao et al., 2020), was adopted. Sample items were 'I am confident that I will achieve the grades I want' and 'I often realize how good or how bad my academic progress is'. ...
Article
The current study, based on the PERMA model, proposed and examined a hypothetical model exploring the effects of academic self-efficacy, positive relationships, and psychological resilience on university students’ life satisfaction. We collected data from a large sample of 1,089 university students in southwest China. The participants completed a battery of self-report questionnaire items measuring academic self-efficacy, positive relationships, psychological resilience, and life satisfaction. The results of the structural equation modeling analysis demonstrated a good fit for our data, suggesting that academic self-efficacy positively predicted university students’ life satisfaction through two independent mediators: positive relationships and psychological resilience. Findings yielded from the empirically validated hypothetical model add value to and enrich the PERMA model within a group of Chinese university students. The implications and practical suggestions for improving university students’ life satisfaction are discussed in light of these findings.
... However, Yang et al. [103] asserted that self-efficacy can be further developed by gaining self-esteem and increasing resilience [3][4][5][6][7]. While highlighting the criticality and importance of a project manager in the project management process, Alvarenga et al. [16] marked that the project leader's self-esteem seems to be of great significance in achieving project success [21,102,[104][105][106]. ...
... Demographics results should be used as controlled variables in future studies. Finally, the research instrument used in this study was based on a quantitative approach; as such, mixed or qualitative methods could also be applied in future studies to better understand the relationships between the selected measures [105]. ...
... Self-evaluation and resilience [107] are much needed in project management due to the increasing rates of project failures and terminations [3,4,104]. Higher rates of project failure implies that project managers need to be resilient, bear the burden of loss, and accept failure [3,4,105]. The role of self-efficacy and self-esteem in the self-evaluation of project leaders is essential for regaining self-confidence, as well as team confidence, after project failure [3,4,21]. ...
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Globally, demands for sustainable strategies in the ICT industry have attracted greater momentum as high-tech projects continue to fail in large numbers. Recent studies have underpinned project resilience as a major factor for overcoming these increasing project failures, delays, or termination. However, the complex behaviors of resilient project leaders, especially in post-failure conditions, have been largely overlooked. To address this critical research gap, the present study identifies the direct relationships between three potential behavioral traits of project leaders (i.e., resilience, self-esteem, and self-efficacy) and examines how they move forward beyond project failures. The present study also explored whether self-esteem mediates project leaders’ resilience and self-efficacy. Drawing on data from 232 project leaders in Pakistan’s high-tech start-ups, the new findings suggest that there are significant positive effects of project leaders’ resilience and self-esteem on their self-efficacy, and that project leaders’ resilience and self-efficacy is significantly mediated by their self-esteem. As the project resilience theory gains traction, the present study findings have pinpointed major steps for meeting project challenges ahead of time, allowing leaders and teams to learn from failures, and also for improving organisations’ ability to implement successful and sustainable high-tech projects especially in emerging economies.
... For instance, university students who were more satisfied with the educational environment would feel much happier (Anderson et al., 2019;Booker and Perlin, 2020;Bélanger and Ratelle, 2020). Numerous records have suggested that facilitating an enjoyable flow experience is a good strategy for promoting academic performance of university students (Shernoff, 2010;Csikszentmihalyi and Larson, 2014;Mao et al., 2020) and promoting their well-being, directly or indirectly (Cantor and Sanderson, 2003;Bassi et al., 2014;Coffey et al., 2016;Daw et al., 2016;Tse et al., 2021). Previous works also found that an increase in academic selfefficacy and self-esteem is associated with an increased optimal enjoyable experience of flow (Choi and Kim, 2013), which in turn contributes to subjective well-being Delle Fave and Bassi, 2016;Wang and Fowler, 2019). ...
... We adopted an 8-item Academic Self-Efficacy Scale (Stagg et al., 2018) that has been used previously by Mao et al. (2020) in a Chinese adolescent sample with a reported good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.837). However, in the present work, we deleted three items after the pilot test due to its lower factor loadings conducted from confirmatory factor analysis. ...
... Self-esteem was measured based on the well-recognized 10-item Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES; Rosenberg, 1965) on which the participants indicated the extent to which they felt themselves to possess good qualities, to accept their own characteristics, and to have achieved personal success or experienced failure. This scale has been widely used (e.g., Mao et al., 2020). Because of the low confirmatory analysis (CFA) factor loadings yielded on three items, data were analyzed based on seven items. ...
Article
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The present study investigated a conceptual model by testing university students’ flow experience and subjective well-being via considering their underlying mechanisms of academic self-efficacy and self-esteem. A total of 1109 Chinese university students completed a questionnaire containing scales of Subjective Well-being, Flow, Academic Self-efficacy and Self-esteem. Results yielded from the structural equation modelling analysis indicated a significant and positive association between flow experience and subjective well-being, and such an association was sequentially mediated by academic self-efficacy and self-esteem. Findings also provided empirical evidence for the proposed model highlighting the significant role of flow experience at the higher educational context in predicting Chinese university students’ subjective well-being, and how such a relation can be supported by suggested mediating roles academic self-efficacy and self-esteem played.
... Likewise, studies that analyze logistic regressions with similar variables in opposite ways affirm that self-efficacy is a predictor of well-being in age diversity [48,49], which is the reason why it is associated with a positive mental state [34] and, in turn, is a precursor to the development of a positive academic [10,12] and general self-concept [50]. On the other hand, self-efficacy increases self-esteem and reduces anxiety [51]. All these influences can trigger a feeling of happiness that allows the subject to go beyond their own perspective, allowing them to put themselves in the other's place. ...
... In the absence of studies that examine the link between perceived academic self-efficacy and fantasy, it should be noted that the influence of future thoughts can condition the behavior in positive or negative, and this will depend on the character of those thoughts. It can be observed that selfefficacy can have a positive motivational influence [14,51,52] and, moreover, that motivation contributes towards this high efficacy for the healing of various diseases, possibly due to its placebo effect [53]. Therefore, with a motivational increase as a result of this academic performance, whether with a higher or lower realistic character, this perceived academic self-efficacy and self-confidence will increase [13,51]. ...
... It can be observed that selfefficacy can have a positive motivational influence [14,51,52] and, moreover, that motivation contributes towards this high efficacy for the healing of various diseases, possibly due to its placebo effect [53]. Therefore, with a motivational increase as a result of this academic performance, whether with a higher or lower realistic character, this perceived academic self-efficacy and self-confidence will increase [13,51]. Academic self-efficacy is more predictive of academic performance than other cognitive variables [54], which implies that in the same way that the executive functions [15]; subjective beliefs also have an influence [23]. ...
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High perceived academic self-efficacy influences both subject performance and emotions of the subject. In turn, dispositional empathy implies a social and emotional adaptability towards the subject itself and those around them. This study aimed to analyze the differences in the mean dispositional empathy factors (i.e., perspective taking, fantasy, empathic concern and personal distress) between future teachers with high and low perceived academic self-efficacy, as well as the predictive capacity of dispositional empathy on high perceived academic self-efficacy, and the correlations between both dimensions. For this, a sample of 805 Spanish students of the Faculties of Education of the Universities of Alicante and Murcia was recruited. The Escala de Autoeficacia Percibida Específica de Situaciones Académicas was used to assess perceived academic self-efficacy and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index was used to analyze the dimensions of dispositional empathy. It was observed that high academic self-efficacy is more likely to present in people with a high level of perspective taking and fantasy (OR = 1.07 and 1.09, respectively) and less for those with personal discomfort (OR = 0.17). The other analyzes provided the same conclusions. In conclusion, it is important to develop perceived academic self-efficacy in undergraduates and future teachers due to the consequences that can lead to their classrooms.
... Flow-based activities have been shown to promote longterm well-being to a greater extent than low-involvement, passive activities [42]. In addition, there is a growing body of research linking flow experiences to well-being [43]. According to the above findings, this study used short video flow to explore the participants' relationship with serendipity according to the following hypothesis: ...
... Thus, Schiffer and Roberts suggested that engaging in flow-based activities can promote long-term well-being [42]. In addition, Mao et al. also indicated that there is a growing body of research confirming that the flow experience is related to wellbeing [43]. In short, the positive relationship between short video flow and serendipity is supported by both research analysis and the literature. ...
