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Cyber Strategy of Government of Nepal

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Cyber Strategy of Government of Nepal

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Nepal is blessed with sufficient resources and is expected to become major exporter to India and China but currently suffers energy shortages. Purpose of my research is to explore water resources, electricity generation as major critical cybersecurity infrastructure and has not been researched in Nepal. The reason is to prove the essence of water, power production which can leverage its crippling economy. I have used surveys, reports apart from observations, personal data and information. Nepal has capacity of producing 83000 MW of hydro-electricity, out of which only 43000 MW is techno-economically feasible (Hydropower Status Report, 2016). I have found several interesting and challenging information based on internal power usage, major dependency on two neighbors, threats, global issues. The conclusion is that Nepal can be power house and non-dependent on its neighbors if we utilize and protect our critical infrastructure! My research and findings can be useful for researchers, government organizations, students, academicians, NGOs / INGOs interested in hydro-power generation and planning to invest in Nepal’s hydro-power. Keywords: Cybersecurity, Critical Infrastructure, Power Consumption, Hydro-power, Water resources, Crippling economy
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Running Head: CYBER STRATEGY OF GOVERNMENT OF NEPAL (GoN) 1
Title: Cyber Strategy of Government of Nepal (GoN)
Naresh Kshetri
Date: 27 July 2017
Electronic copy available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3552143
CYBER STRATEGY OF GOVERNMENT OF NEPAL (GoN) 2
Contents
Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 4
Current scenario of Cyber Law in Nepal ........................................................................................ 7
Cyber Threats to Nepal ................................................................................................................... 9
Cyber Issues and Vulnerabilities .................................................................................................. 11
Major Findings and Conclusion .................................................................................................... 13
References ..................................................................................................................................... 17
Electronic copy available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3552143
CYBER STRATEGY OF GOVERNMENT OF NEPAL (GoN) 3
Abstract
Nepal is blessed with sufficient resources and is expected to become major exporter to India and
China but currently suffers energy shortages. Purpose of my research is to explore water
resources, electricity generation as major critical cybersecurity infrastructure and has not been
researched in Nepal. The reason is to prove the essence of water, power production which can
leverage its crippling economy. I have used surveys, reports apart from observations, personal
data and information. Nepal has capacity of producing 83000 MW of hydro-electricity, out of
which only 43000 MW is techno-economically feasible (Hydropower Status Report, 2016). I
have found several interesting and challenging information based on internal power usage, major
dependency on two neighbors, threats, global issues. The conclusion is that Nepal can be power
house and non-dependent on its neighbors if we utilize and protect our critical infrastructure! My
research and findings can be useful for researchers, government organizations, students,
academicians, NGOs / INGOs interested in hydro-power generation and planning to invest in
Nepal’s hydro-power.
Keywords: Cybersecurity, Critical Infrastructure, Power Consumption, Hydro-power, Water
resources, Crippling economy
Electronic copy available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3552143
CYBER STRATEGY OF GOVERNMENT OF NEPAL (GoN) 4
Introduction
Nepal is a small country of mountains and neighbor of two power houses India and
China, Nepal is the transit point for cyber terrorism and various other critical powers today in
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and Asia. Nepal is a small country
in the Asia known basically for two main reasons in the world
a) Country of Mount Everest (located at Solukhumbu district, Nepal), the highest peak in the
world with 8848 meters above sea level [1] and
b) The birthplace of Lord Buddha, (Lumbini, Rupandehi district, Nepal) founder of Buddhism
religion [2]
Despite the world knows the fact and truth always taste bitter, India claims Lord Buddha (and the
Buddhism religion) to be born and died in their land and China claims Mount Everest to be in
their country, which both are serious attacks on CI of Nepal. The political instability (change of
government is 24 times in previous 25 years in Nepal), long civil war in Nepal (popular rebel
Maoist war), interim constitution amendment after end of 240-year old monarchy by 601-
member assembly (the last king being Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev [3]), war between
communist and congress in government formation (only one Congress government have been
formed after Nepal being Republic Democratic under prime minister ship of Mr. Sushil Koirala
in February 2014 [4]), lack of proper vision and mission of political parties, are the primary
reasons for this attack on Nepal’s CI by its neighbor nations. Nepal is always a battle field for the
two neighbors, the Terai border shares with four major states of India (Uttarakhand with BJP
government, Uttar Pradesh with BJP government, Bihar JDU government, and Sikkim SDF
government in alliance with BJP) while the other half is connected with Tibet (often called “roof
of the world” and autonomous region of China).
