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Nutritional and medicinal properties of wood apple

  • Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya (Agril. University)

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Nutritional, medicinal aspect of wood apple
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ISSN: 2581-8317
Volume 2 : Issue 5
May 2020
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AGRICULTURE & FOOD: e-Newsletter Volume 2 Issue 5 May 2020
ISSN: 2581-8317
Nutritional and medicinal properties of wood apple
Article id: 23624
1Arghya Mani* and 2Surajit Mitra
1Ph.D. Research Scholar, Department of Post-Harvest Technology, BCKV, Mohanpur, Nadia, WB
2Professor and Head, Department of Post-Harvest Technology, BCKV, Mohanpur, Nadia, WB
Wood apple belongs to the family Rutaceae and is botanically known as Feronia limonia. It is also known as curd fruit, monkey fruit
and kathbel. It is believed to have originated from sub-tropical plains of India (Lande et. al., 2010) and prefers a dry climate for
optimum flowering and fruiting. It can be well grown in drought prone and semi-arid regions. The productive age of plant is believed
to be 12-70 years (Sharma et. al., 2014). The fruit is rarely grown commercially in India but has enormous potential to be a major
fruit. It is a climate resilient fruit crop and can tolerate extreme dry conditions during flowering and fruit set. At the same time it can
tolerate wet condition during fruit set (Mani and Suresh, 2018). This fruit can grow in fallow and barren waste land which is even
devoid of essential elements as well (Kumar and Deen, 2017). Juice prepared from wood apple have superb thirst quenching
capability and have tremendous potential to be an important crop for beverage processing. Traditionally in Indian homes, wood
apple is even consumed raw and is preferred because of its exquisite flavour and perfect sour-sweet blend. Wood apple is also used
to prepare processed products like chutney, jam and jelly (Morton 1987).
Wood apple fruits contain a innumerable amount of phytochemicals such as polyphenols, vitamins, saponins, coumarins,
amino acids, tri-terpenoids, phytosterols, tannins, tyramine derivatives, etc. (Dar et. al., 2013). Wood apple have several beneficial
nutritional and medicinal properties. In Indian traditional system of medicine, wood apple is known to cure diseases like dysentery,
diarrhea, asthma, wounds, tumors, hepatitis and cardiac debility (Ilango and Chitra, 2009). Wood apple is known to possess excellent
amount of nutrients which many fruits are lacking. It is having significant amount of Vitamin A, Vitamin B1 and Vitamin B2. It have
trace amount of vitamin C as well (Poongodi et. al., 2013). Wood apple fruit is an enormous source of anti-oxidants and has potential
to scavenge free radicals in human body (Nithya and Saraswathi, 2010).
Table 1: Fruit composition of wood apple
Fruit composition
Given by
9.4016.00 0B
Shukla and Singh, (2008)
Titratable Acidity
0.83 to 2.76 %
Shukla and Singh, (2008)
Total Sugar
4.08-4.47 %
Hiwale, (2006)
1.68 to 3.40 mg/ 100g
Shukla and Singh, (2008)
6.3 g/100 g
Poongodi et. al., (2013)
Total Carbohydrates
15.6 g/100 g
Poongodi et. al., (2013)
72 %
Poongodi et. al., (2013)
Total Phenol
235 mg/100g
Poongodi et. al., (2013)
Antioxidant Capacity
1412.55 μg/g
Poongodi et. al., (2013)
P (%)
0.037 - 0.078
Singh et. al., (2016)
K (%)
1.29 - 1.86
Singh et. al., (2016)
Ca (%)
0.11 - 0.39
Singh et. al., (2016)
Mg (%)
3.18 - 5.92
Singh et. al., (2016)
Na (%)
3.07 - 7.54
Singh et. al., (2016)
Pectin (%)
1.39 - 1.65
Singh et. al., (2016)
Both ripe and unripe wood apple fruit is known to possess excellent medicinal properties. Ripe fruit is known to cure liver problems
and is good for heart. It has good cholesterol lowering potential as well. Unripe fruit is having enormous potential to cure diarrhea
and dysentery. Ripe fruit consumption can reduce problems and cure in longer run the problems associated with gums and teeth,
hiccough, sore throat and diseases of the gums (Seeja et. al., 2005). Ripe fruit, leaves, stem, bark and root of wood apple also have
anti-venomous capability against snake bite (Maiti and Mishra, 2000). The essential oils which are extracted from wood apple fruits
and seeds are effective against 12 bacteria causing human disease (Geda and Bokadia, 1980). Senthilkumar and Venkatesalu, (2013)
also reported anti-microbial activity of wood apple. Fruit pulp of wood apple is also known to possess antipyretic, anti-inflammatory
and analgesic activity (Ahamed et. al., 2008).