Article
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Since the COVID-19 outbreak, people have been spending more time in the online world because of restrictions on face-to-face communication due to epidemic prevention controls. This has also brought the issue of Internet addiction, including the overuse and negative effects of short videos, to the forefront of attention. Past research has found that Internet addiction has a negative impact on well-being. However, there is a special concept of positive emotion called “serendipity” (小确幸). Serendipity provides a small, fleeting but positive experience, yet it is often associated with negative perceptions from an outside perspective. However, the relationship between short video addiction and serendipity is not yet known. Based on this, a theoretical model was developed in the context of the I-PACE model. To understand the relationship between short video addiction and serendipity among college students, in this study, we conducted snowball sampling and dis-tributed online questionnaires using the Wenjuanxing platform. The target population of the ques-tionnaire distribution was vocational college students in China, of whom 985 valid study partici-pants responded, yielding a valid return rate of 82.1%. Of the respondents, 410 (41.6%) were male and 575 (58.4%) were female. The results were as follows: a. short video flow had a positive rela-tionship with serendipity, a negative relationship with achievement motivation, and a positive effect on short video addiction; b. short video addiction had a positive effect on serendipity and a negative effect on achievement motivation; and c. serendipity had a negative impact on achieve-ment motivation. This shows that short video addiction, like other Internet addictions, can have a negative impact on students’ learning.
... Although cognitive load was not considered in the abovementioned study, other works suggested a possible connection between the flow state and cognitive load. One study [34] indicated that the flow state could alleviate negative experiences, while another study [35] stated that the reduction of cognitive load could promote engagement, possibly leading to the flow state. In line with this, a study [2] revealed that cognitive load negatively impacts flow. ...
... First, as in Leaf 2 (in Figure 3), a high EEG-F was frequently detected when the student had a high self-efficacy and low cognitive load, as observed in a study's findings [35]. Second, as in Leaf 5 (in Figure 3), when the student had a high cognitive load, and it was combined with a high self-efficacy and high performance, a high flow state may have emerged when facing low-difficulty items, in line with a study's results [34]. Similar to previous research [8,15,16], this study used the participant's test performances to correspond to her SC in the flow state. ...
Article
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This study gathers and examines information about the flow state’s emergence during tests and its factors using an electroencephalogram (EEG) to establish a method and reveal an individual student’s flow construct. Through a single-case experimental design and 766 test items, multiple measurements were performed on a 14-year-old junior high school science-gifted student. During the test, self-efficacy, item difficulty, cognitive load, and test performance (long-term test performance [LT-tp] and short-term test performance [ST-tp]) were examined to establish the construct of EEG-detected, real-time flow states (EEG-Fs). Based on the chi-square test of independence results, the EEG-F had a significant correlation with the student’s cognitive load, self-efficacy, LT-tp, and item difficulty. Furthermore, a J48 decision tree analysis and logistic regression revealed four inhibiting and two inducing conditions affecting the emergence of EEG-Fs. The two inducing conditions included (1) high self-efficacy with a low cognitive load (odds ratio (OR) = 3.7) and (2) high cognitive load when combined with high self-efficacy and LT-tp for low-difficulty items (OR = 3.5). The established method and findings may help teaching designers or automated teaching applications detect the individual student’s flow construct to select appropriate test tasks accordingly, resulting in an optimal experience and better achievements.
... 5,6 In recent years, many studies have focused on the relationship between anxiety and self-esteem. 7,8 Self-esteem, which refers to an individual's overall emotional evaluation of his own value and importance, is related to the individual emotional experience. 9 Positive emotions have been found to promote the development of self-esteem, while negative emotions can weaken the level of self-esteem, 10 and emotional experiences can also be transformed into self-esteem under specific conditions. ...
... 15,16 It is evident from previous research that academic anxiety can affect individual self-esteem and self-regulated learning ability. 8 Therefore, it is reasonable to infer that self-regulated learning ability may be the mediator between academic anxiety and self-esteem. This study was intended to test this mediating relationship. ...
Article
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Purpose: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become a challenge for adolescents in China. This study aimed to explore the relationship between academic anxiety and self-esteem in Chinese candidates preparing for the college entrance examination during the COVID-19 pandemic and to examine the mechanism of mediating effect of self-regulated learning ability. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 293 college entrance examination candidates (including 170 females) from two middle schools in China using a voluntary, web-based, and anonymous questionnaire implemented via the Questionnaire Star app during COVID-19 prevalence in 2020. Results: This study found that 1) students in the high and low academic anxiety groups had different levels of self-regulated learning ability and self-esteem, 2) the academic anxiety, self-regulated learning ability, and self-esteem levels of students were significantly correlated and 3) after controlling the two independent variables of gender and subject type, academic anxiety had a significant negative predictive effect on self-esteem, and self-regulated learning ability played a mediating role between academic anxiety and self-esteem, where the mediating effect was 18.6%. Conclusion: Based on the observations of the present study, self-regulated learning capacity was a mediator between academic anxiety and self-esteem. These findings suggest an underlying process by which low academic anxiety may increase self-esteem in candidates preparing for the college entrance examination by increasing self-regulated learning ability.
... Furthermore, as qualities such as emotional regulation and emotional management have been found instrumental to the flow experience (Marin and Bhattacharya, 2013;Freire and Tavares, 2016;Tavares and Freire, 2016;Xie, 2021), this study aims to investigate whether teachers who experience flow more often measure more positively on an emotional intelligence test, i.e., Bar-On's EQi Inventory ( Bar-On, 1997. Increased understanding of these characteristics and constructs might help language teachers enhance their flow proneness, i.e., the tendency to experience flow, which can cross over to their learners (Bakker, 2005) and create an optimal classroom environment characterized by intrinsic motivation (Hektner and Csikszentmihalyi, 1996), academic achievement (Joo et al., 2015), and self-esteem (Mao et al., 2020) among other factors. ...
... This is important given the benefits of the flow state for the EFL teachers and their students. Inside the classroom, flow can cross over from teachers to students (and vice versa) (Bakker, 2005), creating an effective learning environment characterized by intrinsic motivation (Hektner and Csikszentmihalyi, 1996), academic achievement (Joo et al., 2015), and high self-esteem (Mao et al., 2020). Outside the classroom, teachers' flow states can improve their well-being (Tse et al., 2020b). ...
Article
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Teaching is one of the professions that creates opportunities for individuals to experience flow, a state of complete absorption in an activity. However, very few studies have examined ESL/EFL teachers’ flow states inside or outside the classroom. As such, this study aimed to explore the quality of experience of 75 EFL teachers in flow and also examine the relationships between their emotional intelligence, the Big Five personality traits and the flow state. To this end, the teachers filled out recurrent flow surveys for a week, and also completed emotional intelligence and the Big Five personality questionnaires. It was found that reading was the major flow trigger outside the classroom and teaching and delivering lessons was the most significant flow-inducing activity for the teachers inside the classroom. Furthermore, correlations and independent samples t-tests indicated that all emotional intelligence and personality traits had significant relationships with flow except agreeableness. Finally, multiple regression analysis showed that two personality traits, conscientiousness and openness to experience were the strongest predictors of the flow state. The implications for future flow-related research in the field of applied linguistics are discussed.
... A strand of the literature focused on the relationship between self-esteem and academic self-efficacy among students in high school and universities, and has reached the consensus that there was a significant positive correlation between students' selfesteem and academic self-efficacy in different contexts such as the United States, the United Kingdom, China, and the United Arab Emirates (Lane et al., 2004;Afari et al., 2012;Di Giunta et al., 2013;Mao et al., 2020). ...
... The effect sizes of the present study were expected to fall into the interval between 0.2 and 0.5 based on relevant studies (Lane et al., 2004;Afari et al., 2012;Di Giunta et al., 2013;Mao et al., 2020). A post hoc power analysis with GPower 3.1.9.7 showed that our sample size of 2473 provided a sufficient power of 100% to estimate either an effect of 0.2 or an effect of 0.5 at α = 0.05. ...