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CYBER STRATEGY OF GOVERNMENT OF NEPAL (GoN) 5
BJP (Bharatiya Janata Party) is the largest national party of India (controlling 17 / 29 states of
India and ruling 2/3rd of population after 2017 assembly election results) from which current PM
Narendra Modi belongs [5] whereas JD (U), Janata Dal (United) and SDF (Sikkim Democratic
Front) are regional political parties in India.
Infrastructures are always in vital role behind success of nation. Under-developing countries in
Asia like Nepal are always fighting to build, expand, operate or protect their critical
infrastructure. Some of the infrastructure overview in context of Nepal is listed below [6]:
> Only 19 % roads in Nepal are all weather roads. 73 districts headquarters out of 75 have access
to roads (road density of about 34.41 per sq km).
> Agriculture accounts for 36 % of GDP and absorbs two-third of labor market (many
households primarily in Mountain regions experience food shortage of 4 9 months / year)
> Out of 48 airports, only 11 have paved runways (Tribhuwan International Airport is only
international airport served by 26 international carriers to 23 destinations, and 34 domestic
carriers)
> Electricity demand is increasing at 7 9 % per year, although bestowed with hydropower
resources, 40 % of Nepalese population has access to electricity.
> Nepal contains 2.2 % of world water resources, 6,000 rivers including rivulets and tributaries
totaling about 45,000 km in length
> 1,700 Nepalese people approximately travel abroad every day for work (mainly to Malaysia,
Qatar, UAE, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia)
> 5 % (approx. USD 335 million) of the total budget is allocated for health sector with most of
the population unaware of health insurance (there are 13 privately run medical colleges, 17
NGO-run hospitals, 17 eye hospitals and 87 private research centers and nursing homes)
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CYBER STRATEGY OF GOVERNMENT OF NEPAL (GoN) 6
> Nepal Tourism Board aims to increase annual international tourist arrivals to 2 million by 2020
(380,000 in 2006 and 800,000 in 2010). Currently 105 star hotels (8 are 5-star), 625 tourist
hotels, and 226 home stay facilities with 20 protected areas (10 national parks, 6 conservation
areas, 3 wildlife reserves and 1 hunting area)
> Mines and minerals industries contributed 2.4 % to Nepal’s GDP, Department of Geology and
Mines has discovered 1.07 billion tones of limestone deposits (63 minerals and about 10
petroleum and natural gas exploration sites have been identified in Nepal).
> Remittances, a percentage of GDP reached 29.1 % in FY 2014/15 from 11.1 % in 2004/05
(Nepal has 29 commercial banks, 71 development banks, 46 finance companies, 41 micro-credit
development banks, 15 saving and credit cooperatives licensed by Nepal Rastra Bank)
> Nepal entered in modern era without schools, hospitals, roads, telecommunications, power,
industry in 1951 (changes in political leadership and corruption Transparency International
Corruption Index as 131/175 countries, are two bigger challenges in achieving economic
development)
> Minimum monthly salary is NPR 9,700 (approx USD 90) with average manufacturing sector
growth of 1.18 % in last 10 years (Kathmandu is first among top 10 districts of foreign
development followed by Biratnagar, Birgunj, Bhairahawa and Chitwan according to economic
survey 2015/16).
