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Determining the salinity sources of the Barme Jamal karstic spring, Meydavod, Iran

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The Barme Jamal is an important karstic spring with mean discharge of 1.3 m3/s, located in the Meydavod county southwestern of Iran. Its outlet appeared in the Asmari limestone formation and drains the karstic limbs of Kuhe-Safid anticline. Naturally, the spring water salinity is more than expected for a karstic spring with EC about 2100 ms/cm. The spring water contains high concentration of SO4 and Cl with Ca–SO4 water type. Therefore, hydrogeochemical studies have conducted to determine the factors controlling the spring water salinity using hydrochemical techniques such as time series of chemical parameters, relative ion concentrations, Br/Cl ratios, TOC and mixing diagrams. The potential salinity sources such as mixing of karst freshwater with evaporites formation water and oil-field brine were investigated to determine the role of each source in the spring water salinity. The results reveal that the mixing of saline waters from evaporite formations is the main source of groundwater salinity. The hydrochemical time series illustrate that EC and Na–Cl are increasing in the spring water with almost constant rate throughout the studying period suggested the evaporites karst development in the spring catchment area and extension of dissolution conduits in the contact of limestone and evaporites formations.
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Carbonates and Evaporites (2020) 35:46
https://doi.org/10.1007/s13146-020-00567-8
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Determining thesalinity sources oftheBarme Jamal karstic spring,
Meydavod, Iran
N.Kalantari1· H.Rouhi1
Accepted: 12 February 2020 / Published online: 3 April 2020
© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2020
Abstract
The Barme Jamal is an important karstic spring with mean discharge of 1.3m3/s, located in the Meydavod county south-
western of Iran. Its outlet appeared in the Asmari limestone formation and drains the karstic limbs of Kuhe-Safid anticline.
Naturally, the spring water salinity is more than expected for a karstic spring with EC about 2100ms/cm. The spring water
contains high concentration of SO4 and Cl with Ca–SO4 water type. Therefore, hydrogeochemical studies have conducted to
determine the factors controlling the spring water salinity using hydrochemical techniques such as time series of chemical
parameters, relative ion concentrations, Br/Cl ratios, TOC and mixing diagrams. The potential salinity sources such as mixing
of karst freshwater with evaporites formation water and oil-field brine were investigated to determine the role of each source
in the spring water salinity. The results reveal that the mixing of saline waters from evaporite formations is the main source
of groundwater salinity. The hydrochemical time series illustrate that EC and Na–Cl are increasing in the spring water with
almost constant rate throughout the studying period suggested the evaporites karst development in the spring catchment area
and extension of dissolution conduits in the contact of limestone and evaporites formations.
Keywords Karst· Barme-Jamal spring· Water salinity· Evaporites· Oile-field brine
Introduction
Climatic characteristics, shortage, inappropriate spatial
and temporal distribution of precipitation are caused more
dependence on groundwater resources (especially karstic
aquifers) in Iran. Karstic aquifers, generally contain high
quality and quantity water and play an important role in the
survival of many villages and cities, except for those deterio-
rated by salinity sources and contaminations. The recogni-
tion of different salinity sources is the first step to prevent
the degradation of groundwater quality. The knowledge of
hydrochemistry is a very helpful tool for the understand-
ing of inter-aquifer mixing and detection of contamination
sources. It seems essential to determine the origin of the
chemical composition of groundwater (Zaporozec 1972;
Dogramaci and Herczeg 2002; Raiber etal. 2009; Edmunds
2009; Hofmann and Cartwright 2013; Gopinath etal. 2015,
2016). Major potential sources of groundwater salinization
include evaporation, oil-field and gas-field brines, seawater
intrusion, geothermal and deep-basin water, and dissolution
of evaporite rocks (Zarei etal. 2012; Gopinath etal. 2019a,
b).
Oil-field brines are dominated by Na and Cl in halite pro-
portions and may contain significant concentrations of other
anions and cations including B, Ba, Li, Mn, Sr, Zn, Br and I
(Peterman etal. 2012; Fan etal. 2010). Major elements Ca,
Mg, Na, Cl, SO4, and HCO3 and also their ratios such as
Na/Cl, SO4/Cl, and SO4/TDS are suggested by investigators
to distinguish potential salinity sources, such as evaporites
formations and oil-field brines (Richter and Kreitler 1987;
Mace etal. 2006; Whittemore and Pollock 1979; Gogel
1979). However, minor trace elements such as Br are used
to avoid the change in these ratios by mechanisms other than
mixing or dilution (Kreitler etal. 1984, 1990; Morton 1986;
Richter and Kreitler 1986a; Richter etal. 1990). Albeit the
concentration of Br ranges between several tens to greater
than 2000mg/l in oil-field brines, just a small amount of it
incorporates into the crystal structure of halite during evapo-
ration of seawater. Since they have different affinities, Cl
is more prone than Br to form salts (Richter and Kreitler
1987). Therefore, the Br/Cl ratio is typically one or more
* N. Kalantari
nkalantari@hotmail.com
1 Department ofGeology, Earth Sciences Faculty, Shahid
Chamran University ofAhvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
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