Article
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The present study aimed to investigate the associations between self-esteem and academic self-efficacy among Chinese college students. Descriptive statistics showed that on average, students’ academic self-efficacy experienced a downward trend in the first 3 years before rising slightly in the graduation year, and that male students had higher academic self-efficacy than females in the first 2 years, whereas female students’ academic self-efficacy surpassed their male counterparts in the latter years. There were significant, positive associations between the two variables. With cross-lagged analysis, we found that students’ self-esteem significantly predicted their subsequent academic self-efficacy from the freshman to the junior years, and the effects among male students endured longer and stronger. Implications of the findings were discussed.
... The set of emotional variables has been identified as a protective factor concerning mental health issues such as somatic complaints, depression, stress and anxiety (Bennik et al., 2019;de la Barrera et al., 2019b;Gentzler et al., 2019;Mao et al., 2020;Millgram et al., 2019;Orth et al., 2014). Research suggests that emotional factors may function as mediators of mental health; for instance, previous studies have noted that low self-esteem and low empathy are risk factors for depression in young adults. ...
... Therefore, university students who perceive themselves as happier show fewer somatic complaints and fewer depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms. Previous studies support these results, pointing out that low self-esteem, low empathy and low happiness levels are risk factors for the development of psychological symptoms (Bennik et al., 2019;de la Barrera et al., 2019a;Gentzler et al., 2019;Mao et al., 2020;Millgram et al., 2019;Orth et al., 2014). ...
Article
In the last decades, the rates of depression and anxiety in emerging adults have increased compared to other age groups. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence and psychological problems, considering the mediating role of emotional factors such as empathy, self-esteem, and happiness. The participants were 399 young adults (M= 20.38, SD= 2.46, 76.9% women) who completed an assessment dossier that included measures of emotional intelligence, empathy, self-esteem, happiness, emotional symptoms, and somatic complaints. A cross-sectional design with self-report data was used and structural equation modeling (SEM) with mediation analysis was performed. Emotional intelligence was positively associated with happiness, empathy, and self-esteem, and negatively with anxiety, depression, stress, and somatic complaints. Happiness was the most relevant mediator in the relationship between emotional intelligence and emotional symptoms. These results stress the need to promote the development of emotional abilities in emerging adults, which fosters happiness and good mental health.
... El conjunto de variables emocionales ha sido identificado como factor de protección en relación con la salud mental como las quejas somáticas, depresión, estrés y ansiedad (Bennik et al., 2019;de la Barrera et al., 2019b;Gentzler et al., 2019;Mao et al., 2020;Millgram et al., 2019;Orth et al., 2014). Las investigaciones surgieron que los factores emocionales pueden funcionar como mediadores de la salud mental, por ejemplo, los estudios previos señalaron que la baja autoestima y baja capacidad empática son factores de riesgo para la depresión en jóvenes adultos. ...
... Así, los estudiantes universitarios que se perciben más felices muestran menos quejas somáticas y menos síntomas depresivos, ansiosos y de estrés. Los estudios previos corroboran estos resultados, señalando que una baja autoestima, baja capacidad empática y bajos niveles de felicidad son factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de síntomas psicológicos (Bennik et al., 2019;de la Barrera et al., 2019a;Gentzler et al., 2019;Mao et al., 2020;Millgram et al., 2019;Orth et al., 2014). ...
Article
En las últimas décadas han aumentado las tasas de depresión y ansiedad en adultos emergentes en comparación con otros grupos de edad. El objetivo del estudio fue examinar la relación entre inteligencia emocional y problemas psicológicos, teniendo en cuenta el rol mediador de los factores emocionales como empatía, autoestima y felicidad. Participaron 399 jóvenes adultos (M= 20,38; DT= 2,46; 76,9% mujeres) que completaron un dosier de evaluación que incluía medidas de inteligencia emocional, empatía, autoestima, felicidad, síntomas emocionales y quejas somáticas. Se estimó un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales (SEM) con análisis de mediación. La inteligencia emocional se asoció positivamente con felicidad, empatía y autoestima y negativamente con ansiedad, depresión, estrés y quejas somáticas. La felicidad fue la variable mediadora más relevante en la relación entre inteligencia emocional y síntomas emocionales. Estos resultados ponen de manifiesto la necesidad de promover el desarrollo de las habilidades emocionales en los adultos emergentes, lo que fomenta un estado de ánimo feliz y una buena salud mental.
... On one hand, flow experience alleviates anxiety through a positive impact on self-esteem where self-esteem is negatively affecting anxiety. On the other hand, flow experience positively impacts academic self-efficacy which in turn promotes self-esteem (Mao et al., 2020). ...
... Mao et al. (2020, p. 2) explain a flow experience as "a mental state in which individuals are fully immersed in a particular activity without a sense of time, fatigue, or awareness of other irrelevant matters." By considering a sample of 590 Chinese university students,Mao et al. (2020) examine the relationship between flow experience and anxiety levels. In doing so, they confirm strong mediation effects of two important self-concepts: self-esteem and academic self-efficacy. ...
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After its release in 2020, the video game Animal Crossing: New Horizons (ACNH) has recorded high sales figures and attracted a large number of game players. In order to analyze this success, we rely on Maslow's needs‐based theory of motivation and analyze the role of the video game ACNH in satisfying needs. By using an interdisciplinary framework involving both psychology and gaming, we investigate ACNH's role in satisfying real‐world needs from the players' perspective and virtual‐world needs from avatars' and villagers' perspective. We find that deficiency‐motivated needs, with the exception of players' physical needs in the real world, are satisfied in both the real world and the virtual world. Moreover, while growth‐motivated needs are satisfied in the real world, such needs of solely virtual elements are partially satisfied. Generally, we highlight the role of the game in satisfying the needs of the real person and of virtual elements while also reflecting the interdependence between the real world and the virtual one.
... [25,31] This hypothetical notion was substantiated by research studies indicating students suffering from low self-efficacy beliefs undergo high test anxiety. [13,32,33] Although there is a limited body of knowledge regarding self-efficacy test anxiety relation among medical students, the mechanism explaining this relationship still remains unknown. To figure out the mechanism through which self-efficacy stokes risk, help develop interventions in order to deal with anxiety. ...
... As for the first hypothesis, results indicated self-efficacy has a significantly negative effect on test anxiety. This result is in accord with both previous kinds of research demonstrating the potentiality of self-efficacy to alleviate test anxiety [13,24,32,33,[48][49][50] and control-value theory, [26] which discusses that test anxiety results from cognitive assessments including (low) self-efficacy beliefs. This theory posits that academic self-efficacy (which would be deemed to be a cognitive appraisal) can be an antecedent of test anxiety and other negative emotions. ...
Article
BACKGROUND: There is growing acknowledgment that medical education can be a stressful experience for students and may have a devastating effect on their psychological well-being. The present article, therefore, aimed at investigating students' academic resilience as a mediating variable in self-efficacy-test anxiety relation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional correlational study, a convenience sample of 243 medical students was selected and participated, three prevalidated questionnaires were applied, that is, general self-efficacy questionnaire, academic resilience questionnaire, and test anxiety questionnaire. To analyze the data, Pearson's correlation coefficient as well as structural equation modeling (SEM) were used. RESULTS: According to Pearson's coefficients, self-efficacy was found to be positively correlated with academic resilience (r = 0.437, P ≤ 0.01) and negatively with test anxiety (r = −0.475, P ≤ 0.01). SEM results also indicated that self-efficacy positively impacts on academic resilience (β = 0.43, P < 0.001) and negatively on test anxiety (β = −0.37, P < 0.001). In addition, results demonstrated the mediating role of academic resilience in self-efficacy-test anxiety relationship (β = −0.108, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: This study showed that academic resilience could play a mediating role in students' self-efficacy-test anxiety relationship.
