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Truong, V.B., V.C. Nguyen, P. Ormerod, Q.C. Truong, V.T. Chu & P. Kumar. 2020. The genus Corybas in Vietnam, with two new records. Lankesteriana 20 (1): 49–55.

Authors:
  • Bidoup Nui Ba National park, Vietnam

Abstract

An overview of the orchid genus Corybas in Vietnam is presented. It was known to be represented by a single species, C. annamensis. In this article, we report two new records, C. himalaicus, and C. geminigibbus. Detailed descriptions, synonyms, type data, information on ecology and phenology, distribution and color plates are provided for all three species along with the key to their identification. Key Words: Corybas annamensis, Corybas geminigibbus, Corybas himalaicus, Orchidaceae, Orchidoideae
LANKESTERIANA 20(1): 49–55. 2020.
THE GENUS CORYBAS IN VIETNAM, WITH TWO NEW RECORDS
Vuong Ba Truong1, Van Canh nguyen2, Paul ormerod3, Quang Cuong Truong4,
Van Tan Chu5 & Pankaj kumar6,7
1Institute of Tropical Biology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 85 Tran Quoc Toan,
Dist.3, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
2Institute of Applied Technology, Thu Dau Mot University, No. 6 Tran Van On Street, Phu Hoa Ward,
Thu Dau Mot City, Binh Duong Province, Vietnam
3P.O. Box 8210, Cairns 4870, Queensland, Australia
4Bidoup, Nui Ba National Park, 5e Tran Hung Dao, Da Lat, Lâm Đồng Province, Vietnam
5Center for Rescue and Conservation of Organism, Sa Pa District, Lao Cai Province, Vietnam
6Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden, Lam Kam Road, Lam Tsuen, Tai Po, New Territories,
Hong Kong S.A.R., P. R. China
7Author for correspondence: pkumar@kfbg.org
aBsTraCT. An overview of the orchid genus Corybas in Vietnam is presented. It was known to be represented
by a single species, C. annamensis. In this article, we report two new records, C. himalaicus, and C.
geminigibbus. Detailed descriptions, synonyms, type data, information on ecology and phenology, distribution
and color plates are provided for all three species along with the key to their identication.
key Words: Corybas annamensis, Corybas geminigibbus, Corybas himalaicus, Orchidaceae, Orchidoideae
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15517/lank.v20i1.41330
Received 16 January 2020; accepted for publication 30 March 2020. First published online: 6 April 2020.
Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-No Derivs 3.0 Costa Rica License.
The genus Corybas Salisb. (Salisbury 1807)
comprises about 120 terrestrial and lithophytic
orchid species, widely distributed in India, South
China, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, the Malesian
region, Australia, New Zealand and the western
Pacic (Pridgeon et al. 2001, Chung & Hsu 2008,
Chantanaorrapint & Chantanaorrapint 2016, Govaerts
et al. 2019). All species of this genus are small plants
with underground tubers bearing single cordate leaf
and a solitary ower with a pair of spurs at the base of
the labellum.
This genus was rst included in the orchid ora
of Vietnam, in 2007 with the discovery of Corybas
annamensis Aver. (Averyanov et al. 2007). Recently,
from separate surveys in Fansipan Mountain and Chu
Mu Mountain, two more species of Corybas have
been discovered. Based on available literature and
consultation of herbarium specimens at K, P, LE, these
two species were identied as C. geminigibbus J.J.Sm.
and C. himalaicus (King & Pantl.) Schltr. and these are
hitherto new records for the orchid ora of Vietnam.
Detailed description, synonyms, type data, information
on ecology and phenology, distribution and color
photographs are provided for all three species along
with the key to identication of these species. Voucher
specimens were collected and preserved in 70%
ethanol and stored at VNM. Photographs were taken
with a Canon 600D tted with an EF–S 60mm f/2.8
Macro USM lens. Terminology for the morphological
description follows Beentje (2012).
key To T he sPeCie s of Coryba s in VieT nam
1′ Spurs of labellum poorly developed or very short (<2 mm long); apical part of the labellum irregularly
mbriate C. geminigibbus
1″ Spurs well developed (>3mm long), horn–shaped; labellum apex acute, straight or slightly curved 2
2′ Margin of labellum ciliate in apical part and erose at base, without swollen callus at mouth of throat
C. annamensis
2″ Margin of labellum dentate in apical part and entire at the base, swollen callus at mouth of throat present
C. himalaicus
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LANKESTERIANA 20(1). 2020. © Universidad de Costa Rica, 2020.
