Article

Social networking sites and men’s drive for muscularity: Testing a revised objectification model.

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Abstract

The contribution of social media to men’s drive for muscularity (DM) has received limited research attention. This study drew on a revised objectification theory to predict attitudes and behaviors pertaining to DM that arise from using social networking sites (SNSs). A sample of 303 undergraduate men, aged 17–25 years, completed online questionnaire measures of engagement in three SNS activities (browsing or following celebrity, fashion, and grooming sites, browsing or following fitspiration sites, and placing importance on online “likes” and comments). Also assessed were body surveillance, social appearance anxiety, and two indices of DM (attitudes and behavior). Structural equation modeling was used to test an objectification theory-based model of the antecedents of DM. Results supported a serial mediation process comprising paths from two of the SNS activities (browsing or following celebrity, fashion, and grooming sites and placing importance on online “likes” and comments) through, in turn, body surveillance and social appearance anxiety, to DM attitudes but not to DM behaviors. Viewing fitspiration sites predicted DM behaviors and attitudes directly, rather than indirectly. Findings extend objectification theory as a useful framework for identifying the influence of some SNS uses on young men’s DM and suggest strategies through which the negative effects of SNS use on excessive DM may be curtailed.

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... Both men and women report exposure to fitspiration messages (Griffiths & Stefanovski, 2019), and fitspiration may be particularly appealing to men as it promotes both leanness and muscularity, which is in line with the ideal male body in Western society (Griffiths & Stefanovski, 2019;Talbot, Gavin, van Steen, & Morey, 2017). Finally, men and women who report exposure to fitspiration content are more likely to experience body dissatisfaction (Cohen et al., 2017;Griffiths & Stefanovski, 2019;Seekis et al., 2021). ...
... It is also interesting to note that no significant gender differences existed in either sample, which highlights the importance of the inclusion of men in research. Men are certainly subjected to images of unrealistic body types on social media on a regular basis (Raggatt et al., 2018;Seekis et al., 2021), and exposure to such content has been linked to lower levels of body satisfaction in men in the past (Seekis et al., 2021). The results of our study mirror earlier research demonstrating the protective role of self-compassion in males (Rodgers et al., 2017;Stutts & Blomquist, 2018). ...
... It is also interesting to note that no significant gender differences existed in either sample, which highlights the importance of the inclusion of men in research. Men are certainly subjected to images of unrealistic body types on social media on a regular basis (Raggatt et al., 2018;Seekis et al., 2021), and exposure to such content has been linked to lower levels of body satisfaction in men in the past (Seekis et al., 2021). The results of our study mirror earlier research demonstrating the protective role of self-compassion in males (Rodgers et al., 2017;Stutts & Blomquist, 2018). ...
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... While the majority of theoretical and empirical work on SM and body image focuses on adolescent girls and highlights girls' unique vulnerabilities to body image and mental health problems associated with SM use, adolescents of other genders are also vulnerable to these outcomes. Recent work has highlighted the need to further understand the pervasiveness of presentations of male lean and muscular appearance ideals on SM (Gültzow et al., 2020), and potential effects on internalization of the muscular ideal, appearance anxiety, and body dissatisfaction (Fatt et al., 2019;Seekis et al., 2021). Although the association between SM use and appearance concerns may be similar for boys and girls (Fardouly & Vartanian, 2016;Holland & Tiggemann, 2016;Jarman et al., 2021), the majority of studies do find that girls report higher appearance investment and concerns generally (e.g., Hawes et al., 2020) and higher depressive symptoms related to SM use (e.g., McCrae et al., 2017;Simoncic et al., 2014;Twenge et al., 2018), suggesting that gender differences, such as those resulting from early gender socialization, may predispose girls to both. ...
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... Nonetheless, young adolescents are also high consumers of social media platforms, and the onset of dysmorphic appearance concerns occurs mostly during this developmental stage, therefore future research should seek to understand the links between beauty social media engagement and dysmorphic appearance concerns in this population as well as in diverse samples in terms of ethnicity, sexual orientation, and gender identity. Furthermore, cosmetic procedures are also growing among men (ISAPS, 2020) and recent studies have reported that viewing grooming content and fitspiration images on social media may to lead to muscularity concerns (Fatt et al., 2019;Seekis et al., 2021). Given the increasing concerns regarding muscle dysmorphia in young men (Cunningham et al., 2017), future research may wish to investigate whether the tripartite influence model helps to explain links between male-oriented appearance content on social media, muscle/appearance dysmorphic concerns, and consideration of cosmetic surgery. ...
