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The Role of Social Movements in the Social Innovation (SI): Euskaraldia, as a Digital Panopticon

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Abstract

ABSTRACT: This article draws on the thorny topic of the Social Innovation (SI). Particularly, it revolves around the role of those social movements promoting the Basque language not only in relation to their organisational models but also to their holistic strategy to tackle inevitably digital, urban, and political challenges surfaced by the disruptions stemming from the post-COVID society. Beyond the prescriptive, normative, or dogmatic standpoints, by contrast, this article actually aims to reflect upon and spark a fruitful debate on the current momentum by applying an amalgamation of SI concepts to the reality of the Basque Country. It employs ‘Action Research’ methodology to gather information and carry out fieldwork research as follows: (i) The invitation made by Euskaltzaleen Topagunea (as the main body for coordinating civic groups) to deliver a conference in the Symposium called Topaldia 2020 was the point of departure of this article. (ii) Consequently, Soziolinguistikako Klusterra (as the main body of research for the Basque language social development) through its scientific journal Bat, disseminates within this article the main findings of this ‘Action Research’ process. Thus, the article is structured in five sections: (i) first, it develops the SI concept and applies through its lenses a re-interpretation of the current momentum for the Basque language in the techno-political parameters (social entrepreneurship, activism, and co-operativism); (ii) second, in the backdrop of the post-COVID society, this article argues that, more than ever before, ‘liquid’ social movements are required to lead niche experiments; (iii) third, as a result of the digital, urban, and political transformations, the basque language, euskara, should be articulated as a ‘commons’, beyond the binary terms of the public and private; (iv) fourth, this article adopts as a case study the social experimentation project entitled ‘Euskaraldia’ taking place once every two years, in which people related to the Basque language, Euskara—though the profiling of two interdependent roles, active speakers as ‘ahobizi’, and early-adopters, practitioners, and listeners as ‘belarriprest’—in all seven provicinces and the Diaspore of the Basque Country, are encouraged to speak more intensively Euskara over an 11-day period (www.euskaraldia.eus) by overcoming motivational, contextual, and psycho-sociological boundaries and threats imposed by the diglosic lock-in effect. This section, therefore, slightly outline a prototype from the Digital SI perspective called ‘Euskaraldia, as a Digital Panopticon’; ultimately (v), this article concludes with a decalogue and five questions by further encouraging active reflection and social experimentation among stakeholders. Keywords: Social Innovation; Liquid Social Movements; Commons; Euskaraldia; Digital Panopticon; Technopolitics; Data; Urban Transformations; Digital Transformations; Political Transformations; Post-COVID Society; Social Entrepreneurship; Activism; Co-operativism To cite this article/Artikulua erreferentziatzeko erabili honako zita: Calzada, I. (2020), Gizarte Mugimenduen Rola Gizarte Berrikuntzan (GB): Euskaraldia, Panoptiko Digital Gisa // The Role of Social Movements in the Social Innovation (SI): Euskaraldia as a Digital Panopticon. BAT Aldizkaria 115(2): 85-114. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.35980.05763/5. CC BY-NC 4.0
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Calzada, I. (2020)
The Role of Social Movements in the Social Innovation:
Euskaraldia, as a Digital Panopticon/Gizarte Mugimenduen Rola Gizarte Berrikuntzan:
Euskaraldia, Panoptiko Digital Gisa, BAT Soziolinguistika Aldizkaria/Journal
115(2): 85-114. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.35980.05763/5.
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Pandemiak,
hiperkonektutako
gizarte honetan
derrigortutako
teknologia
berriekiko
dependentzia
ekarri digu.
Gizarte Mugimenduen Rola Gizarte Berrikuntzan (GB): Euskaraldia,
Panoptiko Digital Gisa – Igor Calzada
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Euskal Herrian,
historikoki,
euskarak eta bere
gizarte
hezurmamitzeak
gizarte
berrikuntzarekin
izan du lotura
zuzena: euskarak
testuinguru
historiko eta
sozial
ezberdinetan
izaten ari den rol
eraldatzaile
ezberdinduari ere
erreparatu
beharko genioke.