Corybas annamensis Aver. OrchideenJ. 14: 97. 2007
(Fig. 1).
TYPE: Vietnam. Lam Dong Province: Lac Duong
District, Da Chais Municipality, elevation 1600 m,
19 October 2005, T.T.T.Tramg, T.V.Thao, N.T.Vinh,
HLF 5317 (LE01059678-Holotype!).
Small, terrestrial herbs with underground tubers.
Tubers spherical, up to 7 mm in diameter, warty,
covered with short hairs. Stem erect, terete, 2.5–4.5
mm long, 1.0–2.5 mm wide, tinged green to white; with
a sheathing bract 0.8–1.2 cm long, 0.2–0.3 mm wide,
nely haired at the base. Leaf solitary, sessile, cordate,
surface slightly plicate, 1.5–3.5 cm long, 1.0–2.8 mm
wide, membranous, dull greyish-green, irregularly
wavy at the margin, apex acute. Inorescence terminal,
single owered. Flower 1.2–1.6 cm in diameter, dorsal
sepal dark crimson–red to purple, lateral sepals and
petals white tinged with crimson towards the base,
labellum white with red stripes and red margin. Dorsal
sepal ovate or spathulate, emerging from the narrow
base, strongly bend upwards, 2.0 – 2.5 cm long, 0.8 –
1.2 cm wide, with around 11 white stripes, sepals along
with labellum forming a helmet like structure. Lateral
sepals liform, free, erect, 5.0–5.5 cm long, 0.8–1.0
mm wide. Petals similar to lateral sepals in shape, size.
Labellum immobile, ovate, inconspicuously 3-lobed,
1.6–2.2 cm long, 1.4–1.8 cm wide, concave, arcuate,
bent downwards, apex acute, surface nely warty, with
hairs on the margin, surrounding the column towards
the base, white with crimson–purple margin and 3–5
dark crimson-purple longitudinal bands on the lateral
lobes and towards the margin, spur 0.4–0.6 cm long.
Column short, 3–4 mm long, 2.0–2.5 mm wide, erect
at the tip, with protruding round wings. Pollinia 4 in
2 pairs. Pedicel slender, gradually extending up to 12
cm during fruit maturity. Capsule ovate to cylindric,
1.0–1.5 cm long, 0.4–0.6 cm wide.
eCology and Phenology: This species was found
growing at around 1400–1600 m in elevation in
primary humid broad-leaved evergreen montane
forest. Very rare.
floWering: June–July.
disTriBuTion: Endemic to Vietnam (Bi Doup-Nui Ba
National Park).
sPeCimen examined: Bidoup National Park, Da Chais
Commune, Lac Duong District, Lam Dong Province,
Truong Ba Vuong, Truong Quang Cuong, 2 August
2018, BV 382 (VNM 00023640) (VNM!).
Corybas himalaicus (King & Pantl.) Schltr., Repert.
Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 19: 19. 1923; Pearce & Cribb,
Orch. Bhutan 118–120. 2002. ≡Corysanthes himalaica
King & Pantl., J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist.
65: 128. 1896. ≡Calcearia himalaica (King & Pantl.)
M.A.Clem. & D.L.Jones, Orchadian 13: 444. 2002.
(Fig. 2).
TYPE: India. Sikkim: Pantling 385 (CAL-Holotype);
K000859038, K000859039, K000859040 (K-Iso-
types!); P00372553 (P-Isotypes!); (BM000958057,
BM000032565 (BM-Isotypes!).
Small, terrestrial or lithophyte herbs with
underground tubers. Tuber ovoid, ca. 2–5 mm in
diameter. Stem erect, terete, ca. 5–40 mm long, divided
into 2 parts, separate by a node covered by a sheath
ca. 2.5 mm long, tubular, basal part of stem with
white papillose hairs, stem glabrous above the sheath.