... Thus, many hospitality workers and students decided to change their job and are unwilling to develop their careers in the hospitality industry [7,8]. Hence, understanding how hospitality workers effectively face crises and grow work resilience is essential to researchers and practitioners in the hospitality field [9][10][11]. In the workplace, leaders play important roles in engaging job behaviors and reducing the anxiety of hospitality employees during the pandemic [12][13][14][15]. ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic is a tremendous crisis for public health, which also has a profound impact on business and social activities because many countries restrict travel and social gatherings to avoid the spread of COVID-19. Workers suffer from mental health problems including depression and anxiety due to the uncertain work environment. Hence, psychological resilience, a positive psychological response to these challenges, is essential to the success of employees and companies. Drawing on the conservation of resources theory (COR), this paper investigates how the leadership style (i.e., servant leadership) enhances the work resilience of hospitality employees through two time-lagged empirical studies. Specifically, study 1 demonstrates a positive relationship between servant leadership and employees’ work resilience. Study 2 replicates study 1’s result and further demonstrates that emotional exhaustion mediates the relationship between servant leadership and employees’ work resilience. Furthermore, study 2 finds a significant moderating effect of job complexity. The findings of this paper provide empirical evidence for practitioners to manage employees’ resilience and psychological resources.
... Since COVID-19 is inevitable for all individuals, teams, and organizations, building and maintaining resilience has become an essential strategy concerning their success, survival, and growth (Mao et al., 2020). Though resilience is applied to all levels of workplace analysis, its application in public organizational contexts is still insufficient (King et al., 2016). ...
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Through the lens of social identity theory, this work aims to investigate the impact of servant leadership on employee resilience during the COVID-19 pandemic and to explore their underlying mechanisms through two types of social identity: organizational identification and professional identity. To test our hypotheses, an online survey was conducted via a large number of 703 employees working in public organizations in southwest China. Results yielded from the structural equation modeling analysis via AMOS (24.0) indicated that the effect of servant leadership on employee resilience was fully mediated by organizational identification and professional identity, respectively. Besides, the association between servant leadership and employee resilience was sequentially mediated from organizational identification to professional identity, and from professional identity to organizational identification. This study provides the first evidence of the predictive effect of servant leadership on employee resilience through organizational identification and professional identity, highlighting the significance of social identity for building and maintaining employees’ resilience in coping with challenges posed by COVID-19.
... In other words, musicians have to be creatively unique, while at the same time being completely in line with how the composer envisioned the music. It is thus not surprising that classical musicians show more performance anxiety, which is negatively correlated to the flow state (Fullagar et al., 2013;Kirchner et al., 2008;Mao et al., 2020), than musicians in other genres (Papageorgi et al., 2011). Not only do music students fail to get enough experience to feel confident in more creative activities such as improvisation (Bačlija Sušić et al., 2019), they also face the daunting task of achieving an abstract aesthetic ideal. ...
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The aim of our study was to explore the connection between improvisation and flow. Data were collected from 252 tertiary music students from Slovenia and Croatia (121 male and 131 female musicians), who filled in The Questionnaire on Attitudes to Music Improvisation, The Inventory on Feelings associated with Music Improvisation, and the Work-related Flow Inventory. The results show that the female students have significantly more negative feelings and attitudes toward improvisation, and they experience less flow while improvising. Differences were even more pronounced when comparing students who only played classical music with those who played other genres, as well. Regression analysis showed that we can explain 71% of the variance in flow with attitudes toward improvisation.
... The significant positive association between authentic leadership and work-related flow can be traced in many studies (Zubair and Kamal, 2015) since authentic leaders are more likely to inspire and encourage people via increased internal stimulation and intrinsic enthusiasm, as well as an increased experience of positive emotions such as hope and optimism (Ilies et al., 2005). Besides, numerous studies have elucidated that experiencing flow is positively associated with a series of psychological capital such as resilience, efficacy, sense of fulfillment, and positive affect (Schmidt, 2003;Asakawa, 2010;Mao et al., 2020b;Cui et al., 2021). According to the broadenand-build theory, the positive effect from flow creates positive spirals that create further positive experiences, thoughts, and feelings that promote optimal functioning and well-being (Fredrickson, 2001). ...
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Authentic leadership is essential for predicting employee resilience. However, despite fruitful findings, more adapted models of authentic leadership – employee resilience based on empirical findings can serve as a guide to understanding the complex mediators and moderators in different industries such as in construction engineering project organizations during the turbulent pandemic. This study, therefore, based on the organizational identification theory and flow theory through the lens of positive organizational psychology, aims to disentangle the authentic leadership—employee resilience association by investigating their underlying mechanism and their boundary condition. To test our hypothetical model, we applied a cross-sectional design with data collected from a large sample of 884 employees from a big enterprise in China. Findings from confirmatory factor analysis, structural equation modeling analysis, and Hayes’s conditional process model indicated that: authentic leadership positively predicted employee resilience through the partial mediation effect of organizational identification, and such a mediation model was moderated by the experience of flow. In other words, flow moderated the relationships between authentic leadership, organizational identification, and employee resilience. Findings provide evidence for cultivating leaders’ authenticity in promoting their subordinates’ resilience; findings also highlight the significance of organizational identification in bridging authentic leadership and employee resilience and the essential role of flow experience in supporting the relationships mentioned above.
... Moreover, both self-esteem and self-efficacy affect people's ability to deal with difficulty, challenges, and achievements. Examples include the self-efficacy beliefs of teenagers, which were correlated to school achievements and to self-esteem (D' Amico & Cardaci, 2003); self-esteem and self-efficacy were correlated with attitudes towards help-seeking among teachers (Huang et al., 2007); academic self-efficacy mediated the path between self-esteem and anxiety and fostered strategies for promoting psychological sustainability and resilience in the face of challenges (Mao et al., 2020). Self-esteem and self-efficacy have a positive relationship in different contexts and a positive effect on successfully coping with challenges. ...
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Education and Society: Expectations, Prescriptions, Reconciliations. Proceedings of ECER 2021.Research on Arts Education. Geneva (online), 6-10 September 2021 This study aimed to provide a conceptual reflection on Service Learning through arts education at the tertiary level. In Service Learning as in many other areas, the role of art is poorly understood. This study used several methods to reach the attitudes of pre-service teachers toward Service Learning and the inclusion of Service Learning in the curriculum of art based courses in primary teacher education. In addition to pre-service teachers, teacher educators and teachers were included in the study to have a holistic perspective about the promotion of Service Learning through art-based courses in teacher education. The study was conducted in Vienna and the setting of the study was the courses on art-based subjects such as drawing, textile and handicraft where a Service Learning project was implemented. A questionnaire was applied to 50 pre-service teachers who rated the importance of Service Learning through a rating scale (5 point-Likert-scale) while teachers and teacher educators were surveyed through semi-structured questionnaires. Questionnaires were analyzed to reach descriptive statistics on the rating scale through the SPSS program and the questionnaires were analysed through content analysis. The study showed that pre-service teachers believe that Service Learning offers excellent opportunities for art-based subjects in the field of art education, textile and crafts and it revealed the areas that require improvement in the curriculum. Besides the rating-scale findings, teachers and teacher educators emphasized the necessity of expanding Service Learning to a greater part of the curriculum in teacher education.
... When considering the effects of nature in GYAP, physical activity outdoors and a flow state induced by nature contribute to reducing anxiety (Humberstone, 2013;Korpela et al., 2014;Mao et al., 2020), which is a common symptom for the girls. Time spent outdoors may create transcendental experiences such as feelings of being one with nature, which may lead to the flow state. ...
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Mentalization-based family therapy and family rehabilitation represent a rich variety of approaches for assisting families with difficult interaction patterns. On the other hand, adventure therapy methods have been successfully used with families to offer them empowering experiences of succeeding together against difficult odds and to improve communication between family members. Further, the health promoting qualities of spending time outdoors are now well established and recognized. The Nordic approach to mentalization-based family rehabilitation combines adventure, outdoor, and systemic therapy. We provide three examples of nature-based family rehabilitation practices that are delivered as brief, multi-family psychological interventions taking place in nearby nature and aiming to support sustainable, systemic change. The current contribution is a description of clinical practice, not a systematic review or a formal evaluation. We propose that recontextualizing mentalization-based family rehabilitation to the outdoors can not only provide added health benefits, but also strengthen intra-familial attuned interaction and emotional connectedness. The outdoor adventure provides the families with embodied, multisensory experiences of verbal and, especially, non-verbal interaction that can be usefully examined through the lens of theory of mentalization. The concreteness of adventure experiences is particularly beneficial for families that have difficulties in verbal communication and/or utilizing executive functions, perhaps due to neuropsychiatric traits, intellectual disabilities, or learning difficulties. Furthermore, outdoor adventure can support the participants’ connectedness to nature.