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CYBER STRATEGY OF GOVERNMENT OF NEPAL (GoN) 7
Current scenario of Cyber Law in Nepal
The present scenario of cyber vision, cyber strategy and cyber law in Nepal is very poor. Some
of the popular cyber laws in Nepal are described below which faces serious issues and challenges
ahead in Nepalese cyber industry [7]:
1. Jashoosi Ain 2018 B.S. (Detective Act)
2. Patent, design ra trademark Ain 2022 B.S. (Patent, Design and Trademark Act)
3. Chalchitra Act 2026 B.S. (Film Act)
4. Likhathauko Gopayiyata Sambandhi Ain 2039 B.S. (Document Privacy Act)
5. Chaphakhanna tatha Prakashan Sambhandhi Ain 2048 B.S. (Press and Publication Act)
6. Nepal Press Council Ain 2048 B.S. (Nepal Press Council Act)
7. Rastriya Prasaran Ain 2049 B.S. (National Transmission Act)
8. Sharamjibhi Patrakar Ain 2051 B.S. (Journalists Act)
9. Pratilipi Aadhikar Ain 2059 B.S. (Copyright Act)
After many years of effort and pressure from big neighbors the government had tabled the below
acts only in papers, which is coined to be the national cyber strategy of GoN. The ETDSA
(Electronic Transaction and Digital Signature Act) is popularly known as cyber law in Nepal
with zero level of implementation. The Act has covered many aspects of creation, production,
storage and transmission of electronic information regarding electronic fund transfers (EFTs).
However, the law has not included definition and provisions regarding the Intellectual Properties
(IPs). Also the law does not include the following copyright issues about the internet websites:
a. Linking
b. Framing
c. Caching
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CYBER STRATEGY OF GOVERNMENT OF NEPAL (GoN) 8
d. Mirror sites
e. Third party liability
Nothing in the world is perfect. Neither is the case of cyber law in Nepal. This ultimately leads to
the amendments of previous laws and redefining the acts (as per need) as pointed below in
scenario of Nepal.
> Before 2004: Public Offense Act (cybercrimes were dealt with minimal success)
> 2004: Electronic Transaction and Digital Signature Act-ETDSA (also known as Cyber Law)
> 2006: Electronic Transaction Act (2063 BS)
> 2008: Electronic Transaction Act (2065 BS with amendment)
> 2010: IT Policy (tool for social and financial development)
The cyber laws or the recent policy (as mentioned above) still cannot solve the problems and
disputes in Nepal like:
Domain name disputes
● EFTs and taxes fraud
Online news portals scam
● E-gambling
Pornography
Cyber laws updating problems
● Other cyber criminal issues
Electronic copy available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3552143
CYBER STRATEGY OF GOVERNMENT OF NEPAL (GoN) 9
Cyber Threats to Nepal
The critical infrastructure of Nepal always poses a threat from internal and external
factors. Internal factors are believed to be sister organizations of “left” political parties,
underground groups in Terai sectors and border districts, a faction current ruling party CPN
(Maoist Centre), Netra-Bikram Chand led political party (CPN-Maoist), political parties in Terai
belt (Madhesis known to be directly motivated from India and active in major 22 districts of
Nepal out of 75 districts) and other inter-districts maphias and gangs. The announcement of
“people’s government” with message of “armed insurgency” create a new threat by General
Secretary Netra-Bikram Chand “Biplav” led party. Dr. Baburam Bhattarai former prime minister
from CPN (Maoist Centre) quits the party and now formed new political party known as “Naya
Shakti Nepal [8].
The below figure illustrate the major power stations and transmission lines in the map of Nepal
(a corner demonstration within Kathmandu valley) in which installed capacity of 600 MW in its
Integrated Nepal Power System (INPS). All the border districts of Nepal consisting power
stations posses threat from several frontiers including political parties and underground groups
(especially Madhesis) at local level.
Some of the major power plants in operation (top five) in Nepal are (owned by Nepal Electricity
Authority NEA and Bhotekoshi Power Company Private Limited BPKC) Kaligandaki (144
MW, NEA owned, Location: Syangja), Marshyangdi (69 MW, NEA owned, Location:
Tanahun), Kulekhani I (60 MW, NEA owned, Location: Makwanpur), Khimti (60 MW, NEA
owned, Location: Dolakha and Ramechhap) and Bhotekoshi (36 MW, BKPC owned, Location:
Sindhupalchowk).
