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Optimisation of Vitamin D Status for Enhanced Immuno-protection Against Covid-19



Background Vitamin D deficiency (serum 25(OH)D<50nmol/l) is common in Ireland, particularly amongst older adults, hospital inpatients and nursing home residents. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased risk of acute viral respiratory infection and community acquired pneumonia, with several molecular mechanisms proposed to explain this association. Vitamin D supplementation has also been shown to reduce the risk of respiratory infection. Vitamin D and Covid-19 Correction of vitamin D deficiency is thought to suppress CD26, a putative adhesion molecule for Covid-19 host cell invasion. Vitamin D may also attenuate interferon gamma (IFNγ) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) inflammatory responses, both potent predictors of poorer outcome in critically-ill ventilated patients including those with Covid-19. Vitamin D Requirements Irish adults require 25-30µg/d of vitamin D3, an intake not achievable by diet alone, to reliably maintain serum 25(OH)D levels >50nmol/l. Supplementation with doses up to 100µg/d has been shown to be safe for adults, and many agencies and expert groups now advocate supplementation in older adults, albeit at lower levels than this. Conclusions and Recommendations Vitamin D deficiency is common and may contribute to increased risk of respiratory infection including Covid-19. We recommend that all older adults, hospital inpatients, nursing home residents and other vulnerable groups (e.g. those with diabetes mellitus or compromised immune function, those with darker skin, vegetarians and vegans, those who are overweight or obese, smokers and healthcare workers) be urgently supplemented with 20-50µg/d of vitamin D to enhance their resistance to Covid-19, and that this advice be quickly extended to the general adult population.
Issue: Ir Med J; Vol 113; No. 4; P58
Optimisation of Vitamin D Status for Enhanced
Immuno-protection Against Covid-19
D.M. McCartney1, D.G. Byrne2,3
1. School of Biological and Health Sciences, College of Sciences & Health, Technological
University Dublin - City Campus, Kevin Street, Dublin D08 NF82, Ireland
2. Department of Internal Medicine, St. James’s Hospital, James’s Street, Dublin 8, Ireland
3. Dept. of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland
Vitamin D deficiency (serum 25(OH)D<50nmol/l) is common in Ireland, particularly amongst older adults, hospital
inpatients and nursing home residents. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased risk of acute viral
respiratory infection and community acquired pneumonia, with several molecular mechanisms proposed to explain
this association. Vitamin D supplementation has also been shown to reduce the risk of respiratory infection.
Vitamin D and Covid-19
Correction of vitamin D deficiency is thought to suppress CD26, a putative adhesion molecule for Covid-19 host cell
invasion. Vitamin D may also attenuate interferon gamma (IFNγ) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) inflammatory responses,
both potent predictors of poorer outcome in critically-ill ventilated patients including those with Covid-19.
Vitamin D Requirements
Irish adults require 25-30µg/d of vitamin D3, an intake not achievable by diet alone, to reliably maintain serum
25(OH)D levels >50nmol/l. Supplementation with doses up to 100µg/d has been shown to be safe for adults, and
many agencies and expert groups now advocate supplementation in older adults, albeit at lower levels than this.
Conclusions and Recommendations
Vitamin D deficiency is common and may contribute to increased risk of respiratory infection including Covid-19. We
recommend that all older adults, hospital inpatients, nursing home residents and other vulnerable groups (e.g. those
with diabetes mellitus or compromised immune function, those with darker skin, vegetarians and vegans, those who
are overweight or obese, smokers and healthcare workers) be urgently supplemented with 20-50µg/d of vitamin D to
enhance their resistance to Covid-19, and that this advice be quickly extended to the general adult population.
Vitamin D is a steroid hormone which may be synthesised endogenously from the effect of UVB irradiation on skin,
or consumed from exogenous dietary sources or supplements. Recent studies have shown an inverse relationship
between serum vitamin D levels and risk of acute respiratory tract infection1. Notably, a September 2019 meta-
analysis by Zhou and colleagues incorporating data from 21,000 subjects across eight observational studies showed
that those with a serum vitamin D level <20ng/ml (i.e. <50nmol/l) had a 64% increased risk of community-acquired
While the latter data are associative, and do not in and of themselves indicate a causal role for low vitamin D levels
in community-acquired pneumonia, there is existing experimental evidence which suggests several mechanisms by
which optimisation of vitamin D status contributes to enhanced resistance to viral respiratory tract infection3,4,5.
Moreover, notwithstanding the heterogeneity of infection types included and population groups captured, a recent
systematic review which evaluated the findings of 7 meta-analyses incorporating data from 30 randomised
controlled trials concluded that vitamin D supplementation, particularly in those with low serum levels at baseline, is
likely to reduce the risk of respiratory tract infection6, a finding corroborated by two further systematic reviews the
same year1,7.