... This is reinforced by research conducted by Santosa (2015), who found that academic flow can occur in online learning. Individuals with a good academic flow are reported to have good learning achievement (Putri, 2016), low anxiety (Mao, Yang, Bonaiuto, Ma, and Harmat, 2020), and reduce individual procrastination (Hidayati and Aulia, 2019;Pradana & Putri, 2019). ...
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The spread of Covid-19 encourages educational institution to maximize online learning. Online learning can work well if students are able to focus on learning. The ability to focus on learning is known as academic flow. This study aims to explain effect of academic self-efficacy on flow academic in online learning. This research involve 296 participants who were selected by incidental sampling. The instruments used in this research are self-efficacy scale and flow short scale which were analyzed by using linear regression techniques. The results shows that academic self-efficacy have a significant effect on academic flow (β=0,609; p=<0,001). This means that any increase in academic self-efficacy will have an impact on an increase in academic flow.
... For example, the results of experience sampling studies suggest that hour-by-hour experiences of positive affect are related to reports of being in flow (Cs ıkszentmih alyi & Wong, 1991;Hektner, 1997). Moreover, previous research also found that when students spend more time in flow, they reported higher levels of positive affect (e.g., Asakawa, 2004;Mao, Yang, Bonaiuto, Ma, & Harmat, 2020). ...
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Background. Learning flow is an optimal learning experience representing full engagement in one's studies. The belief-affect-engagement model and control-value theory suggest that positivity would be a motivator of learning flow, while positive affect in school would be a mediator of the relation between positivity and learning flow. Aims. The current research aimed to examine (1) the longitudinal relations among positivity, positive affect in school, and learning flow, and (2) the mediational role of positive affect in school between positivity and learning flow. Sample and Method. A sample of 4681 Chinese elementary school students (44.9% girls; Mage = 9.87 years, SD = 0.70 at Time 1) completed reliable measures for each construct on four occasions across 2 years, using 6-month intervals. Structural equation modelling was used for examining study hypotheses. Results. After controlling for gender, age, and family socioeconomic status, the results showed that (1) positivity, positive affect in school, and learning flow reciprocally facilitated each other directly; (2) positive affect in school mediated the relation between positivity and later learning flow, as well as the relation between learning flow and later positivity. Conclusions. These findings revealed that positivity, positive affect in school, and learning flow form a complex, dynamic system, suggesting that school professionals should consider monitoring and developing interventions based upon these variables as early as elementary school.
... Built on the coping framework, the Compensatory Internet Use model proposed that some users might use the internet as a coping method to avoid and inhibit negative emotions (Kardefelt-Winther, 2017) such as anxiety (Elhai, Levine, & Hall, 2019), which might be alleviated by flow experience (Mao, Yang, Bonaiuto, Ma, & Harmat, 2020). When in the flow state, internet users feel their physical "me" fading away (Chen, Wigand, & Nilan, 2000). ...
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Background Existing research supports an association between self-esteem and addictive smartphone use, yet the underlying mechanism is not clear. Building on the compensatory internet use model, the current study explored the possible mediator role of anxiety and moderator role of self-control in the link between self-esteem and addictive smartphone use. Method Two middle schools and two elementary schools in a metropolitan city in China were selected through convenient sampling. Eleven hundred and twelve adolescents from those schools completed a paper-and-pencil survey, which included measurements of self-esteem, addictive smartphone use, anxiety, and self-control. The relationships among variables were analyzed using a moderated mediation model in an SPSS macro named PROCESS. Results The moderated mediation model achieved satisfactory effect size, R² = 28.65%; Specifically, (1) anxiety fully mediated the association between self-esteem and addictive smartphone use, CI = [-0.1, -0.05]: Self-esteem was negatively related to anxiety, which in turn was positively related to addictive smartphone use; (2) moderated mediation analysis results showed that high self-control enhanced the protective effect of self-esteem against anxiety. Conclusions High self-esteem in adolescents is related to relatively low anxiety, which is related to less addictive smartphone use. Moreover, the protective effect of self-esteem against anxiety was enhanced by high self-control, suggesting that increasing self-esteem alone would not prevent addictive smartphone use in all adolescents.
... It is a mental state related to happiness and well-being, encompassing the feeling that there is something to live for. Flow can be characterized by high involvement, deep concentration, intrinsic motivation, and the perception of exhilarating challenges matched by adequate personal skills [37,38], and it also describes a highly positive state of the individual, who experiences intense engagement and enjoyment from various types of self-defining activities [35,39]. By reviewing prior studies, flow experience is summarized by the following characteristics: (1) devoting oneself to the things they are doing, (2) the combination of action and consciousness, (3) the loss of self-consciousness, (4) the balance between skills and challenges, (5) clear and realizable goals, (6) immediate and clear feedback, (7) a sense of control over one's behavior, (8) distorted time perception, and (9) experience of the activity is intrinsically rewarding [40][41][42]. ...
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To explore the effect of active social media use (ASMU) on the mechanisms of flow experience (FE), 433 questionnaires incorporating an active social media use scale, academic self-efficacy (ASE) scale, and flow experience scale were collected from college students. This study is expected to enrich flow experience theory and provide a foundation for follow-up studies. The theoretical model for this study analyses positive social media use as an independent variable, flow experience as a dependent variable, and academic self-efficacy as an intermediary variable. Relevant data were collected via questionnaires. Subsequently, linear regression analysis was used, and the PROCESS v3.3 statistical tool of SPSS 23.0 software was used to process and analyze data. This study found that active social media use had a significant and positive impact on the flow experience. Additionally, active social media use had a significant and positive impact on academic self-efficacy.
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Academic flow is an important factor characterized by feelings of happiness, increase in concentration and self-control, focus and activities, thereby making students’ learning effective. However, exploration of academic flow is still limited, specifically during the global pandemic, which forced students to study from home, including in Indonesia. Therefore, this study investigates the effect of students' academic self-efficacy and social support towards academic flow during the pandemic. Data were collected from 400 college students consisting of 135 males and 265 females. The measurements used in this study are Flow Inventory for Student, College Academic Self-Efficacy Scale (CASES), and Social Provisions Scale (SPS). Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to test the hypotheses. The result showed that academic self-efficacy and social support positively and significantly influenced college students' academic flow during online learning. This means an increase in academic self-efficacy and social support will likely lead to a rise in academic flow, specifically during the pandemic.
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Introduction . The article analyzes the problem of psychological stability of the individual to socio-cultural threats and negative information impact. As social problems become more acute, the topic of personal security and resistance to emerging threats and risks takes an increasing place in the scientific literature. Today we can observe various violations of the processes of socio-cultural identification, which reduce the adaptive potential of the individual. The reverse side of accessibility in the global information environment is an increase in the degree of danger, the emergence of new risk factors and threats of information and psychological impact. Of particular concern are the facts of Russian youth joining terrorist groups, as well as the facts of youth involvement in destructive protest movements and actions. Materials and methods . The following methods were used for the preparation of this article; theoretical analysis of Russian and international literature, study of scientific articles and publications on the topic, overview of results from Russian and international studies, content analysis. Results . Approaches to determining the content of the category of psychological stability of a person and its various aspects are considered: emotional stability, moral stability, moral stability, stability of behavior forms, resistance to addictive factors, and socio-cultural stability. Identify invariant indicators that determine the psychological stability of the individual in various contexts of countering socio-cultural threats and negative information impact: socio-cultural identity based on views, beliefs, attitudes consistent with moral norms and spiritual values; motivation of the individual to self-actualization, success, openness and commitment to society; subjective well-being and resilience; critical thinking and the ability to predict risks and threats; possession of constructive coping strategies; adaptive personal potential expressed in mastering self-regulation methods that ensure successful adaptation to a changing socio-cultural environment. Discussion and Conclusions . The conducted theoretical research allowed us to conclude that the psychological stability of a person is a complex and multidimensional phenomenon, which is revealed in the moral, socio-psychological and system-activity perspective. It is concluded that the task of forming psychological stability and personal adaptive potential should be updated in the educational system, including the formation of knowledge about oneself as a person, about their psychological capabilities and mechanisms of self-regulation, and the explanation of moral norms and values.