Leaf sessile, cordate, ca. 72–12 mm long, 8–11 mm
wide, apex mucronate. Inorescence terminal, single
owered, oral bract 4–5 mm long, 1.0–1.4 mm
wide, apex acuminate, as long as or slightly longer
than ovary and pedicel; pedicel (with ovary) ca. 4.7–
5.0 mm long. Flower dorsal sepal reddish-white at
base, petals and lateral sepals reddish-white at base,
labellum white with red to dark red spots. Dorsal
sepal hooded, oblanceolate, ca. 1.0–1.5 cm long
0.4–0.5 mm wide, clasping the basal part of labellum,
margin entire. Lateral sepals liform, connate at
base ca. 5 mm long. Petals similar to lateral sepals,
slightly longer than lateral sepals, ca. 6 mm long,
connate with lateral sepals at base. Labellum margin
inrolled forming a tubular basal, curving downward,
ca. 4 mm long; apical part extended, 3.2–3.5 mm
long, ca. 7 mm wide, orbicular (attened) in outline
shape; disc with reddish white callus, in front of
callus dark crimson papillose; margin erose, irregular
dentate only at apical part, basal two spurs at base of
labellum, ca. 2.2 mm long, 1 mm wide, apex obtuse,
pointing forward. Column winged at apex ca. 2.5 mm
long. Pollinia 4 in 2 pairs. Capsule not seen.
Taxono miC TreaTmen T
LANKESTERIANA 20(1). 2020. © Universidad de Costa Rica, 2020.
51
Truong et al. — The genus Corybas in Vietnam
figure 1. Corybas annamensis Aver. A–D. Plants in habitat showing morphological characters. Photographs by Nguyen
Van Canh.
A
B
C
D
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LANKESTERIANA 20(1). 2020. © Universidad de Costa Rica, 2020.
figure 2. Corybas himalaicus (King & Pantl.) Schltr. A–D. Plants in habitat showing morphological oral characters.
Photographs by Nguyen Thanh Luan.
B
A
C
D
LANKESTERIANA 20(1). 2020. © Universidad de Costa Rica, 2020.
53
Truong et al. — The genus Corybas in Vietnam
eCology and Phenology: This species was found
growing as a lithophyte among mosses around 2500
m a.s.l. in primary evergreen mixed broadleaved–
coniferous forest, with Abies delavayi subsp.
fansipanensis (Q.P.Xiang, L.K.Fu & Nan Li)
Rushforth as the dominant tree species. Very rare.
floWering: June.
disTriBuTion: Vietnam (Fansipan Mountain), Bhutan,
India (Sikkim) and China (Taiwan).
sPeCimen examined: Lao Cai Province, Sapa Pistrict,
Fansipan Mountain, Truong Ba Vuong, Nguyen
Thanh Luan, 22 June 2019, BV 381 (VNM 00023641)
(VNM!); Lao Cai Province, Sapa District, Fansipan
Mountain, Truong Ba Vuong, Nguyen Thanh Luan, 23
June 2019, LE 01066674 (LE!), LE 01061397 (LE!)
noTe: The Vietnamese specimens slightly differ from
the type in somewhat shorter lateral sepals and petals.
Corybas geminigibbus J.J.Sm., Mitt. Inst. Bot.
Hamburg 7: 13. 1927; Dranseld et al.: 593. 1986;
Seidenfaden & Wood: 121. 1992. (Fig. 3).
TYPE: Indonesia. Borneo: West Kalimantan, Mt Mulu,
Winkler 496 (HBG500940) (HBG-Holotype).
Small, terrestrial or lithophyte herbs with
underground tubers. Tuber ovoid, ca. 2–5 mm in
diameter. Stem short, erect, pale green, ca. 6 mm, basal
part covered by a tubular sheath with acuminate apex
clasping the stem, ca. 3 mm long, with white papillose
hairs at base. Leaf single, green with white markings
on adaxial surface, green to pale red on abaxial,
sessile, broadly ovate to cordate, ca. 10–12 mm long,
7 mm wide (at widest part), apex shortly acuminate.
Inorescence terminal, single owered, oral bract
pale green ca. 3–4 mm long, apex acuminate; pedicel
(with ovary) ca. 3 mm long. Flower ca. 6 mm in
diameter, dorsal sepal white at base and dark purple
in apical part, lateral sepals and petals whitish with
dark purple, labellum white with dark purple marks
towards margin. Dorsal sepal hooded, strongly curved
downward, oblanceolate, ca. 8.0–8.5 mm long, 3 mm
wide, apex mucronate. Lateral sepals free, liform,
ca. 15–17 mm long. Petals similar to lateral sepals
but shorter, ca. 11 mm long. Labellum margin inrolled
forming a tubular basal part, curving downward ca.