Relevance of Vitamin D to Covid-19
With regard to Covid-19, it is salient that while the virulence mechanisms of this virus have not been fully
characterised, a number of molecular virulence mechanisms including dipeptidyl peptidase-4 receptor (DPP-4/CD26)
binding, Papain-like protease (PLpro)-mediated replication, MDA5 and RIG-I host-recognition evasion, and disruption
of M-protein mediated type-1 IFN induction have been identified in the closely-related Covid-MERS virus8. Of these,
human DPP-4/CD26 has recently been shown to interact with the S1 domain of the COVID-19 spike glycoprotein,
indicating that it may also be an important virulence factor in Covid-19 infection9. Critically in this regard, DPP-
4/CD26 receptor expression has been shown to be significantly reduced in vivo upon correction of vitamin D
deficiency10. There is also evidence that optimisation of vitamin D may attenuate some of the critical downstream
immunological sequelae thought to elicit poorer clinical outcome in Covid-19 infection, such as prolonged
interferon-gamma response4, and persistent interleukin 6 elevation, a negative prognostic indicator in acutely-ill
pneumonia patients11, including those with Covid-19.
Prevalence of Deficiency
In Ireland, as a consequence of poor dietary intake, low supplementation rates and sub-optimal sun exposure, the
prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is high, particularly amongst older adults, the most vulnerable constituency to
Covid-19 mortality. In the last nationally representative sample, 35.7% of adults aged 50-64 years, and 44.0% of
adults aged 65-84 years had serum vitamin D levels less than 50nmol/l on a year-round basis, while these figures
rose to 55.4% and 48.1% respectively in winter12. These data are critical, as they suggest that one half of our older
adults currently have serum vitamin D levels below the threshold at which viral respiratory infection risk is known to
increase. It is also noteworthy that vitamin D levels are even poorer amongst nursing home and hospital inpatients in
Ireland, with 37-42% of these individuals having serum levels less than 25nmol/l13.
Intake Requirements and Supplementation Guidelines
Existing guidance from the Food Safety Authority of Ireland (FSAI) recommends that older adults should supplement
with 10 micrograms of vitamin D per day14. However, most countries in Europe now recommend intakes of 15-20
micrograms per day for these older age groups, with the Institute of Medicine (IoM) and the Endocrine Society in the
US recommending intakes of 20 micrograms per day and 37.5-50 micrograms per day respectively for older adults
since 201115. Two well-designed modelling studies have been conducted to estimate the oral dose of vitamin D
required to achieve and maintain adequate serum levels in Irish adults on a year round basis. The first of these
proposed a daily dose of 28.0 micrograms to maintain serum vitamin D levels above the critical 50nmol/l threshold
in 97.5% of healthy Irish adults throughout the year16, while the second suggested a daily requirement of 24.7
micrograms for Irish adults aged 64 years and over to achieve and maintain these serum levels17.
Safety of Vitamin D Supplementation
While documented cases of vitamin D toxicity do appear in the literature, these are rare, and invariably relate to
extremely high doses taken over an extended period of time18. There is no evidence however, that vitamin D
supplementation at 20-50 micrograms per day has any adverse effects on health. Indeed several studies have
explicitly cited the safety of vitamin D3 supplementation at doses of up to 100 micrograms per day19,20, with a
further review proposing a tolerable upper limit (TUL) of 250 micrograms per day21. These findings are perhaps
unsurprising, given that cutaneous synthesis yields a typical ‘dermal dose’ of ~70 micrograms per day from regular
sunlight exposure during the Summer months, and that one single whole-body minimum erythemal dose can
produce a rise in serum vitamin D levels which is equivalent to an oral dose of ~250-625 micrograms22. For context, a
minimum erythemal dose can be produced by as little as 1015min of whole-body sun exposure at mid-day in mid-
summer in a pale-skinned individual, and is therefore not an uncommon occurrence. Further research and clinical
data demonstrating the safety of vitamin D supplementation at doses of 20-50 micrograms per day abound in the
literature23,24, highlighting its viability as a means of addressing this common but important nutritional deficit.
Conclusions and Recommendations
Vitamin D intakes and status are low in Ireland, particularly amongst older adults, hospital inpatients and nursing
home residents. Low serum vitamin D has been associated with increased risk and severity of viral respiratory
infections including community acquired pneumonia, whilst there is also evidence that vitamin D supplementation
which raises serum vitamin D levels above 50nmol/l may ameliorate this risk. Among the proposed protective effects
of vitamin D are several which may reduce the risk of Covid-19 infection, or which may attenuate the immunological
sequelae responsible for its fulminant respiratory effects. There is existing guidance from health authorities in
Ireland and globally that older adults should supplement with vitamin D, and there now exists a wealth of evidence
which demonstrates the safety of vitamin D3 supplementation at doses of 20-50 micrograms per day.
In the face of the impending Covid-19 epidemic, and in the absence of a vaccine or any effective anti-viral drug
therapy to treat those infected, these findings call for the prioritised supplementation of all hospital inpatients,
nursing home residents and community-dwelling older adults with vitamin D at a minimum daily dose of 20
micrograms per day. It is further recommended that supplementation be targeted at other vulnerable constituencies
(e.g. those with diabetes mellitus or compromised immune function, those with darker skin, vegetarians and vegans,
those who are overweight or obese, smokers and healthcare workers), and ultimately extended to the rest of the
population in order to mitigate the grave public health risks associated with Covid-19 infection.