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Three widely-used self-report anxiety scales, including the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and the State Anxiety Inventory (S-AI), were used to simultaneously compare the psychometric properties via an item response theory (IRT) model with Chinese university students as the sample. Although these scales were probably to measure the same underlying construct, namely, anxiety, their psychometric properties were different. Results showed that the BAI's measurement error was fewer than that of the other scales, with their anxiety severity ranging approximately from the 0.8 standard deviations below the mean to 3 standard deviations above the mean, while the S-AI's measurement error was fewer than that of the other degrees of anxiety. The S-AI provided more information than the other scales when the student's scale was less than approximately 0.8 standard deviations below the mean of anxiety severity. In general, the BAI showed better, for it provided more information than the other scales at the broadest range of anxiety severity. The SAS provided less information than the other scales at all anxiety severity range. In conclusion, BAI shows good psychometric quality. Finally, the three instruments were combined on a common scale by using IRT model and a conversion table was provided so as to achieve the transformation of each scale score.
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The present chapter provides evidence for the association between fl ow and identity via quantitative examinations based on Eudaimonistic identity theory, where an individual is seen to recognize elements of his or her true self, including interests, talents, and abilities, through participating in a range of personally salient (identity-related) and therein self-defi ning activities. Specifi cally, salient characteristics of activity experiences, i.e., feelings of personal expressiveness and fl ow, are seen to facilitate an individual's personal growth in the process of solidifying self-defi nition. On these bases, a relationship between fl ow experience and personal identity strength is hypothesized and confi rmed via a multinational investigation, in which identity consolidation is observed to be facilitated through the participation in self-defi ning activities that are platforms to optimal experience. In sum, the present investigation makes a cohesive case for the relationship between subjective experiences of fl ow and sense of self-identifi cation. Finally, further and ongoing research directions are outlined.
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In mental health care settings, the positive psychology approach has been widely incorporated in traditional cognitive-behavioral therapy aiming to foster change in individuals’ behavior and approach to life. The aim of this chapter is to integrate findings stemming from three lines of research focusing on the use of flow in psychotherapy and mental health rehabilitation. We will present studies in which the ability to find flow in everyday life was connected with individuals’ well-being and reduced symptomatology. Results also suggested a relationship between flow and psychotherapeutic intervention: finding flow fosters positive and meaningful changes both inside and outside the therapeutic and rehabilitation processes. Finally, we will present a new psychotherapeutic model in which flow is part and parcel in facing daily life challenges and in promoting clients’ integration and active involvement in society.
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This study examined how self-efficacy, eustress, and flow interact with academic engagement. First, it aimed to test a theoretical model that proposes that self-efficacy and eustress promote both flow and engagement, and that in turn the state of flow promotes academic engagement in undergraduate student. We hypothesized that the theoretical model would be invariant for two countries: the Philippines and Argentina. Secondly, this research aimed to compare the levels of self-efficacy, eustress, study-flow and academic engagement experiences in students from both countries. One hundred seventy six Filipinos and 171 Argentinean students participated in the study by completing inventories using the Utrecht Student Engagement Scale (Schaufeli, et al. 2002), Optimal Experience Survey (Mesurado, 2008), Self-efficacy Scale (O’Sullivan, 2013) and Eustress Scale (O’Sullivan, 2013). Results show that the theoretical model fits the data very well in both countries and is invariant across the Philippines and Argentina. Self-efficacy has a positive effect on flow and engagement, while eustress has a significant positive relationship with flow but is not directly associated with engagement. However eustress has an indirect effect, through flow, on student engagement. On the other hand there are different levels of engagement, flow, self-efficacy and eustress. Argentinean students scored higher on absorption, dedication, self-efficacy and flow. Filipino students, meanwhile, scored higher on eustress.
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Business theories often specify the mediating mechanisms by which a predictor variable affects an outcome variable. In the last 30 years, investigations of mediating processes have become more widespread with corresponding developments in statistical methods to conduct these tests. The purpose of this article is to provide guidelines for mediation studies by focusing on decisions made prior to the research study that affect the clarity of conclusions from a mediation study, the statistical models for mediation analysis, and methods to improve interpretation of mediation results after the research study. Throughout this article, the importance of a program of experimental and observational research for investigating mediating mechanisms is emphasized.
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The present longitudinal study extends the findings of earlier cross-sectional studies (Waterman, Schwartz, Green, Miller, & Philip, 2003) on the subjective experience of intrinsic motivation. University students generated lists of personally salient (identity-related) activities at the beginning of an academic semester and were asked to evaluate these activities at three points during the semes-ter. Drawing on theories of intrinsic motivation, three subjective indices of intrinsic motivation (interest, flow experiences, and feelings of personal expressiveness) and three theoretically derived predictor variables (self-determination, the balance of challenges and skills, and self-realization val-ues) were used in the present study. Cross-sectional relationships between the predictors and subjec-tive experience indices at each timepoint replicated those observed in previous research. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to demonstrate that, as hypothesized, increases or decreases in the predic-tor variables between timepoints were associated with corresponding increases or decreases in the subjective experience indices. Implications for the study of intrinsic motivation are discussed.
Chapter
What constitutes enjoyment of life? Optimal Experience offers a comprehensive survey of theoretical and empirical investigations of the 'flow' experience, a desirable or optimal state of consciousness that enhances a person's psychic state. The authors show the diverse contexts and circumstances in which flow is reported in different cultures, and describe its positive emotional impacts. They reflect on ways in which the ability to experience flow affects work satisfaction, academic success, and the overall quality of life
Article
This study examined the relationship between flow experience and place identity, based on eudaimonistic identity theory which prioritizes self-defining activities as important ones for an individual’s identification of his/her goals, values, beliefs, and interests corresponding to one’s own identity development or enhancement. The study is also based on flow theory, according to which some salient features of an activity experience are important for happiness and well-being. Questionnaire surveys on Italian and Greek residents focused on their perceived flow and place identity in relation to their own specific local place experiences. The overall findings revealed that flow experience occurring in one's own preferred place is widely reported as resulting from a range of self-defining activities irrespective of gender or age, and it is positively and significantly associated with one's own place identity. Such findings provide the first quantitative evidence about the link between flow experienced during meaningfully located self-definining activities and identity experienced at the place level, similarly to the corresponding personal and social levels that had been previously already empirically tested. Results are also discussed in terms of their implications for eudaimonistic identity theory's understanding and enriching, especially by its generalization from the traditional personal identity level up to the place identity one. More generally, this study has implications for maintaining or enhancing one’s own place identity, and therefore people-place relations, by means of facilitating a person's flow experience within psychologically meaningful places.
Article
Anxiety disorders (separation anxiety disorder, selective mutism, specific phobias, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, and generalised anxiety disorder) are common and disabling conditions that mostly begin during childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood. They differ from developmentally normative or stress-induced transient anxiety by being marked (ie, out of proportion to the actual threat present) and persistent, and by impairing daily functioning. Most anxiety disorders affect almost twice as many women as men. They often co-occur with major depression, alcohol and other substance-use disorders, and personality disorders. Differential diagnosis from physical conditions—including thyroid, cardiac, and respiratory disorders, and substance intoxication and withdrawal—is imperative. If untreated, anxiety disorders tend to recur chronically. Psychological treatments, particularly cognitive behavioural therapy, and pharmacological treatments, particularly selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors and serotonin–noradrenaline-reuptake inhibitors, are effective, and their combination could be more effective than is treatment with either individually. More research is needed to increase access to and to develop personalised treatments.
Article
Eudaimonistic identity theory posits a link between activity and identity, where a self-defining activity promotes the strength of a person’s identity. An activity engaged in withhigh enjoyment, full involvement, and high concentration can facilitate the subjectiveexperience of flow. In the present paper, we hypothesized in accordance with thetheory of psychological selection that beyond the promotion of individual developmentand complexity at the personal level, the relationship between flow and identity atthe social level is also positive through participation in self-defining activities. Threedifferent samples (i.e., American, Chinese, and Spanish) filled in measures for flow andsocial identity, with reference to four previously self-reported activities, characterizedby four different combinations of skills (low vs. high) and challenges (low vs. high).Findings indicated that flow was positively associated with social identity across eachof the above samples, regardless of participants’ gender and age. The results haveimplications for increasing social identity via participation in self-defining group activitiesthat could facilitate flow.