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CYBER STRATEGY OF GOVERNMENT OF NEPAL (GoN) 10
Figure 2: Transmission Network in Nepal
(Source: NEA and www.ippan.org)
Infrastructure, which cost tens of millions of dollars and that took decades to build has been
destroyed. Maoists have struck unguarded bridges, hydropower projects, water supply, irrigation
offices, horticulture farms, forestry projects, telecommunications and government building. In
Rupandehi district, Maoist bombed and destroyed ancestral house of Minister for Tourism and
Civil Aviation Sarvendranath Shukla. The Maoist revels destroyed 200 KW capacity small
hydro-power in Martadi, Bajura district [9].
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CYBER STRATEGY OF GOVERNMENT OF NEPAL (GoN) 11
Cyber Issues and Vulnerabilities
Besides several internal threats, political misbalance, new constitution and vulnerabilities, the
critical infrastructures of Nepal impose greater threats from its neighbor nations China and
India. Both opportunities and threat are exposing together due to rise in digital technology and
digital business. Our systems are connected / linked everywhere from our smart kitchens to cars
(via Bluetooth or other wireless technologies). Cybercrime is the second most reported economic
crime for the year 2016 according to PwC Partner, Cybersecurity report [10] by disturbing the
world of transactions, and business. Like other crime and terrorism, cyber crime is growing day
by day. Non-state actors or state actors are now directly depending upon cyber space to conduct
any attacks or crime against any party or organization which creates a connection line with cyber
and terrorism. The use of internet and technology has established “cyber” as a popular and
essential war fighting domain apart from air, water, and land.
Indian defense sounded a fresh red alert over need to ensure cyber security after renewed online
espionage and hacking attempts from China. Based in Chengdu region of China has cyber
espionage attempts identified (against Nepal and India security and commercial establishments)
as an “advanced persistent threat” group name Suckfly. Having stolen certificates from South
Korean firms, Suckfly is using them as cover for its cyber attacks through malware like
“Backdoor.Nidiran”. Chengdu region also houses the headquarters of the new western threat
command of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA), which is task to handle entire Indian front
Ladakh to Arunachal along 4,057 km Line of Actual Control (LoAC) besides Tibetan border
with Nepal. Chinese espionage group “Danti” has breached several computers of top-ranking
bureaucrats in Delhi and Kathmandu as per Kaspersky Labs [11].
Electronic copy available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3552143
CYBER STRATEGY OF GOVERNMENT OF NEPAL (GoN) 12
Figure 3: National flag depicting bridge between India and China
(Source: http://nepalforeignaffairs.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/Nepal-India-China_986223544-1.jpg)
Cybercrime jumps to second place in the year 2016 (from fourth place in previous year), among
most-reported type of economic crime. Without detection, hackers are managing in some way to
remain in an organization’s networks for extended time periods. The bad guys are able to use the
power of technology in their favor (for restricted and unlawful activities over the internet) rather
than used for essence of business and user-friendly with customers. Numbers of STEM graduates
every year in the under-developed and developing countries (mostly in Asia and Africa), world-
wide use of social media (Instagram, Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn, Flickr, Pinterest, Tumblr,
Vine, Reddit etc) from every walk of life, necessity for finance organizations (may be regional or
MNCs) to go online in the competition world, motivation to youth by several non-state actors,
lack of adequate laws and punishment in cyberspace, and use of outdated technology can be
major and active challenges of the digital world.
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CYBER STRATEGY OF GOVERNMENT OF NEPAL (GoN) 13
Major Findings and Conclusion
Although we have several problems and difficulties (like), there is always a roof at the top (I
mean there is always a place for improvement and positive continuation). Nepalese cyber
security and cyber environment can be improved by several initiatives, individual desire, team
work and various possible factors discussed below:
1. Separate division of cyber cell (comprising Nepal Police, Nepal Army and Armed Police
Force): There should be the combination of all security forces for a strong and consistent cyber
division in Nepal which can only tackle the current need and threat to society. Government of
Nepal should frame cyber vision and strategy in order to counter cyber challenges. All security
forces of Nepal should be combined in order to form a single cyber cell. I believe only the
teamwork can be effective against cyber terrorism besides the cyber cell of Nepal Police only.