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Beauty content on social media has grown exponentially, however research has yet to investigate its association with appearance concerns. This study drew on components of the tripartite influence model to test the associations between young women’s engagement with beauty content on social media and cosmetic surgery consideration. A sample of 399 undergraduate women aged 17–25years (Mage = 19.36) completed measures of beauty social media engagement, upward appearance comparison, general attractiveness internalization, dysmorphic appearance concerns, and consideration of cosmetic surgery. Path analysis was used to test direct and indirect associations. In line with the tripartite influence model, results supported a serial mediation model that comprised significant paths from beauty social media engagement through in turn, upward appearance comparison, general attractiveness internalization, and dysmorphic appearance concerns, to cosmetic surgery consideration. However, neither general attractiveness internalization nor dysmorphic appearance concerns mediated the link between beauty social media engagement and consideration of cosmetic surgery. Findings provide new insights into the links between engagement with the growing beauty social media trend and cosmetic surgery consideration.
... Although objectification theory was developed in relation to women's experiences, research has explored the applicability of this framework to investigate men's experiences as well. In general, men seem to show lower body surveillance than women [19], but male adults are becoming progressively more worried about their physical appearance [10,20,21]. This appears to be related to the growing tendency to objectify men's bodies in Western culture, which increases body image concerns among men [22,23]. ...
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... Given that we employed a measurement invariance analysis to determine if any of the constructs in our model evidenced different meanings between men and women, our results suggest that factors external to the study and the measures may warrant closer attention (Kline, 2016). For example, men struggling with generalized anxiety and subsequent social physique anxiety may be particularly at risk for drive for muscularity due to cultural pressures that proscribe concerns about body image (e.g., Parent, Schwartz, & Bradstreet, 2016;Seekis, Bradley, & Duffy, 2021). However, women may not have the same socialized experiences (e.g., Gokee-LaRose, Dunn, & Tantleff-Dunn, 2004). ...
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... Men's self-objectification has also been found in previous studies. 27,28,55,56 Third, sexism existed in the forum's accounts where women were denoted as sex objects or animals but blamed for men's body dissatisfaction. Previous research has also found that men talking online 57,58 or about their body dissatisfaction 27,28,55,59 often perpetuate sexism too. ...
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... Recent work is increasingly addressing the pervasiveness of presentations of male lean and muscular appearance ideals on SM (Gültzow et al., 2020). In one study, emerging adult men's exposure to the muscular ideal on SM was associated with more internalization of the muscular ideal and higher appearance comparison tendency, which led to greater body dissatisfaction (Fatt et al., 2019), and in another study, SM use and investment was associated with body surveillance, social appearance anxiety, and drive for muscularity attitudes (Seekis et al., 2021). Future work should explore the role of exposure to the muscular ideal on SM in adolescent boys' body image and mental health problems. ...
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The present study examined body image and associated psychological traits in 154 college men. The comprehensive battery of measures included a novel computerized test of body image perception, the Somatomorphic Matrix, in which subjects could navigate through a range of body images, spanning a wide range of body fat and muscularity, to answer various questions posed by the computer. Subjects also completed paper-and-pencil instruments assessing depression, characteristics of eating disorders, self-esteem, and use of performance-enhancing substances. Findings suggest that contemporary American men display substantial body dissatisfaction and that this dissatisfaction is closely associated with depression, measures of eating pathology, use of performance-enhancing substances, and low self-esteem. Muscle belittlement, believing that one is less muscular than he is, presented as an important construct in the body dissatisfaction of men. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Two studies were conducted to investigate men's drive for muscularity. Study 1 explored the relationship between sociocultural factors and social comparison and participants' scores on the Drive for Muscularity Attitudes Questionnaire. Men's exposure to idealized media images of the male body and self-reported comparisons to universalistic targets correlated positively with the intensity of their drive for muscularity. Study 2 examined men's beliefs about the drive for muscularity using a qualitative methodology. Results indicated that a number of factors, in addition to those investigated by sociocultural and social comparison theories, may contribute to men's desire to become more muscular. These factors include the perceived social and physical benefits of muscularity. The implications of the current research and avenues for future inquiry are outlined. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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We examine the controversial practice of using parcels of items as manifest variables in structural equation modeling (SEM) procedures. After detailing arguments pro and con, we conclude that the unconsidered use of parcels is never warranted, while, at the same time, the considered use of parcels cannot be dismissed out of hand. In large part, the decision to parcel or not depends on one's philosophical stance regard- ing scientific inquiry (e.g., empiricist vs. pragmatist) and the substantive goal of a study (e.g., to understand the structure of a set of items or to examine the nature of a set of constructs). Prior to creating parcels, however, we recommend strongly that in- vestigators acquire a thorough understanding of the nature and dimensionality of the items to be parceled. With this knowledge in hand, various techniques for creating parcels can be utilized to minimize potential pitfalls and to optimize the measure- ment structure of constructs in SEM procedures. A number of parceling techniques are described, noting their strengths and weaknesses.