Declaration of Conflicts of Interest:
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Corresponding Author:
Dr Daniel McCartney,
School of Biological and Health Sciences,
Technological University of Dublin - City Campus,
Kevin Street,
Dublin D08 NF82,
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... Dado el vínculo informado entre la vitamina D y COVID-19, es posible que los rayos UV ayuden a prevenir el COVID-19 a través de su generación de vitamina D y los efectos inmunitarios positivos posteriores. 32, 33 To y colaboradores encontraron en su estudio evidencia para apoyar la hipótesis de que una radiación ultravioleta más alta se asocia con menor transmisión de COVID-19. 34 Estos hallazgos indican la necesidad de realizar más investigaciones sobre la relación entre los factores climáticos y la transmisión de COVID-19. ...
... Given the reported link between vitamin D and COVID-19, it is possible that UV rays help prevent COVID-19 through its generation of vitamin D and subsequent positive immune effects. 32, 33 To et al found that higher UV radiation is associated with lower transmission of COVID-19.34 These findings indicate the need for further research about the relationship between climatic factors and COVID-19 transmission. ...
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span lang="ES-MX">La siguiente revisión a la literatura dará a conocer los inicios de la aplicación de la luz UV en la práctica odontológica y como se ha ido desarrollando en diversas áreas para procedimientos dentales. Recientemente a propósito de la actual pandemia por COVID 19 y debido a su rápida diseminación por diferentes países y en búsqueda de nuevas tecnologías que ayuden a controlar la propagación del virus, se está considerando a la luz UV como una opción desinfectante segura y eficaz, además de que estudios recientes sugieren que puede ser eficaz contra el SARS-COV 2 causante del COVID 19. La irradiación UV es un método desinfectante para la inactivación de microorganismos patógenos, que incluyen los virus humanos y animales</span
... In a detailed review on the potential role of diet in the clinical management of COVID-19, Coelho-Ravagnani et al. pointed out that nearly 31% of the health guidelines emphasized on key nutrients that included vitamins C, A, and D and zinc, for maintaining good immunity [16]. While literature does not conclusively associate dietary supplementation with COVID-19 prevention, the supplements of vitamins C and D, and minerals like zinc and selenium, have shown to exert health benefits to individuals with, or at risk of, respiratory viral infections, or for those with specific nutrient(s) deficiency, owing to their established biochemical, immunological and antioxidant functions [17]. ...
... Amidst uncertainties linked with higher doses of Vitamin D to manage COVID-19 infection (or other viral infections) due to possible vitamin toxicity, it is still proposed as a reasonable strategy to at least mitigate the nutrient-deficiency induced vulnerability to infections. Further, Vitamin D deficiency is also correlated with metabolic disorders such as diabetes, obesity and hypertension [17]. Taken together, Vitamin D supplementation to address the nutritional inadequacy in individuals is expected to be beneficial in strengthening immunity alongside co-morbidities, which further exacerbate the clinical manifestations during COVID-19. ...
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The vulnerability of human health is amplified in recent times with global increase in non-communicable diseases (due to lifestyle changes and environmental insults) and infectious diseases (caused by newer pathogens and drug-resistance strains). Clinical management of diseases is further complicated by disease severity caused by other comorbid factors. Drug-based therapy may not be the sole approach, particularly in scenarios like the COVID-19 pandemic, where there is no specific drug against SARS-CoV-2. Nutritional interventions are significant in armouring human populations in disease prevention, and as adjunctive therapy for disease alleviation. Amidst ongoing clinical trials to determine the efficacy of Vit. D against infections and associated complications, this review examines the pleiotropic benefits of nutritional adequacy of vitamin D (Vit. D) in combating viral infections (COVID-19), its severity and complications due to co-morbidities (obesity, diabetes, stroke and Kawasaki disease), based on research findings and clinical studies. Supplements of Vit. D in combination with other nutrients, and drugs, are suggested as promising preventive-health and adjunct-treatment strategies in the clinical management of viral infections with metabolic comorbidities.
... A daily diet that includes meat, fish, lentils and beans, dairy foods, nuts, seeds, eggs, citrus fruits (e.g., orange, lemon, grapefruit), and vegetables such as cauliflower, pumpkin, spinach, sweet potato, and carrots can provide adequate intakes of these micronutrients. This description correlates to a healthy whole-food diet, such as a vegetarian or Mediterranean diet, which has been associated with a lower risk of chronic noncommunicable disease and improved immune function (McCartney & Byrne, 2020). Overall, the FAO and the WHO guidelines endorse the consumption of a healthy and diversified diet with the inclusion of whole grains, fruits, vegetables, healthy fats and exclusion of excess fat, sugar, salt, and processed foods (WHO, 2020; FAO, 2020). ...
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The COVID-19 outbreak is a worldwide hazard and a pandemic. It affects primarily the respiratory system of the infected persons. The severity of infection depends on various factors such as individual health, age, lifestyle, gender, dietary habits, environment, and medications. COVID-19's catastrophic results are exacerbated by a high BMI and chronic conditions. The study's goal was to look at the effects of antioxidant foods on immune function and their possible involvement in the treatment of COVID-19 infection. The human immune cell is always active, and the activity of the immune system is improved when there is an infection requiring energy sources and substrates taken from the food. A range of vitamins and trace minerals has been found to have crucial functions in enhancing immune function and decreasing the chance of infection. The gut microbiota strives to empower and regulate the immune system. Dietary methods for achieving a healthy microbiome can also improve the immune system. According to worldwide standards, the best way to maintain the immune system is to consume a healthy balanced diet rich in plant and animal foods, as well as appropriate prebiotic and probiotic prophylactic supplements.