Book
The second volume in the collected works of Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi covers about thirty years of Csikszentmihalyi's work on three main and interconnected areas of study: attention, flow and positive psychology. Describing attention as psychic energy and in the footsteps of William James, Csikszentmihalyi explores the allocation of attention, the when and where and the amount of attention humans pay to tasks and the role of attention in creating 'experiences', or ordered patterns of information. Taking into account information processing theories and attempts at quantifying people's investment, the chapters deal with such topics as time budgets and the development and use of the Experience Sampling Method of collecting data on attention in everyday life. Following the chapters on attention and reflecting Csikszentmihalyi's branching out into sociology and anthropology, there are chapters on the topic of adult play and leisure and connected to that, on flow, a concept formulated and developed by Csikszentmihalyi. Flow has become a popular concept in business and management around the world and research on the concept continues to flourish. Finally, this volume contains articles that stem from Csikszentmihalyi's connection with Martin Seligman; they deal with concepts and theories, as well as with the development and short history, of the field and the "movement" of positive psychology. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. All rights reserved.
Article
This study examined the relationship between performance anxiety and flow proneness. Ninety undergraduate music majors (52 females, 38 males) recruited from a major research university volunteered to participate. The data collection instrument consisted of two previously established inventories: the Performance Anxiety Inventory and the Music in Flow Inventory. As predicted, the data showed flow proneness to be significantly and negatively correlated with performance anxiety (r = -0.20, p = 0.034, one-tailed test). The data also supported a prediction that the ability to play/sing without destructive self-criticism would be negatively related to performance anxiety (r = -0.39, p < 0.001, one-tailed). The results suggest that both musical performance anxiety and a flow state of consciousness can exist simultaneously. It appears that creating performance conditions that foster flow may be a useful strategy for helping to alleviate the intensity of musical performance anxiety.
Chapter
This chapter introduces in chronological order the three main measurement methods—the Flow Questionnaire, the Experience Sampling Method, and the standardized scales of the componential approach—that researchers developed and used in conducting research on the flow state. Each measurement method and underlying conceptualization is explained, and its strengths and limitations are then discussed in relation to the other measurement methods and associated conceptualizations. The analysis reveals that, although the concept of flow remained stable since its inception, the models of flow that researchers developed in conjunction with the measurement methods changed substantially over time. Moreover, the findings obtained by applying the various measurement methods led to corroborations and disconfirmations of the underlying models, and hence provided indications on how to interpret and possibly modify flow theory. The chapter then analyzes the emerging process approach, which conceptualizes and measures flow as a dynamic path rather than an object, and highlights its potential for integrating flow and creativity within the same conceptual framework. The final section outlines new directions for developing more valid and useful measurement methods that can help to advance the understanding of flow, its antecedents, and its consequences.
Article
This article examines predictors of the financial well-being of female college students living in São Paulo or New York, focusing upon the relationship with their credit card use behavior. The results of structural equation models, based on 784 participants, suggest that financial self-confidence and social comparison have an impact on the use of credit cards and exercise an influence on financial well-being. Despite the fact that social comparison is more strongly predictive of credit card use among Brazilian women, credit card use behavior has a greater impact on the well-being of American women
Article
Gratitude is a positive disposition that is connected to well-being. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of self-esteem in the association between gratitude and well-being among undergraduate students. Two hundred and thirty-five participants completed measures of dispositional gratitude, self-esteem, and several indices of well-being. The results indicated that higher levels of dispositional gratitude were associated with greater self-esteem and indices of well-being. Moreover, higher levels of self-esteem were also associated with indices of well-being. Path analyses showed that self-esteem acted as a partial mediator of the association between gratitude and well-being. These results provide information regarding a possible process through which dispositional gratitude has beneficial effects.
Article
The purpose of this study is to examine the structural relationships among self-efficacy, intrinsic value, test anxiety, instructional design, flow, and achievement among students at a Korean online university. To address research questions, the researchers administered online surveys to 963 college students at an online university in Korea enrolled in a Computer Application course. Structural equation modeling was conducted to investigate the structural relationships among the variables. Findings indicated that (1) self-efficacy and instructional design had statistically significant direct effects on flow, (2) self-efficacy, intrinsic value, and flow had statistically significant direct effects on achievement, and (3) flow mediates self-efficacy and achievement, and instructional design and achievement.
Article
In this article, the author describes a new theoretical perspective on positive emotions and situates this new perspective within the emerging field of positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory posits that experiences of positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoires, which in turn serves to build their enduring personal resources, ranging from physical and intellectual resources to social and psychological resources. Preliminary empirical evidence supporting the broaden-and-build theory is reviewed, and open empirical questions that remain to be tested are identified. The theory and findings suggest that the capacity to experience positive emotions may be a fundamental human strength central to the study of human flourishing.
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that the effect of body dissatisfaction on disordered eating behavior is mediated through self-esteem and depression. If the effect of body dissatisfaction on disordered eating can be explained by self-esteem and depression, treatment may benefit from focusing more on self-esteem and depression than body dissatisfaction. We also hypothesized body image importance to be associated with lower self-esteem, stronger symptoms of depression, and more disordered eating. The results showed that the effect of body dissatisfaction on disorder eating was completely mediated, whereas the effect of body image importance was partly mediated. Both self-esteem and depression were significant mediators. Body image importance and self-esteem had a direct effect on restrained eating and compensatory behavior. Depression had a direct effect on binge eating. This effect was significantly stronger among women. Depression also had a direct effect on restrained eating. This effect was positive among women, but negative among men. The results support emotion regulation and cognitive behavioral theories of eating disorders, indicating that self-esteem and depression are the most proximal factors, whereas the effect of body dissatisfaction is indirect. The results point out the importance of distinguishing between different symptoms of bulimia. Depression may cause binge eating, but compensatory behavior depends on self-esteem and body image importance. The results suggest that women may turn to both binge eating and restrained eating to escape awareness of negative emotions, whereas men focus on eating to a lesser extent than women. Existing treatment focuses on eating behavior first and mechanisms such as self-esteem and depression second. The results from this study suggest that an earlier focus on self-esteem and depression may be warranted in the treatment of disordered eating. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Article
This study has focused to identify what kinds of psychological state are most closely related in players experiencing flow while playing game. This study constructs a conceptual model of flow for game players by conducting a survey to 303 online game players. The results indicate that the state of flow was reached when players may gain opportunities for having high self-efficacy as they accomplished tasks. At the same time, it indicate that the higher cognitive performance and self-esteem was able to enhance the higher flow experience while playing a game. This study provides both practical and theoretical implications on how to increase players' flow by providing critical psychological states in the game.
Article
Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is characterized by fear and avoidance in social situations where one perceives being in danger of scrutiny by others. Low self-esteem' low self-efficacy, high self-criticism and high dependency are additional potential features of SAD, and thus their examination is warranted, as is the elucidation of their inter-relationship.Method Thirty-two SAD subjects diagnosed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and 30 healthy controls, were administered the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale, the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ) that assesses self-criticism, dependency and self-efficacy, and a socio-demographic questionnaire. We hypothesized that the SAD group would present higher scores of dependency and self-criticism and lower self-esteem and self-efficacy. We also hypothesized that low self-esteem, low self-efficacy, high self-criticism and high dependency will predict the severity of SAD.ResultsIn line with the hypotheses, SAD patients had higher scores of self-criticism and dependency and lower scores of self-esteem. The social anxiety score correlated negatively with self-esteem and self-efficacy, and positively with dependency and self-criticism. Self-criticism, but not the other measures, predicted the total LSAS score.Conclusions Self-esteem, self-criticism, dependency and self-efficacy are related to SAD and their relations should be examined in future studies that will employ larger samples. It is suggested to search for ways to affect these factors through cognitive-behavioral interventions and additional psychotherapeutic treatments. Research should also focus on the specific role of self-criticism in SAD.