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This study investigated the impact of sorority rush on self-objectification and body image disturbance. First-year undergraduate women either participating (n = 68) or not participating (n = 59) in sorority rush at a U.S. Midwestern university completed online surveys at four time points. It was predicted that rush participation would lead to increases in self-objectification, which in turn would lead to increases in body shame and eating disordered behavior and attitudes. Results supported predictions based on objectification theory at a single time point, but not longitudinally. Rush participants evidenced higher levels of self-objectification and eating disordered behavior at all time points. Body mass index predicted dropping out of the rush process and was negatively correlated with satisfaction with the rush process. KeywordsBody shame-Objectification theory-Sexual objectification-Sororities-Eating disorders
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Objectification theory has linked self-objectification to negative emotional experiences and disordered eating behavior in cultures that sexually objectify the female body. This link has not been empirically tested in a clinical sample of women with eating disorders. In the present effort, 209 women in residential treatment for eating disorders completed self-report measures of self-objectification, body shame, media influence, and drive for thinness on admission to treatment. Results demonstrated that the internalization of appearance ideals from the media predicted self-objectification, whereas using the media as an informational source about appearance and feeling pressured to conform to media ideals did not. Self-objectification partially mediated the relationship between internalized appearance ideals and drive for thinness; internalized appearance ideals continued to be an independent predictor of variance. In accordance with objectification theory, body shame partially mediated the relationship between self-objectification and drive for thinness in women with eating disorders; self-objectification continued to be an independent predictor of variance. These results illustrate the importance of understanding and targeting the experience of self-objectification in women with eating disorders or women at risk for eating disorders.
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This study was designed to test the extent to which women who self-objectify also objectify other women. One hundred thirty-two university students and their friends (64 women and 68 men) completed three questionnaires: (1) Noll and Fredrickson’s (1998) Self-Objectification Questionnaire, (2) a modified version of that questionnaire that measured individuals’ objectification of others, and (3) Slade, Dewey, Newton, and Brodie’s (1990) Body Cathexis scale. Women were more likely than men to self-objectify. Self-objectification was negatively related to body satisfaction for women but not for men. Both women and men objectified women more than they objectified men, although women’s objectification of other women was not significantly different than their objectification of men. Men objectified women more than women did, and women objectified men more than men did. Women were more likely to objectify other women than to objectify themselves. Higher self-objectification among both women and men was related to increased objectification of other women and men, but the relationships were stronger for women. Results indicate that women also objectify women, although not to the degree exhibited by men.
