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The Insects: An Outline of Entomology, Gullan and Cranston 5th edition, 2014 file name - G-C The Insectsproof

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These are the final proofs (pre-production, used to set print from) of all chapters and tables and illustrations from edition 5 (the most recent and last). Pagination seems to match the print. Regular search should find what you want. These proofs will be available through Researchgate (Peter S Cranston) until coronacrisis abates and more regular academic teaching is restored. A request of users - if you are a professional entomologist, please consider purchase of a hardcopy of the text if you do not already own this edition. If you are a student in entomology please consider giving a small donation to a conservation charity for these proofs. If you do become a professional entomologist, please consider purchase of a hard copy.
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Caterpillars are important for humans by some species causing great losses in Agriculture, and some others producing silk as fibers for our textile industry. Both food intaking and silk producing behaviors are undertaken by components of larval mouthparts. Mouthparts are morphologically specialized into various forms to exploit extraordinarily range of food resources. However, the morphological differences between congeneric larvae were rarely mentioned before. In this study, the larval mouthparts of Actias selene, A. sinensis and A. dubernardi were morphologically compared using scanning electron microscopy. The larval mouthparts exhibit significant differences on the morphology of labral notch, mandibles and spinneret among the three species. Firstly, the labral notchs are shallow in larvae of A. selene and A. sinensis, but significantly deeper in the larvae of A. dubernardi. Secondly, the teeth of mandibles are only arranged on the distal margin in A. selene and A. sinensis, but two rows in A. dubernardi. Furthermore, the atypical larval spinnerets are morphologically diverse, with the lateral lobes various in shapes among the three species. The morphological differences are very likely related to the divergence of feeding habits on their special host plants. The larval spinnerets are peculiar for bearing flake lobes laterally, which are rarely mentioned in previous studies.
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The fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, is native to the tropical and subtropical areas of the American continent and is one of the world's most destructive insect pests and invaded Africa and spread to most of Asia in two years. Glycerol is generally used as a cryoprotectant for overwintering insects in cold areas. In many studies, the increase in glycerol as a main rapid cold hardening (RCH) factor and enhancing the supercooling point was revealed at low temperatures. There are two genes, including glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) and glycerol kinase (GK), that were identified as being associated with the glycerol synthesis pathway. In this study, one GPDH and two GK sequences (GK1 and GK2) were extracted from FAW transcriptome analysis. RNA interference (RNAi) specific to GPDH or GK1 and GK2 exhibited a significant down-regulation at the mRNA level as well as a reduction in survival rate when the RNAi-treated of FAW larvae post a RCH treatment. Following a cold period, an increase in glycerol accumulation was detected utilizing high-pressure liquid chromatography and colorimetric analysis of glycerol quantity in RCH treated hemolymph of FAW larvae. This research suggests that GPDH and GK isozymes are linked to the production of a high quantity of glycerol as an RCH factor, and glycerol as main cryoprotectant plays an important role in survival throughout the cold period in this quarantine pest studied.
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