Article
The mental health of the elderly is an important issue in the area of health psychology. This study investigated the effect of intergeneration social support on the subjective well-being of 429 elderly participants. Results suggested that intergeneration social support, self-esteem, and loneliness were significantly correlated to subjective well-being. Structural equation modeling indicated that self-esteem and loneliness partially mediated the effect of intergeneration social support on subjective well-being. These findings provided insights into the effect of intergeneration social support on the subjective well-being of the elderly.
Article
The study longitudinally tracked the relationship among challenge/skill balance, flow, and performance anxiety in 27 student musicians over the course of a semester as they worked toward a recital of a piece of music. Using hierarchical linear modeling, the balance between the challenge of a passage of music and the perceived skills necessary to play that music was found to be significantly and consistently correlated with optimal experience. Results of moderated multiple regression indicated that skill level moderated the relationship between challenge, flow, and performance anxiety. Results also indicated that flow and performance anxiety were antithetical experiences, such that when flow was highest, performance anxiety was lowest and vice versa. These findings are discussed in terms of the application of flow theory to understanding performance, and the practical implications for reducing task‐specific anxiety.
Article
Past research has repeatedly identified relations between optimal experience—or flow—and well-being across the lifespan. In the attempt to identify the conditions favoring this experience, some studies took into account personality traits. While most of them operationalized flow in terms of intensity, we presently focused on perceived occurrence versus absence of flow. Specifically, we investigated the relations between flow occurrence, hedonic and eudaimonic well-being, activities associated with flow, and personality in adolescence. A group of 408 Italian teenagers (mean age = 17.31; SD = 1.13) were administered Flow Questionnaire, Satisfaction with Life Scale, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, Psychological Well-being Scales, and the Big Five Questionnaire. Participants reporting optimal experience in their lives were compared with those not reporting it. Results showed that adolescents experiencing flow reported higher satisfaction with life, hedonic balance, and psychological well-being than their counterparts. Findings from logistic regression analyses further showed that openness to experience was the sole personality factor predicting flow occurrence, and that no personality factors were predictive of type of activities adolescents associated with flow. Findings point to the promotion of optimal experience among adolescents through the support of curiosity and openness to new experiences in engaging opportunities for action. They further call for the development of an integrated model taking into account both individual predispositions and social and cultural factors in well-being promotion.
Article
Examines the changes in stressors on a university campus over the past eight years by replicating a 1983 study on the same campus. Undergraduates (n=639) completed a survey consisting of 7 demographic questions and 2 open-ended questions. Discusses differences in both personal and academic problems between the 1985 and 1993 sample for different variables. (JPS)
Article
the structure of consciousness the teleonomy of the self / pleasure and the genetic teleonomy / power and cultural teleonomy / flow: the emergent teleonomy of the self / the structure of flow / flow activities / the autotelic personality / dimensions of the flow experience (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Individuals, as living open systems, actively interact with their environment. Throughout their life, they preferentially replicate a subset of the available opportunities for action. This process has been labeled psychological selection, and it is based on the quality of experience reported in daily situations. Empirical evidence has shown that individuals preferentially select, reproduce, and cultivate the activities associated with optimal experience, a distinctively positive and complex state of consciousness characterized by the perception of high challenges balanced with adequate skills, concentration and engagement, clear goals and rules, and control of the situation. From this perspective, optimal experience fosters the development of individual competencies, shaping the pattern of psychological selection. Empirical evidence was also gathered for apathy, the negative pole of experience fluctuation, characterized by disengagement, disruption of attention, negative affect, and low perceived challenges. This paper will provide findings concerning the psychological features of optimal experience and apathy across different samples and activities. A stable cognitive core was detected for both states, around which affective and motivational variables fluctuate according to the structure of the associated activities. The regulating function of short-term desirability and perceived long-term goals on the quality of experience was also highlighted. Results suggested that the association of optimal experiences and skill cultivation with structured and long-term meaningful activities could be used as an intervention tool for the promotion of individual development and social integration in youth and adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study examined the ability of prior academic performance, proxy efficacy, and academic self-efficacy to predict college academic performance. Participants (N = 202) completed a modified version of the Teacher Collective Efficacy scale (Goddard, 2001), the Academic Self-Efficacy scale (Elias & Loomis, 2000), and a demographic questionnaire. Prior performance was predictive of both academic self-efficacy beliefs and college performance. Hierarchical regression analysis indicates that academic self-efficacy beliefs explain a significant amount of unique variance beyond past performance in predicting college performance. Proxy efficacy did serve as a predictor of student academic self-efficacy, but did not serve as a predictor of college performance. Implications for instructors, as well as for future research, are discussed.
Article
The current study examined special education teachers' ratings of the usefulness of strategy microanalytic assessment (SMA) (i.e., self-regulation, strategy use) and standardized norm-referenced assessment information (SNRA) (i.e., cognitive and academic skills). Ninety-six participants separately rated the frequency with which SMA and SNRA are used in schools and the usefulness of each report [i.e., Teacher Rating Questionnaire (TRQ)] for intervention planning about a case study. A mixed model experimental design revealed that even though SNRA information is more typical of the data provided in evaluation reports/Individualized Educational Programs, the SMA data were rated significantly more helpful than the SNRA for enhancing important school-related outcomes (e.g., test performance) as well as teacher-related roles (e.g., developing instructional plans). Despite the participants' consistent preference for SMA information, their overall TRQ ratings of the SNRA were positive. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Psychol Schs 43: 149–155, 2006.
Article
One of the core constructs of the positive psychology movement is that of ‘flow’, or optimal experience. The current study investigated the relationship between ‘flow’, the core job dimensions, and subjective well-being (SWB), as well as distinguishing between the state and trait components of flow. Experience sampling methodology (ESM) was used to track 40 architectural students over a 15 week semester while they engaged in studio work. Hierarchical linear modelling (HLM) indicated that 74% of the variance in flow was attributable to situational characteristics compared to dispositional factors. Results also indicated that academic work that was high in skill variety and autonomy was associated with flow. Flow was found to be correlated with positive mood. Cross-lagged regression analysis showed that momentary flow was predictive of momentary mood and not vice versa. The strengths and limitations of using ESM to study subjective work experiences and well-being are discussed, as well as the implications of the study of flow or optimal experience for industrial/organizational psychology.
Article
The validity of Hackman and Oldham's Job Characteristics Model was assessed by conducting a comprehensive review of nearly 200 relevant studies on the model as well as by applying meta-analytic procedures to a large portion of the data. The evidence indicated that the available correlational results are reasonably valid in light of the issues examined. Results tended to support the multidimensionality of job characteristics, but there was less agreement on the exact number of dimensions. The corrected correlational results of the meta-analysis indicated that job characteristics related both to psychological and behavioral outcomes. Concerning psychological states, the results tended to support their mediating (e.g., intervening) role between job characteristics and personal outcomes. The pattern of correlations between the job characteristics and psychological states was less supportive of the model. Meta-analytic results demonstrated that most of the cross-study variance was due to statistical artifacts. True variance across studies was found for the job characteristics-performance relationship, however, and subsequent analyses suggested that growth-need strength moderates this relationship. Implications for potential revisions of the model and for practice are discussed.
Article
This study attempted to show how autotelic people who live in a non-Western culture feel, behave, and think in their daily lives. Using a sample of 315 Japanese college students, a series of correlation analyses were conducted between the frequency of flow experience as an indicator of autotelic personality and a broad range of well-being measures. A distribution analysis revealed that on average Japanese college students experienced flow more than a “few times a year,” but less than “once a month.” In the examination of relations between flow and well-being measures, autotelic Japanese college students, or those who experienced flow more often in their daily lives, were more likely to show higher self-esteem and lower anxiety, use active coping strategies more often and use passive coping strategies less often, as compared to their less autotelic counterparts. They were more likely to report active commitments to college life, search for future career, and daily activities in general. They also reported more Jujitsu-kan, a Japanese sense of fulfillment, and greater satisfaction with their lives. Implications of these findings are discussed in terms of what experiencing flow means and what effects flow potentially has for college students in a non-Western culture. KeywordsFlow experience-Autotelic personality-Culture-Well-being-Japanese college students