Igor Calzada – Gizarte Mugimenduen Rola Gizarte Berrikuntzan (GB):
Euskaraldia, Panoptiko Digital Gisa
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(i) Erresilientzia, erresistentzia, eta eraldaketa soziala helburutzat duten, hege-
moniaren kontrako ekintza eta diskurtso alternatiboak sortzeko gaitasuna da
(Adibide gisa: #EtxealditikEuskaraldira);
(ii) Gaitasun honek aldi berean, bitartekaritza baldintzak sortu behar ditu
eragile ezberdinen artean (testuinguru urbano, politiko, eta digital aldakorren
ondorioz) erabakitze-prozesu demokratiagoak erdieste aldera.
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Erresilientzia
erresistentzia, eta
eraldaketa
soziala
helburutzat
duten,
hegemoniaren
kontrako ekintza
eta diskurtso
alternatiboak
sortzeko
gaitasuna da.
Gizarte Mugimenduen Rola Gizarte Berrikuntzan (GB): Euskaraldia,
Panoptiko Digital Gisa – Igor Calzada
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Gizarte
mugimenduen
rola eta
zentralitatea
gizarte
berrikuntzan:
estrategia(k)
behar d(ir)a,
gizarte
mugimendu gisa
autokontzientzia
bezala
funtzionatzen
hasteko, beti ere
inguruko
interes-taldeen
ekosistema oso
ondo
identifikatuta
baldin badago
bederen.
Igor Calzada – Gizarte Mugimenduen Rola Gizarte Berrikuntzan (GB):
Euskaraldia, Panoptiko Digital Gisa
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kxeyx||tz{z{uzvbht||fbxuc}v
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Aukerak egon
litezke
lurraldetasun eta
gizarte
akribazioaren
arteko sintesian,
gizarte
esperimentazioa
ahalbidetzeko
lanabes digital,
eta zehatzago
esanda, datuen
gobernantza eta
bisualizazioari
erraratuko
begenio.
Igor Calzada – Gizarte Mugimenduen Rola Gizarte Berrikuntzan (GB):
Euskaraldia, Panoptiko Digital Gisa
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estatiko batean
eraldaketa
printzak izaten
dira baina
disrupzioekin
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Gizarte Mugimenduen Rola Gizarte Berrikuntzan (GB): Euskaraldia,
Panoptiko Digital Gisa – Igor Calzada
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}
r
(i)Eraldaketa digitalak: Gizarte komunikazioak egun sare sozialen bidez
gertatzeaz gain, gure iharduera asko aldi berean datu bihurtzen ari dira (van
Dijck 2014). Datuen ekosistemak kudeatzen hasi beharko ginateke hizkuntza
irizpide batetik abiatuta (Calzada; Almirall 2020). Denbora luzean zehar, 2.0 pa-
radigmarekin datuak partekatu ditugu sare sozialetan (Facebook eta Twitter-
ren nagusiki; HPS-Eusko Jaurlaritza 2010) eta orain non daude eta zer egiten
dute Big Tech multinazional erraldoiek gure datuen historikoekin? Euskararen
erabiltzaile digitalen datuek ba al dute merkatu baliorik? Nola bermatu eskubide
digitalak hizkuntza eskubideekin bateraturik (Calzada 2018d)? Euskarazko
datuen pribatasunak zein tratamendu behar du izan? Egongo ote dira aurki
gurekin euskaraz hitzegiten duten robotak, again Osakidetzan, telemedikuntzarako
(post-COVID-19 robotak)? Eskatuko al diegu euskaraz jakin dezatela (ere!)?
Laboral Kutxa, Euskaltel edota Eroski-rekin ditugun hartuemanetan? Multina-
zionalek gure datuak ‘lapurtzen’ dituztenean, zein da euskarak jokatzen duen
rola? Delako Big Data, Blockchain eta Data Analytics-ak nola jar daitezke eus-
kararen negoziazio-boterea trinkotzearen alde? Gauzen-Internet-aren pean
(Internet of Things, IoT), bizimoldea euskararekin nolakoa izango da, makina
eta pertsonen artean? Hitzegingo al diogu gure hozkailuari euskaraz? Ez da
erokeria. Adimen artifiziala eta Gauzen-Internet-a dira.