4 mm long; apical part expended ca. 7 mm long,
6 mm wide (at the widest point), margin irregularly
mbriate-ciliate; apex acute or retuse; spur 2, small,
ca. 1.5– 2.0 mm long, poorly developed, broad, apex
rounded. Column short, ca. 1 mm long, shortly winged
at apical part. Pollinia 4, in 2 pairs. Capsule ellipsoid,
ca. 6 mm long.
eCology and Phenology: Lithophyte, associated with
mosses, at around 1800–1900 m a.s.l. in Chu Mu
mountain, and at 1400–1500 m a.s.l. in Bidoup–Nui
Ba National Park. Very rare.
floWering: July.
disTriBuTion: Vietnam (Vong Phu and Bidoup–Nui Ba
National Park), Thailand (Nakhon Si Thammarat-Khao
Ramrom Mountain), Peninsular Malaysia (Kedah),
Indonesia (Borneo), Philippines (Palawan).
sPeCimens examined: Dak Lak province, M’Drak
Disctrict, Cu Mroa Commune, Chu Mu Moutain,
Truong Ba Vuong, Nguyen Thanh Luan, 22 June 2019,
BV 381 (VNM 00023642) (VNM!).
aCknoWledgmenTs. The authors appreciate the
contributions of Mr. Nguyen Thanh Luan (Asian turtle
program of Indo-Myanmar Conservation) who kindly
provided the photos and eld data of Corybas himalaicus
and C. geminigibbus.
liTeraTure CiTed
Averyanov, L.V., Phan, K. L. & Nong, V. D. (2007). Corybas annamensis an important addition to the orchid ora of Eastern
Indochina. Orchideen Journal, 14, 97.
Beentje, H. (2012). The Kew Plant Glossary, an illustrated dictionary of plant terms (revised edition). Royal Botanic
Gardens, Kew: Kew Publishing.
Chantanaorrapint, S. & Chantanaorrapint, A. (2016). Corybas geminigibbus (Orchidaceae), a new species record for Thailand.
Thai Forest Bulletin (Botany), 44 (1), 11–14.
Chung, S. W. & Hsu, T. C. (2008). Corybas himalaicus (King & Pantl.) Schltr. (Orchidaceae): A Newly Recorded Species
in Taiwan. Taiwan Journal of Forest Science, 23 (1), 99–103.
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LANKESTERIANA 20(1). 2020. © Universidad de Costa Rica, 2020.
figure 3. Corybas geminigibbus J.J.Sm. A–D. Plants in habitat showing morphological characters. Photographs by Nguyen
Van Canh (A, C, D), and Truong Quang Cuong (B).
54
B
A
C
D
LANKESTERIANA 20(1). 2020. © Universidad de Costa Rica, 2020.
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Truong et al. — The genus Corybas in Vietnam
Dranseld, J., Comber, J. B. & Smith, G. (1986). A synopsis of Corybas (Orchidaceae) in west Malesia and Asia. Kew
Bulletin, 41 (3), 575–613.
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D. H., Tigges, H., Shaw, J., Cribb, P., George, A., Kreuz, K. & Wood, J. (2019). World Checklist of Orchidaceae.
Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
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Pridgeon, A. M., Cribb, P. J., Chase, M. W. & Rasmussen, F. N. (eds). (2001). Genera Orchidacearum Volume 2:
Orchidoideae (Part one). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Salisbury, R. A. (1807). LXXXIII Corybas aconitiorus. In: R. A. Salisbury, W. Hooker & D. D. Shury (Eds.), The paradisus
londinensis or coloured gures of plants cultivated in the vicinity of the metropolis (t. 83). London: W. Hooker.
Seidenfaden, G. & Wood, J. J. (1992). The Orchids of Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. Fredensborg: Olsen & Olsen.
LANKESTERIANA
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A newly recorded species, Corybas himalaicus (King & Pantl.) Schltr., in Taiwan is described and illustrated. This species is rare and originally endemic to the Himalayas. It was recently found in a forest of the central mountainous region. This species can be easily distinguished from other members of Corybas by its lip with a conspicuous rounded callus at the mouth of the throat, a near entire margin, a crimson distal portion, and being conspicuously marked with 4 or 5 parallel violet-red lines.
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This accessible, comprehensive glossary covers all the descriptive terms for plants that one is likely to encounter in botanical writing, including everything from magazine articles to plant field guides, scientific papers, and monographs. An essential companion, it presents 3,600 botanical terms, accompanied by full definitions and detailed illustrations to aid in identification, all laid out in a clear, easy-to-use fashion. It will be indispensable for plant scientists, conservationists, horticulturists, gardeners, writers, and anyone working with plant descriptions, plant identification keys, floras, or field guides.
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