"Microdosing, " the use of small doses of psychedelics as cognitive, creativity, or productivity enhancers, has become a popular trend. However, scientific investigation of microdoses of psychedelics remains one of the least developed areas of psychedelic research. In this article, we review available studies of microdosing psychedelics in humans and in animal models. We suggest that microdosing may safely facilitate cognitive as well as emotional enhancement. Microdosing may derive some of its purported long-term cognition and creativity enhancing effects from the capacity of psychedelics to induce potentially beneficial persisting brain changes such as enhanced neural plasticity, enhancement of neurogenesis, or reduction of neuroinflammation. Nevertheless, despite promising results, recent findings also highlight that substantial further study and appropriate caution is warranted as researchers attempt to understand the long-term or even lifelong effects of the exposure to microdoses of psychedelic compounds on the brain and the body.