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A content analysis of eight different men’s lifestyle magazines sold in Canada between November 2004 and August 2006 was conducted to explore how masculinities are currently being portrayed in regards to the body, aesthetics and grooming, and fashion. Findings suggest that different men’s magazines represent different forms of masculinity but elements of hegemonic masculinity (culturally normative ideals of masculinity within a structure of social relations where some men are subordinated) are woven throughout. Although the marketed look varies by the magazine, these magazines not only convey the message that appearance can be manipulated—but it should also be enhanced, and that men should engage in bodywork in order to attain the lifestyle they desire. KeywordsHegemonic masculinity-Metrosexuality-Laddism-Male body-Aesthetics-Fashion-Male body image
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Exposure to fitspiration content via social media can influence women’s body satisfaction and exercise inspiration, but fitspiration exposure has not been investigated in men. This study examined links between the frequency of viewing fitspiration content on Instagram, and men’s body satisfaction, appearance-based exercise motivation and health-based exercise motivation, and whether those relationships were mediated by muscular-ideal internalisation and/or appearance comparison tendency. Participants were 17- to 27-year-old Australian men who used Instagram (N = 118). Frequency of viewing fitspiration content was not directly associated with body satisfaction or reasons for exercise. However, significant indirect pathways were observed through greater muscular-ideal internalisation and appearance comparison tendency. Viewing more fitspiration content was associated with greater muscular-ideal internalisation and higher appearance comparison tendency, which in turn was associated with less body satisfaction, more appearance-based exercise motivation and less health-based exercise motivation. Fitspiration appears to be more closely related to appearance than health in men.
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The present study aimed to identify the specific social networking sites (SNS) features that relate to body image concerns in young women. A total of 259 women aged 18-29years completed questionnaire measures of SNS use (Facebook and Instagram) and body image concerns. It was found that appearance-focused SNS use, rather than overall SNS use, was related to body image concerns in young women. Specifically, greater engagement in photo activities on Facebook, but not general Facebook use, was associated with greater thin-ideal internalisation and body surveillance. Similarly, following appearance-focused accounts on Instagram was associated with thin-ideal internalisation, body surveillance, and drive for thinness, whereas following appearance-neutral accounts was not associated with any body image outcomes. Implications for future SNS research, as well as for body image and disordered eating interventions for young women, are discussed.
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While most body image research emphasizes the thin ideal, a wider variety of body-ideal messages pervade U.S. popular culture today, including those promoting athleticism or curves. Two studies assessed women’s reactions to messages conveying thin, athletic, and curvy ideals, compared to a control message that emphasized accepting all body types. Study 1 (N = 192) surveyed women’s responses to these messages and found they perceived body-acceptance and athletic messages most favorably, curvy messages more negatively, and thin messages most negatively. Further, greatest liking within each message category came from women who identified with that body type. Study 2 (N = 189) experimentally manipulated exposure to these messages, then measured self-objectification and body satisfaction. Messages promoting a body-ideal caused more self-objectification than body-acceptance messages. Also, athletic messages caused more body dissatisfaction than thin messages. Together, these findings reveal the complexity of women’s responses to diverse messages they receive about ideal bodies.
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This study examined the relationship between Instagram use (overall, as well as specifically viewing fitspiration images) and body image concerns and self-objectification among women between the ages of 18 and 25 from the United States (n = 203) and from Australia (n = 73). Furthermore, this study tested whether internalization of the societal beauty ideal, appearance comparison tendency in general, or appearance comparisons to specific target groups on Instagram mediated any relationships between Instagram use and the appearance-related variables. Greater overall Instagram use was associated with greater self-objectification, and that relationship was mediated both by internalization and by appearance comparisons to celebrities. More frequently viewing fitspiration images on Instagram was associated with greater body image concerns, and that relationship was mediated by internalization, appearance comparison tendency in general, and appearance comparisons to women in fitspiration images. Together, these results suggest that Instagram usage may negatively influence women’s appearance-related concerns and beliefs.
In a sample of 730 men, using hierarchical regression, we examined the relation of appearance orientation, body satisfaction, internalization, perceived pressures to be lean and muscular, and sexual orientation to the importance men place in apparel and grooming products. Although investment in appearance was the strongest predictor for both product categories, internalization, body satisfaction, pressures about leanness and muscularity, and sexual orientation also were related, explaining 30–39% of the variance. Thus, men may use such appearance-enhancing products as a result of sociocultural factors but also to meet internalized societal ideals about attractiveness.