AGRICULTURE & FOOD: e-Newsletter Volume 2 Issue 5 May 2020
ISSN: 2581-8317
Even juice extracted from young leaves of wood apple when consumed solely or with milk can cure intestinal problems
associated with worms. It is also good against piles. Wood apple fruit have anti-tumor property. Mishra et. al., (2009) also reported
anti-ulcer property of wood apple. The pulp of wood apple when used for the preparation of face cream can remove lesions and
small spots from the skin (Bandara et. al., 1988). Fruits are also known to be larvicidal property and can kill insect larvae (Rahman et.
al., 2000). Wood apple is believed to be hepato-protectant with some adaptogenic activity like cleansing of blood impurities,
leucorrhoea, dyspepsia and jaundice (Morton, 1987). Acidic hetero-polysaccharide extract of wood apple fruit surprisingly exhibited
cell growth inhibition of in-vivo Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (Saima et. al., 2000). Wood apple fruits and seeds are also known to be
anti-diabetic (Gupta et. al., 2009).
1. Ahamed S.M., Swamy S.K., Jayaverra K.N., Rao J.V. and Kumar S., (2008). Anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic activity of methanolic
extract of Feronia limonia. Pharmacology, 3: 852-857.
2. Bandara B.M.R., Gunatilaka A.A.L., Wijeratne E.M.K., Adikaram N.K.B., (1988). Antifungal constituents of Limonia acidissima. Planta Medica.
3. Dar A.I., Masar G., Jadhaw V., Bansal S.K. and Saxena R.C., (2013). Isolation and structural elucidation of the novel flavone glycoside from
Feronia limonia L. Journal of Pharmacy Research 7: 697704.
4. Geda A. and Bokadia M.M., (1980). Antimicrobial activity of essential oils on human pathogenic bacteria. Sci. and Cul., 46(1): 33-35.
5. Gupta R., Johri S. and Saxena A.M., (2009). Effect of ethanolic extract of Feronia elephantum Correa fruits on blood glucose levels in normal
and streptozotocin- induced diabetic rats. Natural Product Radiance. 8: 326.
6. Hiwale S.S., (2006). Advances in Arid Horticulture. In: Wood apple, Saroj, P. L. and Awasthi, O.P. (Ed.). Inter. Book Distri. Co., Lkw, 2: 438-439.
7. Ilango K and Chitra V (2009). Anti-diabetic and antioxidant activity of Limonia acidissima linn, In alloxan induced rats. Der Pharmacia Lettre,
1(1): 117-125.
8. Kumar A. and Deen B., (2017). Studies on Bio-Chemical Changes in Wood Apple (Limonia acidissima L.) Fruits during Growth and Development.
Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci. 6(8): 2552-2560. doi:
9. Lande S.B., Nirmal V.S. and Kotecha P.M., (2010). Studies on preparation of ready-to-serve beverages from wood apple pulp. Beverages and
Food World, 37(4): 69-70.
10. Maiti S. and Mishra T. K., (2000). Anti-venom drugs of Santals, Savars and Mahatos of Midnapore district of West Bengal, India. Ethno botany,
12: 77-78.
11. Mani A. and Suresh C.P., (2018). Climate Resilient Fruit Crops Possible Solution to Ensure Nutritional Security in Changing Climate Scenario.
Climate Smart Agriculture: Training Manual. 51-61.
12. Mishra A., Arora S., Gupta R., Manvi-Punia R.K. and Sharma A.K., (2009). Effect of Feronia elephantum (Correa) fruit pulp extract on
indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in albino rats. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 8: 50914.
13. Morton J., (1987). Wood Apple. In: Fruits of Warm. Florida Flare Books, pp: 190-191.
14. Nithya N. and Saraswathi U., (2010). In vitro antioxidant and antibacterial efficacy of Feronia elephantum Correa fruit. Indian Journal of
Natural Products and Resources, 1(3): 301305.
15. Poongodi V.K.T., Punitha K. and Banupriya L., (2013). Drying characteristics and quality evaluation of wood apple (Limonia acidissima L.) fruit
pulp powder. Inter. J. of Curr. Tre. Res., 2(1): 147-150.