Recruitment of IT power in branches of security should be planned and implemented in advance.
Previously, Naikon (also known as APT-30) has targeted military, governments and civil
organizations and exploited them [12].
2. Identification of Nepal’s CI and formation of CI protection force: The Government of Nepal
has not yet managed to identify its critical infrastructure and plan its security. The preliminary
step in safeguarding the nations CI is to identify and scale it. Formation of cyber security force or
cyber protection force (like the developed countries in the world) is must due the several threats
and attacks from world-wide. This can also be accomplished by appointment of National Cyber
Security Advisor / National Cyber Crime Manager under direct reporting of executive head (i.e.
Prime Minister of Nepal).
3. Use of licensed and updated technology and softwares by government organizations and
financial institutions: Every government offices (including central government, district offices
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CYBER STRATEGY OF GOVERNMENT OF NEPAL (GoN) 14
and zonal offices) are using computers for their daily records and several purposes. There are
around 58 websites in Nepal with .gov domains (ranging from Government of Nepal
www.nepal.gov.np to Department of Archaeology www.doa.gov.np). The entire ministry
portfolio including Office of President (www.presidentofnepal.gov.np) and Office of Prime
Minister (www.opmcm.gov.np) now have .gov website [13]. But none of them is secure and are
encrypted (with https). All government organizations website are not updated properly since they
use low minimum standards due to improper maintenances and updates.
4. Visa system with India (no continuation of open borders): The open border with India (being a
Hindu nation) is always a matter and challenge for conflicts, terror activities and now illegal
trafficking, transportation of third citizen from the border. Nepal and India should agree in
issuance of visa for their citizens to counter border security and challenges. Nepal-India relations
are passing a volatile phase with compounded political chaos. Nepal suffered a five month
blockade (at time of CPN-UML government in Nepal) when Madhesis parties demands the
endorsement in constitution in September 2015 [14].
5. Partnership with security agencies and state actors to counter cyber terrorism: Government
of Nepal (GoN) should tie and handshake with international security agencies to frame cyber
vision and mission. There also should be public-private partnership to combat cyber terrorism.
Cyber force and security personnel should be deployed apart from coalition and engagement of
non-state actors. Several intelligence bureaus (IBs) of both neighbor nations (India and China)
can help and join hands in order to attack the cyber terrorists. The recent Counter Terrorism
Conference 2017 in New Delhi was organized for three days by India Foundation where DPM of
Nepal addresses and recalled the incidents of 2004 (where 12 Nepali seeking employment were
captured and killed in Iraq) and 2016 (where 13 Nepali security guards in a minibus were killed
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CYBER STRATEGY OF GOVERNMENT OF NEPAL (GoN) 15
by a suicide bomber in Kabul, Afghanistan) where he stressed to recognize the nature of
terrorism to counter with national, regional and global capabilities [15].
6. Mission / government initiative to provide job security for IT graduates and brain powers:
Every year a huge manpower from Nepal go to other countries for employment, training,
education and immigration purposes. In 2012, Government established its Foreign Employment
Policy, which reflects international commitments to ensure safe and organized foreign
employment to reduce poverty along with economic and social development [16].
The below figure also shows a steady increase in labor permits (first one being total, second line
graph is via recruiting agency and third is individually) issued for foreign employment. There is
a 137 % increase in total number of permits issued between the years 2008/09 to 2013/14.
Figure 4: Total number of labor permits issued yearly, 2008/09 to 2013/14
(Source: Department of Foreign Employment, Government of Nepal)
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CYBER STRATEGY OF GOVERNMENT OF NEPAL (GoN) 16
The digital democracy in Nepal changes several things from online banking to cloud computing.