(ii)Eraldaketa urbanoak: Hizkuntzaren erabilera lurralde baldintzagaien menpe
dago hein handi batean. Eta beraz lurraldegintza adimendun bat eskatzen du
hirietan gertatzen diren eraldaketak landa eremura eta alderantziz modu
kxeyx||tz{z{uzvbht||fbxuc}v
nyygzltqt|dljnyygm||o{hfotbmryy|z{jq{
Ezinbestean bada
ere, OnLife,
Unplugging
edota gizarte
hiperkonektatuar
ekin bizitzen
ikasi beharko
dugu, gure
mundu bat
eratzen joateko.
Igor Calzada – Gizarte Mugimenduen Rola Gizarte Berrikuntzan (GB):
Euskaraldia, Panoptiko Digital Gisa
orekatu batean kudeatuz (Calzada 2016b). GBren bitartez, euskararen erabilera,
genero, gentrifikazio, gizarte berdintasun eza, migrazio mugimendu eta iharduera
ekonomikoarekin gurutzatu beharko genuke.
(iii)Eraldaketa politikoak: Nazioa ez da entitate homogeneo eta emanda da-
torkigun utopia bat, egunero sortzen dugu, gure jardunarekin, gure elkarrekin-
tzarekin hiritar gisa. Hizkuntza, bestalde, geroz eta gehiago algoritmoen sare
konplexu batzuetan jaso eta kodetzen da. Euskal Herria, hartara, hiru barruti
administratiboetan banatua (eta bi estatuen artean partekatua) dagoen nazio
algoritmiko amankomun bat dela esan genezake, lan hipotesi moduan (Calzada
2018a; 2018b): Noiz arte itxoingo dugu gure hiru barrutien hartuemanak
blockchain teknologia bidez kidetzen hasteko? Ez al da orain unea hori
burutzeko, hiritarren osasun premiak direla-ta? Hizkuntzak izango du ba lekurik
ezta? Nola lotu, nola aurreratu ekuazioan diseinuan (by design) egoteko,
deskartez baino (by default)?
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cK}a
`de\caKfZWdZ[s~
x    Z_TT_b]f 
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P n      
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SuR
z{z{v}
kxeyx||tz{z{uzvbht||fbxuc}v
nyygzltqt|dljnyygm||o{hfotbmryy|z{jq{
Euskalgintzan
diharduten
gizarte
mugimendu
likidoen rola
beraz, GBz
eraldaketa
urbano, digital,
eta politikoak
identifikatu,
barneratu eta
modu erresiliente
batean
erantzutean
datza.
Gizarte Mugimenduen Rola Gizarte Berrikuntzan (GB): Euskaraldia,
Panoptiko Digital Gisa – Igor Calzada
Px
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denbora gehiegi
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norberaren
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baina oso
denbora gutxi,
adostasunetara
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zubigintza
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Igor Calzada – Gizarte Mugimenduen Rola Gizarte Berrikuntzan (GB):
Euskaraldia, Panoptiko Digital Gisa
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Euskara
commons bat
bihurtuz, gizarte
mugimendu diren
euskara taldeen
sare-antolakuntza
egiturak
autoeratu direla
ondorioztatu
daiteke. Baina
nola egin
Euskaraldiarekin
saiakera bat
GB Digitalaren
prozesu
esperimental bat
abian jarriz?
Igor Calzada – Gizarte Mugimenduen Rola Gizarte Berrikuntzan (GB):
Euskaraldia, Panoptiko Digital Gisa
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}a3bIcPdf  ~ p }
}}
         
~pYeaefe\a`^c]Tfa
~T}}
 a}
kxeyx||tz{z{uzvbht||fbxuc}v
nyygzltqt|dljnyygm||o{hfotbmryy|z{jq{
Euskal hiritar,
izan belarriprest
edo ahobizi,
izango litzateke
panoptikoa
ikusteko gai
izango
litzatekeena, datu
uholdea modu
bolondres batean
sortuz eta
donazio bidez
emanez.
Euskaraldia data
altruism deitzen
den joera oso
berritzaile gisa
uler liteke beraz.