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Objective: Anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use has been robustly associated with negative body image, and eating- and muscularity-oriented psychopathology. However, with AAS being increasingly utilized for both appearance and athletic performance-related purposes, we investigated whether comorbid body image psychopathology varies as a function of motivation for usage. Method: Self-reported motivation for current and initial AAS use was recorded amongst 122 AAS using males, alongside measures of current disordered eating and muscle dysmorphia psychopathology. Results: Those reporting AAS for appearance purposes reported greater overall eating disorder psychopathology, F(2, 118)=7.45, p=0.001, ηp(2)=0.11, and muscle dysmorphia psychopathology, F(2, 118)=7.22, p<0.001, ηp(2)=0.11, than those using AAS primarily for performance purposes. Additionally, greater dietary restraint, F(2, 116)=3.61, p=0.030, ηp(2)=0.06, functional impairment, F(2, 118)=3.26, p=0.042, ηp(2)=0.05, and drive for size, F(2, 118)=10.76, p<0.001, ηp(2)=0.15, was demonstrated in those using ASS for appearance purposes. Discussion: Motivation for AAS use may be important in accounting for differential profiles of body image psychopathology amongst users. Men whose AAS use is driven primarily by appearance-related concerns may be a particularly dysfunctional subgroup.
Article
Hypotheses about age-related differences in objectified body consciousness (OBC; McKinley & Hyde, 1996) based on the cultural, developmental, and familial contexts of women's body experience were tested on 151 undergraduate women and their middle-aged mothers. Mothers had lower levels of surveillance (watching the body as an outside observer) and body shame (feeling one is a bad person when appearance does not meet cultural standards) than daughters. No differences were found in appearance control beliefs, body esteem, or restricted eating, even though mothers weighed more and were less satisfied with their weight than daughters. OBC was related to measures of psychological well-being in both age groups; body esteem was more strongly related to some measures of daughters' psychological well-being than mothers'. Relationships of partner and family approval and OBC and body esteem were also examined.
Article
We examined the drive for muscularity's (DFM) relationships with exercise behaviour, disordered eating, supplement consumption, and exercise dependence in males. By searching electronic databases, manually reviewing journal tables of contents and retrieved article reference lists, and corresponding with leading researchers, we identified 77 studies. A random effects model was applied to perform analyses and we adjusted results for possible publication bias. The average effect sizes (r) the DFM had with weight training (.31), non-weight training (.11), disordered eating (.30), supplement consumption (.36), and exercise dependence (.43) were significant (P < .05). The relationship between the attitudes and behavioural subscales of the DFM Scale (r = .47) was significant (P < .001). For supplement consumption, moderator analysis indicated that r varied significantly for questionnaire type and participant status (student versus non-student, P < .01). The small to moderate relationships indicate the value of adopting theoretical perspectives allowing the examination of the DFM's role in predicting exercise and dietary behaviour within a broader psychosocial context. Most researchers have studied these relationships in isolation. The relationship between the two DFM subscales implies that the questionnaire total score may better represent a commitment to muscularity rather than a drive per se
Article
Fitspiration is an online trend designed to inspire viewers towards a healthier lifestyle by promoting exercise and healthy food. The present study aimed to experimentally investigate the impact of fitspiration images on women's body image. Participants were 130 female undergraduate students who were randomly assigned to view either a set of Instagram fitspiration images or a control set of travel images presented on an iPad. Results showed that acute exposure to fitspiration images led to increased negative mood and body dissatisfaction and decreased state appearance self-esteem relative to travel images. Importantly, regression analyses showed that the effects of image type were mediated by state appearance comparison. Thus it was concluded that fitspiration can have negative unintended consequences for body image. The results offer support to general sociocultural models of media effects on body image, and extend these to "new" media. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Article
Objective“Pro-ana” or Thinspiration websites are internet sites that support weight loss and eating disorders. Fitspiration websites are a newer type of site that supposedly advocates a fit and healthy lifestyle.Method The first 10 images from a sample of 50 Fitspiration and 50 Thinspiration websites, chosen using a standard internet search protocol, were rated on a variety of weight, eating, and appearance characteristics. χ2 analyses were conducted to compare website content.ResultsThinspiration sites featured more content related to losing weight or fat, praising thinness, showng a thin pose, and providing food guilt messages than Fitspiration sites. However, sites did not differ on guilt-inducing messages regarding weight or the body, fat/weight stigmatization, the presence of objectifying phrases, and dieting/restraint messages. Overall, 88% of Thinspiration sites and 80% of Fitspiration sites contained one or more of the coded variables.DiscussionPrior research has examined Thinspiration websites and noted the potentially hazardous messages contained on these sites. This content analysis indicates that sites supposedly devoted to healthy pursuits (fitness) may also contain thematically similar content. (Int J Eat Disord 2015)