16. Poongodi V.K.T., Punitha K. and Banupriya L., (2013). Drying characteristics and quality evaluation of wood apple (Limonia acidissima L.) fruit
pulp powder. Inter. J. of Curr. Tre. Res., 2(1): 147-150.
17. Rahman A.A., Gopalakrishnan G., Ghouse B.S. and Arumugam S., (2000). Himalayan B. Effect of Feronia limonia on mosquito larvae.
Fitoterepia. 71(5):553555.
18. Saima Y., Das A.K., Sarkar K.K., Sen A.K.S. and Sur P., (2000). An antitumor pectic polysaccharide from Feronia limonia L. Inter. J. of Bio.
Macromolecules, 27(5): 333-335.
19. Seeja E., Edwin E. and Smita G., (2005). A comparative pharmacognostical and phytochemical studies on the leaves of Aegle marmelos and
Feronia elephant. Plant Archi, 5(2): 549-552.
20. Senthilkumar A, and Venkatesalu V., (2013). Chemical constituents, in-vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oil from the
fruit pulp of wood apple. Industrial Crops and Products. 46: 6672.
21. Sharma H.P., Patel H., Sharma S. and Vaishali, (2014). Study of physico-chemical changes during wood apple maturation. Journal of Food
Research and Technology, 2(4): 148-152.
22. Shukla S.K. and Singh A.K., (2008). Underutilized and Underexploited crops. In: wood apple (Ed. Peter, K.V.). New India Publishing Agency
Pitam Pura New Delhi, 4: 267-288.
23. Singh A.K., Singh S., Yadav V. and Sharma B.D., (2016). Genetic variability in wood apple. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 86 (11): 1504
... Nutritional analysis of fresh wood apple revealed that it contains 6.53 g & 6.90 g crude protein, 0.80 g & 0.90 g crude fibre, 3.73 g & 4.03 g crude fats, 18.33 g & 18.00 g carbohydrates, 1.60 g & 1.97 g total minerals, 234 mg & 239 mg calcium and 69 mg & 63 mg phosphorous per 100 g of pulp for first & second year respectively.Similarly, these levels of nutritional composition of wood apple pulp was also reported and reviewed by Hemalatha and Parameshwari[11] & Mani and Mitra[12]. When compared with fresh wood apple pulp, pickle found to be more ...
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Wood apple is a nutritious minor fruit crop indigenous to India but it is not much popular for the purpose of consumption. The value addition can increase the production and utilization of this valuable fruit crop. Among various value-added products, pickle is popular and traditionally acceptable in India. The present investigation conducted at Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, RVSKVV, Gwalior, MP between 2019-20 and 2020-21, to study the nutrients, chemicals and sensory qualities of wood apple (Limonia acidissima L.) pickle and Nutra-chemical changes in pickle during storage period. The wood apple pickle was prepared as per standard procedure and analyzed for its nutrients and chemical status as well as during storage period to access its self-life and suitability. Fresh wood apple has nutritive property and its pickle was found more nutritious with 3.20 g and 3.43 g crude protein, 1.43 g and 1.53 g crude fibre, 7.03 g and 7.37 g crude fats, 20.33 g and 19.00 g carbohydrates, 1.90 and 1.97 total minerals, 253 mg and 256 mg calcium and 107 mg and 103 mg phosphorous per 100 g of pickle for first and second year respectively. Sensory evaluation revealed color, taste, flavor changed after 90 days of storage remarkably as shelf life is better retained up to 90 days of storage. Moisture, pH and ascorbic acid decreased while titratable acidity and total sugars increased with 0, 30, 60 and 90 days of storage. Original Research Article Rathore et al.; IJPSS, 33(22): 80-86, 2021; Article no.IJPSS.75374 81 Wood apple pickle is nutritious, good in taste and a better source for protein, fibre, calcium and phosphorus among different fruits and it was found suitable for consumption up to 90 days of storage without major organoleptic and Nutra-chemical changes.
... Processed products prepared from wood apple have superb thirst quenching capability and have tremendous potential to be an important crop for processing. Traditionally in Indian homes, wood apple is even consumed raw but its exquisite flavour and perfect sour-sweet blend can be harnessed by value adding it in form of jam (Mani and Mitra, 2020). ...
... Wood apple is also used to prepare processed products like chutney, jam and jelly [6]. Wood apple is a miraculous fruit with enormous nutrients and phytochemicals contributing to its medicinal properties [7]. Wood apple fruits contain a innumerable amount of phytochemicals such as polyphenols, vitamins, saponins, coumarins, amino acids, tri-terpenoids, phytosterols, tannins, tyramine derivatives, etc [8]. ...