Gizarte Mugimenduen Rola Gizarte Berrikuntzan (GB): Euskaraldia,
Panoptiko Digital Gisa – Igor Calzada
U}~
ppa
}j}j
~p}
M^][e`e\YcefYeaefZ_TT_b]fu
v~i}
Pn~k
}
  ~ xu_v  
p}
  ?eaeQM^][e`e\Yce
~
k ?eaeQM^][e`e\Yce }} 
sP
(i) Aurrez-aurrekoa eman ezin daitekeen neurrian, berau ahalik eta aurrez-au-
rrekoena egitea;
(ii)eremu pribatuak dituen abantailak (lotsa ez edukitzea, solaskideak aukeratzeko
askatasuna belarriprest/ahobizi), anonimotasuna (pribatasuna bermatuz eta
enkriptatutako datu pertsonal gisa kontsideratuz), pantailaren atzean, edo mu-
gikorrarekin (Data-Euskaraldia-App-aren bidez eta egungo ContactTracingApp-
en afera gaindituz) ahalbidetzea;
(iii)ez da by-default ulertu behar den sistema bat, baizik aurrez-aurrekoa
posible balitz, berau elikatu eta birsortzeko moduko geruza digitala sortzea da
proposatzen den prototipoa;
(iv)baina dudarik gabe, balio erantsi handiena sor lezakeena da, denbora oso
konkretu batean euskara elkarrekintzak kodetuz sortuko litzatekeen datu anabasa
itzela izango litzatekeela. Hor uste dut ez garela ohartzen eskuartean dugun balioaz.
R?eaeQM^][e`e\YceQs
~ir
(i)Dashboard edota erakusleihoa, data visualisation-a erakusteko, berau real-
time-data-rekin elikatuko litzatekeena belarriprest/ahobizi bakoitzaren aldetik.
(ii)Elkarrekintzaren jarraipena eta monitoretza. Hemen sare sozialen bidezko
edukiak zentralizatu eta etiketatu ahal izango lirateke Whatsapp, Twitter,
Facebook, edota Linkedin bidez. Geolokalizatzea eta trazabilitatea bermatzea
ezinbestekoa litzateke panoptiko digitalak bere funtzioa bete dezan.
kxeyx||tz{z{uzvbht||fbxuc}v
nyygzltqt|dljnyygm||o{hfotbmryy|z{jq{
Euskaraldiak
datu horiek
kapitalizatu egin
beharko lituzke,
Euskaraldia data
commons
(subiranotasun
teknologikoaren
lehen lagin
moduan).
Igor Calzada – Gizarte Mugimenduen Rola Gizarte Berrikuntzan (GB):
Euskaraldia, Panoptiko Digital Gisa
(iii)Azkenik, iharduera bereziak, alegia, ekitaldiak egin litezke lekuan-lekuko
partehartze online-a bideratuz (Telegram edota Instagram-en bidez). Guzti hau
zentralizatu eta uneoro komunikatu beharko litzateke Euskaraldiak irauten
duen bitartean, interaktibitate eta biralitate gorena erdietsiz.
Irudia 2. Euskaraldia, Panoptiko Digital Gisa
kxeyx||tz{z{uzvbht||fbxuc}v
nyygzltqt|dljnyygm||o{hfotbmryy|z{jq{
Gizarte Mugimenduen Rola Gizarte Berrikuntzan (GB): Euskaraldia,
Panoptiko Digital Gisa – Igor Calzada
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 }   
r
(i) Gizarte mugimenduek, auzoz-auzo eta herriz-herri, ez lukete zertan
antolakuntza eredu berbera izan behar. Aldiz, Euskaltzaleen Topaguneak
ahalegin bat egin beharko luke estrategia orokor bat zedarritzen, estrategia
asimetriko lokalen uztarketa bat eginez paraleloan.
(ii) Hirugarren atalean azaldu den moduan, interes-taldeen arteko bitartekaritza/zu-
bigintza ahalbidetu ahal izango lukeen Penta Helix-a gomendatzen da erabiltzea,
GBren hazia ereiteko nonahi.
(iii) Euskalgintzak apur bat bere domeinutik atera beharko luke eta gizarte
gaiekin txertatu hizkuntzaren ekologia bat autoeratuz. Horrek ere onura garbi
bat ekarriko luke bestalde, GB lortzeko ezinbestekoa den disziplinartekotasuna
eta heterodoxia besarkatuz.
(iv ) Ondorioz, GBk euskal geografietan azaltzen den aniztasuna hauspotzea
ekarri beharko luke, erosotasun guneak ekidinez. Euskaraldiak, besteak beste,
agian horregatik ere izan du arrakasta: Erosotasuna/nortasuna erronkekin or-
dezkatu duelako. Edozein sentitzen zen ondo bere rolarekin, bere erronka par-
tikularekin, eta egokitzapena gakoa izan dela esango genuke, jarrera guztiak
inklutsibo/barneratzaile egitearekin.