Article
Objective The current study examined whether certain types of Facebook content (i.e., status updates, comments) relate to eating concerns and attitudes.Method We examined the effects of seeking and receiving negative feedback via Facebook on disordered eating concerns in a sample of 185 undergraduate students followed for approximately 4 weeks.ResultsResults indicated that individuals with a negative feedback seeking style who received a high number of comments on Facebook were more likely to report disordered eating attitudes four weeks later. Additionally, individuals who received extremely negative comments in response to their personally revealing status updates were more likely to report disordered eating concerns four weeks later.DiscussionResults of the current study provide preliminary evidence that seeking and receiving negative feedback via social networking sites can increase risk for disordered eating attitudes, and suggest that reducing maladaptive social networking usage may be an important target for prevention and intervention efforts aimed at reducing disordered eating attitudes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2014)
Article
Self-objectification occurs when the appearance rather than the functionality of one’s body is considered to be the most important determinant of his or her self-worth and may be used to explain the drive for muscularity in men. Given mixed findings in the literature regarding men’s experiences of self-objectification, there is reason to believe that these discrepancies may be a result of the way in which self-objectification is currently being measured. Therefore, we sought to develop and validate an instrument to assess self-objectification specifically in men called the Male Assessment of Self-Objectification (MASO). To do so, three studies were conducted, comprising the initial scale development, validation, and test−retest phases of scale construction. Exploratory factor analysis was used in the first study where results yielded two factors. In the second study, results from confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the two-factor model of the MASO was superior to a one-factor model. Further, the MASO was significantly correlated to the drive for muscularity, body surveillance, and body shame as predicted. Lastly, the results of the final study supported the stability of the MASO over a 2-week period. Collectively, results indicate that the MASO demonstrates adequate validity and reliability in assessing self-objectification in men. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study examined the mediating role of drive for muscularity and social physique anxiety in the perceived muscular male ideal physique and muscle dysmorphia relationship in weight training males. Males (N = 146, Mean ± SD; age 22.8 ± 5.0 years; weight 82.0 ± 11.1 kgs; height 1.80 ± 6.8 m; BMI 25.1 ± 3.0) who participated in weight training completed validated questionnaires measuring drive for muscularity, social physique anxiety, perceived muscular male ideal physique, global muscle dysmorphia, and several characteristics of muscle dysmorphia (exercise dependence, diet manipulation, concerns about size/symmetry, physique protection behavior, and supplementation). Perceived ideal physique was an independent predictor of muscle dysmorphia measures except physique protection (coefficients = .113-.149, p < .05). Perceived ideal physique also predicted muscle dysmorphia characteristics (except physique protection and diet) via the indirect drive for muscularity pathway (coefficients = .055-.116, p < .05). Perceived ideal physique also predicted size/symmetry concerns and physique protection via the indirect drive for muscularity and social physique anxiety pathway (coefficients = .080-.025, p < .05). These results extend current research by providing insights into the way correlates of muscle dysmorphia interact to predict the condition. The results also highlight signals (e.g., anxiety about muscularity) that strength and conditioning coaches can use to identify at risk people who may benefit from being referred for psychological assistance.
Article
The purpose of the current article was to perform a systematic review of 52 studies in which the drive for muscularity (DFM) has been measured. We included all the papers we found published from 2000 until May 2012. Variables most consistently related to DFM are (1) gender, with males reporting higher levels than females; (2) anxiety and body shame; (3) perceptions that the ideal physique involves high muscularity; (4) behaviours associated with increasing muscularity, including dietary manipulation and resistance training; and (5) the internalisation of a muscular physique as the standard to which to aspire. The DFM was inconsistently correlated with self-esteem, physical characteristics and actual-ideal discrepancies. Research has focused on white male students and been cross-sectional and descriptive. Further theory-driven work is needed with a wider range of populations to enhance the conceptualisation, measurement and understanding of the DFM.