... Suplementasi vitamin D yang dianjurkan untuk pasien COVID kondisi ringan -sedang adalah 1000 -2000 IU per hari. 6,44,45 Ada rekomendasi pemberian vitamin D dengan dosis 10 000 IU per hari untuk 1 minggu pertama guna menaikkan kadar serum 25-OHD menjadi 40 -60 ng/mL, dilanjutkan 5000 IU per hari untuk mempertahankan kadar serum vitamin D tersebut pada pasien berisiko terinfeksi COVID-19, 6,9 sedangkan pada pasien COVID-19 dianjurkan mengonsumsi vitamin D 50 000 IU 2 kali per minggu pada minggu pertama, dilanjutkan dengan 50 000 IU 1 kali per minggu pada minggu kedua dan ketiga untuk mencapai kadar serum 25-OHD di atas 40 ng/mL. 6,46 SIMPULAN DAN SARAN Vitamin D dapat mengurangi risiko infeksi, mencegah perkembangan infeksi, menurunkan tingkat keparahan, dan meringankan akibat dari komplikasi badai sitokin pada infeksi COVID-19. ...
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Pendahuluan: Penyakit coronavirus (COVID-19) merupakan penyakit infeksi yang dideklarasikan WHO sebagai kasus gawat darurat kesehatan di dunia. Vitamin D diketahui memegang peranan dalam regulasi sistem imun baik pada penyakit infeksi maupun penyakit autoimun, sehingga vitamin D dapat bermanfaat pada tata laksana COVID-19. Metode: Tinjauan literatur COVID-19 dan kaitannya dengan vitamin D; sumber data dari Google Cendekia, PubMed, dan WHO. Hasil: Vitamin D berperan mengendalikan sistem sel imun seperti makrofag, limfosit, neutrofil, dan sel dendritik. Selain itu, mekanisme kerja innate dan adaptive immune system diperantarai oleh vitamin D, menghasilkan keseimbangan respons imun untuk meningkatkan respons anti-inflamasi. Simpulan: Vitamin D berkaitan dengan infeksi COVID-19 (dapat mengurangi risiko infeksi, mencegah perkembangan infeksi, dapat menurunkan tingkat keparahan, dan meringankan komplikasi badai sitokin; dengan demikian, dapat menurunkan morbiditas dan mortalitas akibat infeksi COVID-19. Introduction: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease declared by WHO as a worldwide pandemic. Vitamin D supplementation is known to play a key role in regulating the immune system both in infectious and autoimmune diseases; it is believed to correlate with COVID-19. Method: A review of COVID-19 and their correlation with vitamin D, from the published data in Google Scholar, PubMed, and WHO. Result: Vitamin D play a role in the immune cell systems. It also regulates the innate immune system and adaptive immune system in response to increased anti-inflammatory response. Conclusion: Vitamin D can reduce the risk, prevent the development, and reduce the severity of infection and the effect of cytokines storm. Supplementation of vitamin D may reduce the morbidity and mortality of COVID-19.
... We advise all older adults, hospital inpatients, nursing home residents, and other vulnerable groups to take vitamin D supplement with 20-50 µg/d to enhance their resistance to COVID-19 [86]. ...
... Los efectos de la deficiencia de VD durante el curso de la COVID-19 se han documentado y analizado en numerosas publicaciones académicas de diferentes países (16,17,42,59,67,68,(71)(72)(73) . Se han reportado múltiples correlaciones negativas entre los niveles medios de VD y el número de casos de COVID-19 (16,18,25,39,42,47) . ...
La enfermedad causada por el coronavirus descubierto más recientemente (COVID-19), induce una respuesta inmune innata rápida y bien coordinada, considerada como la primera línea de defensa contra la infección viral. El objetivo de esta revisión es presentar el estado de la literatura en relación con la vitamina D, el sistema inmune y la COVID-19 sobre artículos publicados en los últimos 10 años hasta el mes de septiembre del 2020. Varias hipótesis describen los mecanismos en los que la vitamina D reduce el riesgo de infecciones ocasionadas por distintos microorganismos. También se ha descrito que la deficiencia de este micronutriente altera negativamente la respuesta inmune ante patógenos. El estado de la literatura científica publicada hasta el mes de septiembre del 2020, respecto a la vitamina D y función inmune en la infección por SARS-CoV-2, ratifica la importancia de mantener los niveles apropiados de vitamina D antes, durante y después de la COVID-19. Adecuados niveles de este micronutriente antes de esta enfermedad infecciosa se asocian con menores tasas de contagio; durante la enfermedad predicen mejores resultados en todos los grupos etarios; y después de la enfermedad podrían asociarse con menores tasas de reinfección de virus latentes. Es necesario que, de manera prioritaria, se promuevan recomendaciones básicas para mantener concentraciones normales de vitamina D, las cuales deberán ir enfocadas mínimamente a los siguientes 3 ítems: aumentar la exposición a la luz solar, consumir alimentos fuente de vitamina D y realizar actividad física. Palabras clave: vitamina D, COVID-19, infección, inmunología, suplementación dietética.