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In the present investigation, an inexpensive and non-destructive method was tested for the appropriate maturity classification of wood apple (Feronia limonia). The investigation was conducted to establish the pronounced effect of maturity stages on the growth kinetics, physico-chemical properties, and other quality indices of wood apple. A systematic trend was observed for all the properties namely sphericity, bulk density (g/cm3), true density (g/cm3), pH, total soluble solids TSS (°Brix), titratable acidity (%) and TSS/TA ratio, etc. of the fruit. In contrast, regular changes were also observed in the color properties at various maturity stages of the wood apple. The maturity kinetics was formulated by applying recurrent neural network (RNN) in compliance with K means cluster algorithm. RNN modeling was applied by considering color property (redness value) as input and six maturity indices as the output of the formulated structure. The RNN architecture, 1-6-6 showed the best results for forecasting the wood apple maturity based on color features. Further, based on the results of the K means cluster algorithm, the maturity stages were classified into three main categories, illustrated in the form of a simplified color chart. Hence, this investigation can be useful for proper control and identification of wood apple maturity during the processing.
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With several disruptive anthropogenic activities and disruptive misuse of nature, our ecosystem is on the verge of severe threat. The entire earth climate is changing disruptively. Climate change is an impending threat to mankind and ecosystem as a whole. No one can escape from its destructive consequences and the terrible impact on plant kingdom can never be overlooked as human being depends on them to not only to assure food security but nutritional security for livelihood sustenance. Most importantly all flora and fauna are for ensuring the ecological balance is intact. Fruit crops are mostly affected due to such disruptive climate change. A probable solution to ensure that the nutritional security is maintained and the fruit crops are available even in changed climate circumstance we need to focus on climate smart fruit crops. The fruit crops like dragon fruit, phalsa, pumello, bael, wood apple, aonla, karonda, Barbados cherry, pomegranate and fig can necessarily be grown even on changing climate scenario. These fruit crops not only are rich in nutrients but are also a probable alternative to mitigate the loss due to changing climate.
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Considering the wide genetic diversity in wood apple (Feronia limonia) in terms of fruit shape, size, colour and qualitative characters, an extensive survey of diversity rich area of Gujarat was made and twenty five genotypes in the form of fruits were collected from the different locations during 2015-16 to identify elite genotypes having desirable horticultural traits. All the existing trees are of seedling origin which offer a great scope for selection of suitable genotypes of high yield potentiality with good fruit quality traits having precocity in bearing, less spine intensity and other desirable characters. Variations in morphological characters were noticed in the naturally grown trees at their locations, whereas chemical analysis was done in laboratory of the station. Fruits of genotype, viz. GW-1, GW-4, GW-12, GW-14, GW-16, GW-18, Gw-20 and GW-24 were observed to be round, whereas flattened round in GW-2, GW-5, GW-6, GW-8, GW-9, GW-10, GW-13, GW-17, GW-21and GW-23; triangular in GW-7 and GW-11, and oblong in GW-3, GW-15, GW-19, GW-22 and GW-25 fruit shape was observed. Physico-chemical analysis of fruits divulged that the fruit weight ranged between 156.45-432.93g, while fruit length and width between 5.25-9.46 cm and 5.10-9.29 cm, respectively. Shell thickness, shell weight, pulp weight, number of seeds per fruit and seed weight per fruit ranged between 0.31 to 0.47cm, 67.94-109.77g, 80.04 to 319.32g, 132.34 to 525.81 and 2.36 to 7.93g, respectively. Results of study revealed that the different genotypes exhibited wide range of variability in qualitative characters, viz. total soluble solids (11.07-19.36 0Brix), acidity (3.23-6.86%), ascorbic acid (7.08-19.60mg/ per100 g), potassium (1.29-1.86%), phosphorus (0.037- 0.078%), calcium (0.11- 0.39%), magnesium (3.18-5.92 %), sodium (3.07-7.54%) and pectin content (1.39-1.65%), among all the genotypes studied for their qualitative characters.