Article
This study extends the literature on eating disorder symptomatology by testing, based on extant literature on objectification theory (B. L. Fredrickson & T. Roberts, 1997) and the role of sociocultural standards of beauty (e.g., L. J. Heinberg, J. K. Thompson, & S. Stormer, 1995), a model that examines (a) links of reported sexual objectification experiences to eating disorder-related variables and (b) the mediating roles of body surveillance, body shame, and internalization of sociocultural standards of beauty. Consistent with hypotheses, with a sample of 221 young women, support was found for a model in which (a) internalization of sociocultural standards of beauty mediated the links of sexual objectification experiences to body surveillance, body shame, and eating disorder symptoms, (b) body surveillance was an additional mediator of the link of reported sexual objectification experiences to body shame, and (c) body shame mediated the links of internalization and body surveillance to disordered eating. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Using feminist theory about the social construction of the female body, a scale was developed and validated to measure objectified body consciousness (OBC) in young women (N= 502) and middle-aged women (N= 151). Scales used were (a) surveillance (viewing the body as an outside observer), (b) body shame (feeling shame when the body does not conform), and (c) appearance control beliefs. The three scales were demonstrated to be distinct dimensions with acceptable reliabilities. Surveillance and body shame correlated negatively with body esteem. Control beliefs correlated positively with body esteem in young women and were related to frequency of restricted eating in all samples. All three scales were positively related to disordered eating. The relationship of OBC to women's body experience is discussed.
Book
Readers who want a less mathematical alternative to the EQS manual will find exactly what they're looking for in this practical text. Written specifically for those with little to no knowledge of structural equation modeling (SEM) or EQS, the author's goal is to provide a non-mathematical introduction to the basic concepts of SEM by applying these principles to EQS, Version 6.1. The book clearly demonstrates a wide variety of SEM/EQS applications that include confirmatory factor analytic and full latent variable models.
Article
This study used objectification theory (B. L. Fredrickson & T.-A. Roberts, 1997) to predict that the media’s insidious practice of objectifying bodies socializes individuals to take an outsider’s perspective on the physical self (i.e., self-objectify) and to habitually monitor their appearance (i.e., engage in body surveillance). To test these hypotheses, a 2-year panel study using an undergraduate sample was conducted. Cross-lagged path models showed that exposure to sexually objectifying television measured during Year 1 increased trait self-objectification (trait SO) during Year 2 for both women and men. At the same time, trait SO during Year 1 decreased exposure to sexually objectifying television during Year 2, suggesting that both male and female participants selectively avoided sexually objectifying television based on antecedent trait SO. Moreover, exposure to sexually objectifying television and magazines increased body surveillance for men only. The discussion focuses on the process by which the media create body-focused perceptions.
Article
This study tests a mediational model of disordered eating derived from objectification theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997). The model proposes that the emotion of body shame mediates the relationship between self-objectification and disordered eating. Two samples of undergraduate women (n= 93, n= 111) completed self-report questionnaires assessing self-objectification, body shame, anorexic and bulimic symptoms, and dietary restraint. Findings in both samples supported the mediational model. Additionally, a direct relationship between self-objectification and disordered eating was also observed. Implications and future research directions are discussed.
Article
This study aimed to test components of objectification theory in a large sample of adolescent girls and boys. Participants were 714 Australian adolescents (382 boys, 332 girls) ranging in age from 12 to 16years who completed questionnaire measures of body surveillance, body shame, appearance anxiety and disordered eating. Although it was found that girls displayed higher levels of body surveillance, body shame, appearance anxiety and disordered eating than boys, the model proposed by objectification theory was largely supported for both girls and boys. It was concluded that objectification theory appears applicable to adolescents of both genders. KeywordsBody image-Self-objectification-Disordered eating-Adolescence-Girls-Boys
Article
Viewing idealized images has been shown to reduce men's body satisfaction; however no research has examined the impact of music video clips. This was the first study to examine the effects of exposure to muscular images in music clips on men's body image, mood and cognitions. Ninety men viewed 5min of clips containing scenery, muscular or average-looking singers, and completed pre- and posttest measures of mood and body image. Appearance schema activation was also measured. Men exposed to the muscular clips showed poorer posttest levels of anger, body and muscle tone satisfaction compared to men exposed to the scenery or average clips. No evidence of schema activation was found, although potential problems with the measure are noted. These preliminary findings suggest that even short term exposure to music clips can produce negative effects on men's body image and mood.