Government has the main responsibilities to take effective measures to promote growth in digital
sector as well as secure the cyber space for economic impacts. The number of cyber crimes
reported is increased by 105 % in the country in FY 2014-2015. Five things to be focused [17] /
challenges in response to an article by three peoples, Kathayat, Pokharel and Shah (retired DIG
of Nepal Police, Head of Computer Science and Engineering Department at Kathmandu
University and co-author of Strategic IT Planning for Public Organizations A Toolkit
published by UN in 2009 respectively) is illustrated below:
a. Establish a ministry under central government dedicated to internet followed by necessary
policies and legislations
b. Build an effective partnership to promote information sharing among government, law
enforcement agencies, academia and industry.
c. Develop a capacity to detect cyber-attacks or cyber terrorism to quickly and effectively protect
networks
d. Hire and retain cyber security professionals with the necessary standards and certifications
e. Collaborate with international cyber security agencies
Many democratic countries are on high alert after discovering ISIS is planning to launch cyber
attacks against critical infrastructures like airports, hospitals, nuclear power plants, finance
companies and electricity supply. After 2007 attack, Estonia developed Cyber Security Strategy
and Cyber Security Council to contribute smooth cooperation between various institutions to
conduct surveillance.
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CYBER STRATEGY OF GOVERNMENT OF NEPAL (GoN) 17
References
[1] Nepal Eco Adventure, Mount Everest lies in Nepal bordered by China to north and India to
South, https://nepalecoadventure.com/blog/where-is-mount-everest-located/
[2] UNESCO World Heritage Center, Lumbini, the birth place of Lord Buddha,
http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/666
[3] Nepal declares a democratic republic nation, The Times of India,
http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/world/rest-of-world/Nepal-declares-itself-a-
democratic-republic/articleshow/3081177.cms
[4] Nepal Profile Timeline (South Asia), BBC News, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-south-
asia-12499391
[5] BJP ruled states have 2/3rd of population, The Indian Express,
http://indianexpress.com/elections/assembly-election-results-2017-nearly-23rd-of-
population-now-lives-in-bjp-ruled-states-4566090/
[6] Federation of Nepalese Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FNCCI), Infrastructure Sector
Overview, http://www.fncci.org/infrastructure-153.html
[7] An overview of Nepalese cyber law, Prajapati S.R, Rauniyaar U.K,
http://nascoit.org.np/download/2005/Nepalese-Cyber-Law-An-Overview.pdf
[8] Disastrous dependency, Khagendra N Sharma, The Kathmandu Post, 11 Oct 2015,
http://kathmandupost.ekantipur.com/news/2015-10-11/disastrous-dependency.html
[9] Free Republic, 13 killed by Maoist revels in Nepal, http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-
news/1007005/posts
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CYBER STRATEGY OF GOVERNMENT OF NEPAL (GoN) 18
[10] A boundless threat, PWC Global Cybercrime, Global Economic Crime Survey 2016,
http://www.pwc.com/gx/en/services/advisory/forensics/economic-crime-
survey/cybercrime.html
[11] The Times of India, Red alerts issued on cyber threat from China,
http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/Red-alert-issued-on-cyber-threats-from-
China/articleshow/52720087.cms
[12] Cyber Warfare How Prepared is Nepal, The Himalayan Times, 05 January 2017
https://thehimalayantimes.com/opinion/cyber-warfare-how-prepared-is-nepal/
[13] Web portals of Nepal government organizations (with ministry and department under it), E-
Nepal, http://enepal.asia/gov_sites.htm
[14] Power and Politeness, The Indian Express, 21 March 2017,
http://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/power-and-politeness-india-nepal-
china-sashastra-seema-bal-kathmandu-4578034/
[15] Deputy PM of Nepal, Mr. Bimalendra Nidhi addresses counter terrorism conference in New
Delhi, 14 March 2017, Nepal Foreign Affair, http://nepalforeignaffairs.com/dpm-nidhi-
addresses-counter-terrorism-conference-in-new-delhi/
[16] Labor Migration for Employment, A Status Report for Report 2013/2014,
https://asiafoundation.org/resources/pdfs/MigrationReportbyGovernmentofNepal.pdf
[17] Computer Crime Moving towards digital democracy, need to develop a safer cyberspace,
The Kathmandu Post, http://kathmandupost.ekantipur.com/news/2016-02-21/computer-
crime.html
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CYBER STRATEGY OF GOVERNMENT OF NEPAL (GoN) 19
Appendix A: Map showing SAARC nations
(Source: https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/736x/b6/f2/b6/b6f2b6ef680ff6f34153b9798fd505be.jpg)
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CYBER STRATEGY OF GOVERNMENT OF NEPAL (GoN) 20
APPENDIX B
FireEye report, https://www.techinasia.com/cyber-threats-in-asia
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CYBER STRATEGY OF GOVERNMENT OF NEPAL (GoN) 21