... It is known that vitamin D, an endogenous steroid hormone synthesized in the skin under the influence of UVB rays, plays a role in the prevention of infectious diseases. Since vitamin D deficiency causes immunodeficiency against respiratory diseases, it is thought that supplementing with vitamin D to individuals with vitamin deficiency may be effective in preventing COVID-19 39 . ...
Full-text available
The rapidly spreading COVID-19 pandemic, which has spread worldwide, emerged at the end of 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei province of China. It has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization as of March 12, 2020. The SARS-CoV-2 virus, which caused millions of people to be infected and killed many people worldwide, is a severe public health problem. The average incubation period is 4–5 days (0–14 days). The most common symptoms are fever, dry cough, joint pains, headache, and shortness of breath. The disease can show severe and mortal effects in people with advanced age and different treatments. The disease diagnosis is made by molecular analysis of respiratory samples of suspected cases using special primers. In addition to supportive vitamin and protein support in treatment, specific vaccines are produced, the number of which increases day by day. The absence of close contact, such as handshaking and hugging, and the isolation of possible patients are among the most effective methods to prevent the disease’s spread. In addition to personal protective equipment such as masks and gloves, continuous cleaning is essential in the fight against the epidemic. This study looks at the COVID-19 pandemic from a general perspective, especially with the current advances in vaccines, and evaluates the past pandemic processes worldwide. It is to make inferences by considering the impact of COVID-19 on the world and Turkey.
... Considering its broader benefits, lack of adverse effects, wide availability, and economical to use, healthcare workers should consider using vitamin D as a primary line of therapy for disease prevention and treatment and use it as an adjunct therapy to prevent infections/ sepsis-infections like COVID-19. 49,54,67,68 Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with many adverse clinical outcomes, such as increased risks of septicemia, and COVID-19-associated complications and the severity of infections. 69 Many studies have reported the importance of maintaining serum 25(OH)D concentration above 50 ng/mL, which is necessary to stimulate the immune system to overcome infections. ...
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The elderly and those with underlying chronic diseases (i.e., comorbidities) such as pulmonary, cardiovascular, metabolic, and renal diseases, increase their susceptibility to sepsis, including COVID-19. The SARS-CoV-2 virus damages pulmonary cells, causing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and hypoxia. It further damages endothelial cells, altering clotting mechanisums causing intravascular hemolysis, microvascular thrombosis, and micro-embolization, contributing to the risk of death. Approximately 75% of the immune system functions of humans depend on vitamin D and the availability of sufficient amounts of vitamin D metabolites [vitamin D and 25(OH)D] concentrations to enter immune cells from the bloodstream. Such concentrations are achievable through sun exposure, targeted food fortification programs, and adequate daily or weekly vitamin D supplements. That would allow for generating 1,25(OH)2D (a non-hormonal form of calcitriol) intracellularly in peripheral target cells like immune cells. This enables immune cells’ physiological functions, including intracrine/autocrine and paracrine signaling processes. This initiates and maintains robust immune functions, such as forming antibodies and antimicrobial peptides, suppressing inflammation, and increasing the expression of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant genes, thus, strengthening immune functions. The opposite occurs in hypovitaminosis D, increasing vulnerability to infections and dying from it. Therefore, governments should make the population sufficient with immunoceuticals—micronutrients, especially vitamin D, and other micronutrients: the most cost-effective intervention to keep the population healthy. The cost of such interventions is minuscule compared to the expenses related to increased hospitalizations and premature deaths. Supposed such a program was implemented in mid-2020 as the author proposed, we estimated that 50% of hospitalizations (and the associated healthcare costs) and a third of deaths from COVID could have been prevented. Described herein are cost-effective strategies using vitamin D to achieve and sustain serum D3 and 25(OH)D concentrations crucial for maintaining a robust immune system, improving general health, minimizing disease severities and deaths, and reducing healthcare costs.
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Saat ini, dunia termasuk Indonesia, dihadapkan pada situasi pandemi global Corona Virus Disease (COVID) -19 yang mengancam seluruh aspek kehidupan. Perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan di masa pandemi memiliki peran yang amat penting. Oleh karena itu, Fakultas Kedokteran dan Ilmu Kesehatan, UIN Maulana Malik Ibrahim Malang sebagai institusi pendidikan kedokteran dan kesehatan ingin memberikan sumbangsih dalam pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan terkait COVID-19. Buku The COVIDPEDIA ini merupakan hasil pemikiran dalam bentuk opini, refleksi, reviu, dan praktek baik dari para akademisi, peneliti dan praktisi mengenai COVID-19 dalam berbagai perspektif kesehatan.