(v) Artikuluak azpimarra berezia egiten dio gizarte esperimentazioari: horregatik
hartzen du kasu-prototipo moduan Euskaraldia. GB ezin da garatu soilik neurketak
eginez, erregaia eta errealitatea eraldatzeko errealitatean operatu behar dugu de-
rrigorrez. Living Lab-ak, metodologia bezala, oso ongietorriak beharko lukete
izan euskalgintzaren artean (Calzada 2018b) ikerketa lerroa ireki eta sakontzeko.
kxeyx||tz{z{uzvbht||fbxuc}v
nyygzltqt|dljnyygm||o{hfotbmryy|z{jq{
Euskalgintzak
bere domeinutik
atera beharko
luke eta gizarte
gaiekin txertatu
hizkuntzaren
ekologia bat
autoeratuz.
Horrek ere onura
garbi bat
ekarriko luke GB
lortzeko
disziplinartekota
suna eta
heterodoxia
besarkatuz.
Igor Calzada – Gizarte Mugimenduen Rola Gizarte Berrikuntzan (GB):
Euskaraldia, Panoptiko Digital Gisa
(vi) Gizarte mugimenduek tokian-tokiko eraldaketak identifikatzea ezinbestekoa
da. Hizkuntza-egoera anitza izanik, bere trataera ere berezia izan behar du.
Data-Euskaraldiak (EuskaraldiaApp moduan prototipatua) oso material garran-
tzitsua ekoiz lezake hizkuntza ekologiaren etnografiak eta hizkuntza politiketan
aintzindari izateko datu masiboak lortuz. Euskara taldeak aintzindariak izatea
bultzatu behar da, follower edo kultura gregarioa alboratu eta gaindituz.
(vii) Europar Batasunak berriki besarkatu du datu estrategia amankomun bat
eskualde eta hiri guztietarako, subirautza teknologikoaren bidez, hiritarren
eskubide digitalak babestuz (European Commission 2020). Hemendik aurrera
datu ekosistemak eratuko dira sektoreka (Calzada; Almirall 2020). Euskara
izan daiteke Europa mailan hizkuntza gutxiengotuen artean liderra datu eko-
sistemak eratzen? Zergatik ez.
(viii) Euskaltzaleen Topaguneak antolatutako Topaldia 2020an sarritan entzuten
ziren GBen aktibaziorako beharrezko soslai eta funtzioak. Hiru dira, ezberdintasunak
kontuan izanda soslaiak: (gizarte) ekintzailetasuna, aktibismoa (garai bateko
militantzia, egungo bolondresismoa), eta kooperatibagintza. Komeni da ezber-
dintasun hauek kontuan izatea eta dagokiona dagokion unean aplikatzea.
(ix) Nazioartearekin zein estrategia jorratu behar dugu? Euskaraldia izan liteke
gure nazioartera proiektatzen den erakuslehioa?
(x) Eta azkenik, Data-Euskaraldia, Euskal Herriko auzune, herri, bailara eta
hirietan bizi diren euskal hiritarrek elikatu beharko lukete. Adimen artifizialak la-
gunduko ote digu bide hori ustiatzen? Ba al ditugu erakunde publikoak lider-
goarekin gai hauetan, industria 4.0-tik harago? Agian nazio algoritmiko gisa,
unea iritsi zaigu, trena hartzeko (galdu baino lehen!) (Calzada 2018a, 2018b).
k}
r
(i) Nola bideratu GBren estrategia asimetrikoa eta gobernantza maila-anitza hiru
barruti administratiboetan, modu koordinatu batean eta blockchain erabilita?
(ii)OnLife-ean gaudenez, posible izango al da euskalgintzako eragileek au-
rrez-aurrekoa vs digitalaren arteko antagonismo hori gainditzea? COVID-19aren
krisiak prozesu hori ezinbestean arinduko ote al du?
(iii) Intersekzionalitatea, zein problematikekin, non eta nola?
(iv ) Neurketetatik esperimentazio jarrai batetara joko bagenu?
kxeyx||tz{z{uzvbht||fbxuc}v
nyygzltqt|dljnyygm||o{hfotbmryy|z{jq{
Nazioartearekin
zein estrategia
jorratu behar
dugu?