APPENDIX C
Engima Software http://www.enigmasoftware.com/top-20-countries-the-most-cybercrime/)
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CYBER STRATEGY OF GOVERNMENT OF NEPAL (GoN) 22
APPENDIX D
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... The 49th largest country in the world by population, a country between India and China, is a landlocked country with 76% workforce employed in agriculture. The current situation of cyber defense and cyber law is very poor in Nepal and the IT Act / Policy 2010 is the current one which imposes various threats from internal and external factors in Nepal [79]. Nepal poses a greater threat from its giant neighbor nations -China and India. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
The rise of online devices, online shopping, online gaming, online users, and online teaching has ultimately given rise to online attacks and online crimes. As the cases of COVID-19 seem to increase day by day, so do the online crimes and attacks (as many sectors and organizations went 100% online now). The current technological advancements and the cyber war already coined the ethical issue as well as the rise of internet users and the sudden need of ethical cyber defense. This was the problem on one end, and on the other nation states (some secretly, some openly), are investing in Robot Weapons and Autonomous Weapons Systems. New technologies have combined with countries’ security worries to give rise to a new arms race. Because a country / nation can enter the automated weapons space in a way that is impractical for nuclear weapons, nations are trying to make their presence known in both the offline and online battlefields. My thesis is that it is possible to frame the ethical security model based on the increasing online crimes, robot weapons and online attacks. The main contribution of this dissertation will be to show that there are multiple cyber defense principles, counter measures, and ethical actions to slow down these ongoing threats (which is the first and foremost need in this current online era). Most importantly, the countermeasures and security strategies developed (based on increasing online attacks and rise of AWS) can save billions of dollars (invested in developing autonomous weapons, firewalls & robotics industries for arms race between nation states) and work towards global peace and security.
... The 49th largest country in the world by population, a country between India and China, is a landlocked country with 76% workforce employed in agriculture. The current situation of cyber defense and cyber law is very poor in Nepal and the IT Act / Policy 2010 is the current one which imposes various threats from internal and external factors in Nepal [13]. Nepal poses a greater threat from its giant neighbor nations -China and India. ...
Article
Full-text available
Several countries in the world are facing cyber-attacks and cybercrimes on their internal and external systems. The necessity of cyber-defense and cyber intelligence arises because of ongoing crises, global pandemic and to prepare everything online. Some of the initiatives by governments of under-developing nations as well as developing nations are excellent but lack some sort of cyber ethics and global cyber laws. Our study focuses on major cyber-defense ethics, cyber practices and various defense strategies adopted by governments of various countries and our cyber-defense proposal to combat the challenging problems in cyberspace or cyber domains. How much ethical and responsible are we doing or harming others in the name of defending the cyber systems and networks. We have also outlined the problems and opportunities of cyber-defense and the future scope of computer ethics in cyberspace.
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The well-known pandemic, COVID-19 or coronavirus has affected the lives of every person in the world either directly or indirectly. As the cases of COVID-19 seem to increase day by day, so do the online crimes and attacks (as many sectors and organizations went 100% online now). Our study and research presented here focuses on the pre and post scenario of COVID-19 in terms of online crimes, security and online frauds, attacks. We have also outlined the background study and respective counter measures (with various ways to safeguard online works, online transactions, and online threats) for the increasing online crimes in the post-COVID era. We came up with the conclusion that, to slow down or end the ongoing online crime, cyber power nations should help underdeveloped and under-developing nations in combating cyber-crimes, and to develop countermeasures. These under developing nations (mainly in Asia and Africa) are the major source and home of cyber-attacks and continuous threats to the entire world. We have also proposed a security model and major insights with major types of cyber-crimes based on the four nations crime data, counter measures, increasing online crimes, attacks of the post COVID scenario.
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