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Bu çalışma Covid-19 pandemi döneminde yetişkin bireylerin beslenme durumlarını değerlendirmek, besin seçim ve alışkanlıklarını, beslenme bilgi düzeylerini, sağlıklı beslenmeye ilişkin tutumlarını, sağlıklı beslenme takıntı düzeylerini belirlemek ve pandemi sürecinin yetişkin bireylerin elektronik sağlıklı beslenme okuryazarlık düzeyleri üzerindeki etkisini saptamak amacıyla yürütülmüştür. Bireylerin elektronik sağlıklı beslenme okuryazarlık düzeylerini belirleyebilmek için e-Sağlıklı Beslenme Okuryazarlık (e-SBO) ölçeğinin Türkçe’ye adaptasyonu ile geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması yapılmıştır. Çalışma Ocak-Mart 2022 ayları arasında sağlıklı beslenmeyle ilişkili içeriklerin paylaşıldığı bir sosyal medya sayfasını takip eden yetişkin bireyler ile çevrimiçi yöntemler kullanılarak yürütülmüştür. Araştırmaya yaş ortalamaları 41.32±12.52 yıl olan 158 birey katılmıştır. Çalışmada bireylere çevrimiçi ortamda genel bilgiler anketi, bir günlük besin tüketim kaydı, Yetişkinler İçin Beslenme Bilgi Düzeyi (YETBİD) ölçeği, Sağlıklı Beslenmeye İlişkin Tutum Ölçeği (SBİTÖ) ve ORTO-15 testi bir kere, e-SBO ölçeği ise pandemi öncesi (geriye dönük) ve sırasında olmak üzere iki kere uygulanmıştır. On beş maddeden oluşan e-SBO ölçeğinin orijinalinde de olduğu gibi beş faktör altında toplandığı, her boyuttaki maddelerin faktör yükü 0.40’ın üzerinde olduğu ve toplam varyans açıklama yüzdesinin %73.5 olduğu saptanmıştır. e-SBO ölçeğin toplam puanı ile tüm alt faktörlerinin puanları arasında orta düzeyde pozitif bir korelasyon bulunmuştur (p=0.000). e-SBO ölçeğinin Cronbach Alpha İç Tutarlılık Katsayısı 0.77, alt boyutlarının Cronbach Alpha İç Tutarlılık Katsayıları ise sırası ile 0.80, 0.68, 0.89, 0.85 ve 0.88 olarak saptanmıştır. e-SBO ölçeğin test ve tekrar test puanlarının korelasyon katsayısı 0.98 olarak belirlenmiştir (p=0.000). Bu sonuçlar e-SBO ölçeğinin Türkçe versiyonunun bireylerin elektronik sağlıklı beslenme okuryazarlık düzeylerini ölçmekte geçerli ve güvenilir bir araç olduğunu göstermektedir. Çalışmaya katılan bireylerin tiamin, niasin, potasyum, kalsiyum, çinko, demir ve selenyum mikro besin ögelerini Türkiye Beslenme Rehberi (TÜBER) 2015 referans değerin altında aldıkları saptanmıştır. Tüm katılımcılar Covid-19 pandemi döneminde besin seçimi ve/veya beslenme alışkanlıklarının değiştiği saptanmıştır (p<0.05). Bununla birlikte Covid-19 pandemi döneminde fastfood/ev dışından yemek yeme alışkanlığına sahip bireylerin Covid-19 pandemi öncesine kıyasla azaldığı saptanmıştır (p<0.05). Covid-19 pandemisi döneminde katılımcıların çoğunluğu daha fazla sigara veya alkol kullanma eğilimi göstermediğini bildirmişken, fiziksel aktivite düzeylerinin ise azaldığını bildirmişlerdir. Katılımcıların Covid-19 pandemi sürecinde D ve C vitaminleri ile çinko ve magnezyum desteği alımlarının istatistiksel olarak anlamlı şekilde yükseldiği saptanmıştır (p<0.05). Bireylerin Covid 19 pandemi sürecindeki YETBİD ve SBİTÖ puanları ile e-SBO puanları arasında pozitif yönde zayıf bir korelasyon (p<0.05), ORTO-15 puanlarıyla ise negatif yönlü çok zayıf bir korelasyon (p>0.05) belirlenmiştir. Tüm katılımcıların Covid-19 pandemi öncesinde e-SBO puan ortalaması 34.0±7.36 puan iken, Covid-19 pandemi dönemindeki e-SBO puan ortalamaları 37.6±7.85 puan yükselmiştir (p<0.05). This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional status of adults, to determine their food choices and habits, nutritional knowledge levels, attitudes towards healthy eating, level of healthy eating obsession during the Covid-19 pandemic and to determine the effect of the pandemic on the electronic healthy nutrition literacy levels of this population. In order to determine the electronic healthy nutrition literacy levels of individuals, validity and reliability studies were performed for the Turkish version of the e-Healthy Nutrition Literacy (e-HDL) Questionnaire. The study was conducted on 158 adult individuals with a mean age of 41.32±12.52 years, who followed a social media page that shares content related to healthy nutrition, between January and March 2022, using online methods. In the study general information questionnaire, one-day food consumption record, Nutrition Knowledge Level for Adults (YETBİD) scale, Attitude Scale for Healthy Nutrition (ASHN) and ORTO-15 test were applied once, the e-HDL scale was applied to individuals twice, before (retrospectively) and during the pandemic, using online methods. It has been observed that the e-HDL questionnaire, which consists of 15 items, is gathered under five factors, as in the original. The factor load of the items in each dimension was found over 0.40 and the percentage of total variance explanation was found 73.5%. When the correlation between the e-HDL questionnaire score and its sub-dimensions is examined, scores of all subdimensions were moderate positively correlated with the total score of the e-HDL questionnaire (p=0.000). In the reliability analysis of the e-HDL questionnaire, Cronbach’s Alpha Internal Consistency Coefficient was found as 0.77, and the sub-dimensions coefficient was found as 0.80, 0.68, 0.89, 0.85 and 0.88, respectively. The correlation coefficient of the test and retest scores of the e-HDL questionnaire was determined as 0.98 (p=0.000). These results show that the Turkish version of the e-HDL questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool for measuring the electronic healthy nutrition literacy levels of individuals. The intake of thiamine, niacin, potassium, calcium, zinc, iron and selenium micronutrients of the individuals was below the Turkey's Dietary Guidelines (TUBER) 2015 reference value. All participants were found to have changed their food selection and/or eating habits during the Covid-19 