Euskaraldia izan
liteke gure
nazioartera
proiektatzen den
erakuslehioa?
Gizarte Mugimenduen Rola Gizarte Berrikuntzan (GB): Euskaraldia,
Panoptiko Digital Gisa – Igor Calzada
(v) Euskalgintzatik, antolakuntza ereduetatik harago, ezjakina identifikatzeko
estrategiak nola abian jarri prospektiba erabiliz?

3;A9OILAPCABG>M&G@O;PM4ACLG@O
x}s
r
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Igor Calzada – Gizarte Mugimenduen Rola Gizarte Berrikuntzan (GB):
Euskaraldia, Panoptiko Digital Gisa
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Gizarte Mugimenduen Rola Gizarte Berrikuntzan (GB): Euskaraldia,
Panoptiko Digital Gisa – Igor Calzada
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Igor Calzada – Gizarte Mugimenduen Rola Gizarte Berrikuntzan (GB):
Euskaraldia, Panoptiko Digital Gisa
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Gizarte Mugimenduen Rola Gizarte Berrikuntzan (GB): Euskaraldia,
Panoptiko Digital Gisa – Igor Calzada
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nyygzltqt|dljnyygm||o{hfotbmryy|z{jq{
Igor Calzada – Gizarte Mugimenduen Rola Gizarte Berrikuntzan (GB):
Euskaraldia, Panoptiko Digital Gisa
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 :_^`be\f _Pf HbP_`Teac_bf FdZWb_\_XKf f C_\cacZ]Rf ='uzv |l||do~
r|{~|{h{j|qoo|lh|~z{|q~|d|{lft
]xVSWOnuz{|fv~\n~i}~p
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kwkw~
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a~}~z{|t~{o~od|
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kxeyx||tz{z{uzvbht||fbxuc}v
nyygzltqt|dljnyygm||o{hfotbmryy|z{jq{
Gizarte Mugimenduen Rola Gizarte Berrikuntzan (GB): Euskaraldia,
Panoptiko Digital Gisa – Igor Calzada
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Y^Zac_bfa_fO_Zce\fHbb_Leac_b~^rpXp~
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yL@gcpYWQLpuz{{dv~\nwrywn_
c_wp}^[M^`_Sdebf^`UebfebYf`dXc_be\f]a^Q
Ycd]Rf=uov|qtz{q~r|{~||ddj{qlqddlf{d{dddod
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mseX`@spQVw[M^`_SdebfC\ebbcbX
Oa^Ycd]Rf;(uovfoffto~r|{~|{h{j{qltfo|o~z{|q~|loqf{|
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mpQkWmekuz{|dv~O_Zce\fHbb_Leac_bfe]fefF`cXd`fP_`fF`eb]P_`Q
Teac_b]GfFWdfB_\df_PfBd]de`ZW~krp}^~
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ac_b]Gf FdZWb_\_XKRf >_Ld`bebZdRf >\_Ue\cVeac_bRf =uzv |ft|lz~
r|{~||lzj~z{{l~|~z~|ft
gn^iWmmyxZyn]WgOcxkVnpm]uz{|tv~8d<f5`_bQ
acd`]fcbfO_Zce\fHbb_Leac_bfBd]de`ZW~krT_]w~
gWMxS]a uz{|qv~ (f O_Zce\f Hbb_Leac_bf A_LdTdba]f aWeaf %dbaf2c`e\N
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WYVnWRWmxOZ]uz{||v~M]aea^fMab_VcYe`dbf+_ba`efdY_f:ea_``cV[_
@cVa^bf@d``ce[f8_\eRf4d`Xeac[fdaef8_`[fJ``_Vadbf?ca^db~Yrp~
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Igor Calzada – Gizarte Mugimenduen Rola Gizarte Berrikuntzan (GB):
Euskaraldia, Panoptiko Digital Gisa
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Gizarte Mugimenduen Rola Gizarte Berrikuntzan (GB): Euskaraldia,
Panoptiko Digital Gisa – Igor Calzada
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Igor Calzada – Gizarte Mugimenduen Rola Gizarte Berrikuntzan (GB):
Euskaraldia, Panoptiko Digital Gisa
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