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Background The aim of this study is to isolate and structurally elucidate the flavone glycoside: 5,4-dihydroxy–3-(3-methyl-but-2-enyl) 3,5,6-trimethoxy-flavone-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside from Feronia limonia L. Methods The air dried, powdered and defatted material of F. limonia L. fruits were extracted with rectified spirit extract was concentrated under reduced pressure to get a brown viscous mass, which was successively partitioned with petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol respectively. The ethyl acetate soluble part was concentrated under reduced pressure to get a brown syrupy mass, which when examined by TLC on silica-gel G using chloroform:methanol:water (8:5:3) and iodine vapors as visualizing agent displayed two spots. As such it was subjected to column chromatography on silica-gel Emerk and eluted by with acetone:methanol in various proportions. On removal of the solvent of fraction (7:4), light yellow needles (RS-2) were separated out. RS-2 was found to be homogenous on TLC (MeOH:H2O:ACOH, 4:6:1). Results RS-2 responded to all the following characteristic color reactions for flavonoids (Shibata test and reaction with 5% FeCl3) and also responded positively to Molisch test of glycoside; spectral analysis of the sample clearly showed the characteristic peaks of flavone glycoside as depicted in (Graph 1, Graph 2, Graph 3 and Graph 4). Conclusion On the basis of spectral data obtained, the compound was identified as 5,4-dihydroxy–3-(3-methyl-but-2-enyl) 3,5,6-trimethoxy-flavone-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside. Survey of the literature clearly indicated that 5,4-dihydroxy–3-(3-methyl-but-2-enyl) 3,5,6-trimethoxy-flavone-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, this is the first report from the fruit pulp of F. limonia L. a novel compound.
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Feronia elephantum Correa (Family — Rutaceae) commonly known as Wood apple has been widely used in Indian folk medicine for treatment of blood impurities, leucorrhoea, and as diuretic and liver tonic. It has not been studied experimentally for its blood glucose lowering potential earlier hence present study was conducted. Oral administration of 250mg/kg body weight of 95% ethanolic extract of unripe fruits significantly lowered the blood glucose levels of fasted, fed and streptozotocin-induced diabetic male albino rats. It also depressed the peak value in glucose loaded model. Further, study on histology of pancreatic β-cells granularity of normal rats was also done. Marked degranulation in β-cells of extract treated rats, associated with the blood glucose lowering was observed. Extract probably lowered the blood glucose concentrations by stimulating insulin secretogogue activity.
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Purpose: To investigate the activity of Feronia elephantum fruit pulp extract (which is used in folk medicine) against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Methods: The fruit pulp was extracted with ethanol and the anti-ulcer activity of the extract in indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration in Swiss albino rats was evaluated. The parameters assessed were pH and acid concentration of gastric contents, and gastric ulcer index. Ranitidine was used as the reference anti-ulcer drug. Acute toxicity studies were also carried out. Results: The extract (500 mg/kg, p.o.) inhibited indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration by decreasing acid concentration of gastric fluid while elevating its pH (p < 0.01), and compared well with the standard drug, ranitidine (p < 0.001). However, its anti-ulcer activity was not as potent as that of ranitidine. Acute toxicity studies showed that there was no mortality following the administration of the extract in a dose range of 250 - 5000 mg/kg, p.o.. Conclusion: Feronia elephantum fruit pulp extract has potent antiulcer activity with low toxicity. Its anti-ulcer property probably acts via a reduction in gastric acid secretion. The results obtained support the use of this herbal material in folk medicine.
The present investigation was carried out to investigate the studies on changes in physical attributes of wood apple (Limonia acidissima L.) fruits during growth and development during the year 2012-13. The experimental changes in physical attributes during growth and development of wood apple fruits were studied from fruiting to maturity and ripening time of fruits at 30 days intervals. The mature fruit of wood apple had 179.10 g weight and pulp colour changed from light brown to light yellow. There parameters can be used as maturity index for wood apple fruits. The average fruit weight, seed per cent and pulp per cent increased during entire period of study, while shell thickness increased up to maturity thereafter decreased till end of the experiment. From the present studies, it can be concluded that appropriate harvesting time 180 DAFS and pulp colour changed from light brown to light yellow, when fruits attained internal best quality used for shelf-life and processing.
The present investigation was formulated to screen the in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial potential of ethanolic extract of Wood apple, Feronia elephantum Correa fruit. Antioxidant ability of the fruit extract was assessed by estimating total phenols, flavonoids, tannins, total antioxidant capacity and iron chelating activity. The extract was also examined for its antibacterial efficacy against the bacterial isolates of clinical significance. The results suggested that the extract exhibited dose-dependent antioxidant ability and broad-spectrum antibacterial activity which might possibly be due to the presence of phenolic constituents of the fruit.