pandemic (p<0.05). However, it has been determined that the number of individuals who have the habit of eating fast food/ordered food during the Covid-19 pandemic has decreased compared to the pre-Covid-19 pandemic (p<0.05). During the Covid-19 pandemic, the majority of the participants reported that they did not tend to smoke or drink alcohol more, while their physical activity levels decreased. It was determined that the intake of vitamins D and C, and zinc and magnesium supplements of the participants increased statistically significantly during the Covid-19 pandemic (p<0.05). There is a weak but positive correlation between YETBİD scores (p<0.05) and ASHN scores (p<0.05) with e-HDL questionnaire scores and a weak but negative correlation between ORTO-15 scores (p>0.05) with e-HDL questionnaire scores. While the mean scores of the e-HDL questionnaire before the Covid-19 pandemic was 34.0±7.36 points, the mean scores of the e-HDL questionnaire increased to 37.6±7.85 points during the Covid-19 pandemic (p<0.05).
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Public health practices including handwashing and vaccinations help reduce the spread and impact of infections. Nevertheless, the global burden of infection is high, and additional measures are necessary. Acute respiratory tract infections, for example, were responsible for approximately 2.38 million deaths worldwide in 2016. The role nutrition plays in supporting the immune system is well-established. A wealth of mechanistic and clinical data show that vitamins, including vitamins A, B6, B12, C, D, E, and folate; trace elements, including zinc, iron, selenium, magnesium, and copper; and the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid play important and complementary roles in supporting the immune system. Inadequate intake and status of these nutrients are widespread, leading to a decrease in resistance to infections and as a consequence an increase in disease burden. Against this background the following conclusions are made: (1) supplementation with the above micronutrients and omega-3 fatty acids is a safe, effective, and low-cost strategy to help support optimal immune function; (2) supplementation above the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), but within recommended upper safety limits, for specific nutrients such as vitamins C and D is warranted; and (3) public health officials are encouraged to include nutritional strategies in their recommendations to improve public health.
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Background/Aims: WHO declared SARS-Cov-2 a global pandemic. The aims of this paper are to assess if there is any association between mean levels of vitamin D in various countries and cases respectively mortality caused by COVID-19. Methods: We have identified the mean levels of vitamin D for 20 Europeans Countries for which we have also got the data regarding the morbidity and mortality caused by COVID-19. Results: The mean level of vitamin D (average 56mmol/L, STDEV 10.61) in each country was strongly associated with the number of cases/1M (mean 295.95, STDEV 298.73 p=0.004, respectively with the mortality/1M (mean 5.96, STDEV 15.13, p < 0.00001). Discussion: Vitamin D levels are severely low in the aging population especially in Spain, Italy and Switzerland. This is also the most vulnerable group of population for COVID-19. Conclusions: We believe, that we can advise Vitamin D supplementation to protect against SARS-CoV2 infection.
Technical Report
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Vitamin D - a supportive role for the immune system in COVID-19? A report using the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing data (TILDA)
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The world is in the grip of the COVID-19 pandemic. Public health measures that can reduce the risk of infection and death in addition to quarantines are desperately needed. This article reviews the roles of vitamin D in reducing the risk of respiratory tract infections, knowledge about the epidemiology of influenza and COVID-19, and how vitamin D supplementation might be a useful measure to reduce risk. Through several mechanisms, vitamin D can reduce risk of infections. Those mechanisms include inducing cathelicidins and defensins that can lower viral replication rates and reducing concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines that produce the inflammation that injures the lining of the lungs, leading to pneumonia, as well as increasing concentrations of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Several observational studies and clinical trials reported that vitamin D supplementation reduced the risk of influenza, whereas others did not. Evidence supporting the role of vitamin D in reducing risk of COVID-19 includes that the outbreak occurred in winter, a time when 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations are lowest; that the number of cases in the Southern Hemisphere near the end of summer are low; that vitamin D deficiency has been found to contribute to acute respiratory distress syndrome; and that case-fatality rates increase with age and with chronic disease comorbidity, both of which are associated with lower 25(OH)D concentration. To reduce the risk of infection, it is recommended that people at risk of influenza and/or COVID-19 consider taking 10,000 IU/d of vitamin D3 for a few weeks to rapidly raise 25(OH)D concentrations, followed by 5000 IU/d. The goal should be to raise 25(OH)D concentrations above 40–60 ng/mL (100–150 nmol/L). For treatment of people who become infected with COVID-19, higher vitamin D3 doses might be useful. Randomized controlled trials and large population studies should be conducted to evaluate these recommendations.
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The recent outbreak of pneumonia-causing COVID-19 in China is an urgent global public health issue with an increase in mortality and morbidity. Here we report our modelled homo-trimer structure of COVID-19 spike glycoprotein in both closed (ligand-free) and open (ligand-bound) conformation, which is involved in host cell adhesion. We also predict the unique N- and O-linked glycosylation sites of spike glycoprotein that distinguish it from the SARS and underlines shielding and camouflage of COVID-19 from the host the defence system. Furthermore, our study also highlights the key finding that the S1 domain of COVID-19 spike glycoprotein potentially interacts with the human CD26, a key immunoregulatory factor for hijacking and virulence. These findings accentuate the unique features of COVID-19 and assist in the development of new therapeutics.
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Emerging evidence has shown that vitamin D deficiency may be related with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), but individually published studies showed inconclusive results. The aim of this study was to quantitatively summarize the association between vitamin D and the CAP.We conducted this meta-analysis though a systematic literature search of PubMed, Medline, and EMBASE up to 31 September 2018 with the following keywords 'vitamin D' or 'cholecalciferol' or '25-hydroxyvitamin D' or '25(OH)D' in combination with 'community-acquired pneumonia' or 'CAP' or 'pneumonia' with no limitations. This meta-analysis was performed following the guidelines of Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology. The association between vitamin D levels and CAP were measured as odds ratio (OR) and weighted mean difference (WMD). Results were combined using a random-effect or a fix-effect meta-analysis, and sensitivity analyses were conducted to explore potential factors.Eight observational studies involving 20,966 subjects were included. In this meta-analysis, CAP patients with vitamin D deficiency (serum 25(OH)D levels <20 ng/mL) experienced a significantly increased risk of CAP (odds ratio (OR) = 1.64, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.00, 2.67), and an obvious decrease of -5.63 ng/mL (95% CI: -9.11, -2.14) in serum vitamin D was demonstrated in CAP patients. Sensitivity analysis showed that exclusion of any single study did not materially alter the overall combined effect.The evidence from this meta-analysis indicates an association between vitamin D deficiency and an increased risk of CAP patients. However, well-designed trails are required to determine the explicit effect of vitamin D supplementation.
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Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an emerging zoonotic virus considered as one of the major public threat with a total number of 2 298 laboratory-confirmed cases and 811 associated deaths reported by World Health Organization as of January 2019. The transmission of the virus was expected to be from the camels found in Middle Eastern countries via the animal and human interaction. The genome structure provided information about the pathogenicity and associated virulent factors present in the virus. Recent studies suggested that there were limited insight available on the development of novel therapeutic strategies to induce immunity against the virus. The severities of MERS-CoV infection highlight the necessity of effective approaches for the development of various therapeutic remedies. Thus, the present review comprehensively and critically illustrates the recent aspects on the epidemiology of the virus, the structural and functional features of the viral genome, viral entry and transmission, major mechanisms of pathogenesis and associated virulent factors, current animal models, detection methods and novel strategies for the development of vaccines against MERS-CoV. The review further illustrates the molecular and computational virtual screening platforms which provide insights for the identification of putative drug targets and novel lead molecules toward the development of therapeutic remedies.
Background Approximately 1 billion people worldwide have Vitamin D deficiency. The aim of this study was to compare Vitamin D status and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations among adults sampled in the community, in outpatient clinics, as hospital inpatients and in nursing homes in the West of Ireland. The secondary aim was to determine the associations between length of hospital stay (inpatients) at time of serum 25(OH)D sampling and Vitamin D status. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out. Patients who had serum 25(OH)D analysis carried out in Galway University Hospitals (January 2011-December 2015) were identified following interrogation of the electronic laboratory data system. Baseline demographics, location and date of sample collection were recorded. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a serum 25(OH)D concentration<25nmol/L. Results In total, 24,302 patient samples were eligible for inclusion: community n=15,319; outpatient clinics n=6,371; inpatients n=2,339; nursing home residents n=273. Vitamin D deficiency was more common in nursing home residents than inpatients, or those sampled in outpatient clinics or in the community (42%-v-37%-v-17%-v-13%; p<0.001). Inpatients sampled further into their hospital stay (≥3days) had greater Vitamin D deficiency than inpatients sampled on 0-2 days (p=0.007). Season(p<0.001), sex(p<0.001) and age(p<0.001) were associated with 25(OH)D concentrations. Vitamin D deficiency was more common in Winter/Spring, in males and in those aged ≥80years. Conclusions Nursing home residents and inpatients are at the highest risk for Vitamin D deficiency. Season, sex, age and day of hospital stay on which serum 25(OH)D concentrations were sampled were associated with Vitamin D status.