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Abstract

In this study, different factor analysis models were employed to test the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) in 11 distinct populations (n = 15,266) in different countries. The results strongly suggest that the most appropriate use of the SCS is to measure levels of Self-Compassionate responding (positive items) and Self-Uncompassionate responding (negative items) separately.

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... This is also true of the newest scale of compassion, the Compassionate Engagement and Action Scales (CEAS; Gilbert et al., 2017), which was not included in the review by Strauss et al. (2016). According to Halamová et al. (2021), the Compassion to Others and Compassion from Others scales of the CEAS have a good factor structure and psychometric properties, but the total score of the Compassion for Self scale of the CEAS cannot be reliably used. ...
... For example, the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS; Neff, 2003a)the most frequently used instrument to measure self-compassiondoes not show a good factor structure, and it is recommended that the total score of the scale should not be used. Instead, the score should be calculated separately for the positive and negative items of the SCS, which are Self-Compassionate Responding and Self-Uncompassionate Responding, as shown in samples from 11 different countries (Halamová et al., 2021). Similarly, the total score should not be used in relation to the CEAS scale for compassion to self (CEAS-SC). ...
Article
Without a reliable and valid instrument of compassion and self-compassion, it is hard to conduct quality research in compassion even though it is a rapidly growing area of interest in many scientific fields. However, recently the Sussex-Oxford Compassion Scales (SOCS; Gu et al., 2020) were developed, with two parallel versions for compassion (SCOS-O) and self-compassion (SCOS-S) containing 20 items each. Because the SOCS scales are newly developed measures of compassion, this is the first study to be conducted beyond the original research (Gu et al., 2020) that validates their factor structure. Our sample consisted of 1080 respondents; 19.35% were males and 80.65% were females. Mean age was 29.29 (SD = 11.15). Convenience sampling via social networks was used. To analyse the data, we reproduced all the confirmatory models in Gu et al. (2020) for both scales: the one-factor model, five-factor model, and five-factor hierarchical model. Our research results showed that for the SCOS-O, the multidimensional definition of compassion for others fits the factor structure of the scale, but this does not apply to the SCOS-S. Self-compassion has two dominant factors over and above five specific factors: Rational Compassion (containing two specific factors: Recognising Suffering and Understanding the Universality of Suffering) and Emotional/Behavioural Compassion (containing three specific factors: Feeling for the Person Suffering, Tolerating Uncomfortable Feelings, and Acting or Being Motivated to Act to Alleviate Suffering). Therefore, the total self-compassion score is unsuitable for use because the scale lacks essential unidimensionality; however, the compassion for others total score can be used safely.
... The SCS contains six subscales, three of which describe "positive" aspects of self-compassion (Self-Kindness, Common Humanity and Mindfulness); the remaining subscales capture "negative" associated features or "self-uncompassionate" responding (Self-Judgement, Over-Identification and Isolation). The instrument has been translated into almost twenty languages including Italian (Petrocchi et al., 2014) and psychometric analyses generally show good reliability and validity of its scores when the six subscales or two general factors of Self-Compassionate (SCR) and Self-Uncompassionate Responding (SUCR) are used (e.g., Halamová et al., 2020). As such, given the contrasting evidence in support of an overall self-compassion score the latter two composite scores were used in the analyses. ...
... scores, previous studies explored the associations of the instruments with other self-report measures 2 Of note, Denckla and colleagues reported the correlation between DO and HD and the SCS, but they used a different scoring algorithm (the total score Vs. the two SCR and SUCR). Although more recent international evidence (Halamová et al., 2020) discourages the use of a single factor for the SCS, we calculated it in the Italian sample to allow for a consistent comparison of correlations between the RPT and self-compassion in the Italian and US populations. of adult attachment style (Bornstein et al., 2002;Haggerty et al., 2010Haggerty et al., , 2016. Based on these previous findings, we expected ASQ subscales reflecting preoccupied attachment (Need for Approval, Preoccupation with Relationships) to correlate positively with DO, negatively with HD, and not be associated with DD. ...
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This study presents the adaptation to the Italian context of the Relationship Profile Test (RPT; Bornstein & Languirand), a self-report measure of Destructive Overdependence (DO), Dysfunctional Detachment (DD), and Healthy Dependency (HD). The RPT was administered to a community sample of 661 nonclinical Italian adults together with the Attachment Style Questionnaire, the Relational-Interdependent Self-Construal Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Self-Compassion Scale, the Positive Affect-Negative Affect Scale, and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. A randomly selected subset of participants (n = 67) completed the RPT again approximately 5 months after the first administration. The factor structure of the RPT obtained in the main sample was compared with that obtained in a sample of 603 adult participants from the US and was found to be similar. Internal consistency for DO, DD, and HD scores in the Italian sample fell between the acceptable to good range, and test-retest reliability coefficients were all above .70. The three scales yielded the expected pattern of correlations with theoretically related constructs, documenting good criterion validity. Findings are discussed in light of the literature on the RPT as a measure of interpersonal dependency and detachment. Suggestions for future research are offered.
... However, the inclusion of the negative facets in the total score of the scale has been criticized by some authors (e.g. Brenner et al., 2018;Halamová et al., 2020;Muris, Otgaar, Pfattheicher, 2019). Therefore, only the positive subscales were used in this study as a measure of compassionate self-responding (see also Neff, 2019;Neff et al., 2018). ...
... Considering the recent criticism of the Self-Compassion Scale (see e.g. Brenner et al., 2018;Halamová et al., 2020;Muris, Otgaar, Pfattheicher, 2019) we also recommend to replicate our findings with the use of the Sussex-Oxford Compassion for the Self Scale in the future (Gu et al., 2020). ...
Preprint
Objectives: The lack of self-compassion and shame-proneness may both be associated with a wide range of mental disorders. The aim of this study was to compare the levels of compassionate self-responding and shame-proneness in samples of patients with borderline personality disorder, eating disorders, alcohol-addiction and in healthy controls.Methods: All three clinical groups and healthy controls were administered scales measuring self-compassion (SCS) and shame-proneness (TOSCA-3S). Differences in compassionate self-responding and shame-proneness were analyzed and effect sizes were calculated.Results: All three clinical groups were found to have significantly lower compassionate self-responding and significantly higher shame-proneness than healthy controls. The magnitudes of difference in compassionate self-responding and shame-proneness, between all clinical groups and healthy controls, were moderate to large.Conclusions: We hypothesize, that implicit belief in self as a permanent entity together with the lack of self-compassion leads to increased shame-proneness, which causes various psychopathological symptoms. We assume, that clients suffering from all these disorders may benefit from treatments or particular interventions that facilitate the development of self-compassion or shame management.
... Právě zahrnutí výše zmíněných tří subškál (SJ, I a OI) do Škály soucitu se sebou bylo v uplynulých letech řadou expertů opakovaně kritizováno (např. Benda, 2018;Brenner et al., 2018;Halamová et al., 2020;López et al., 2015a;Muris, Otgaar, Pfattheicher, 2019;Muris, Petrocchi, 2017;Pfattheicher et al., 2017). V budoucnu proto každopádně doporučujeme používat k měření soucitu k sobě buď jen pozitivní subškály Škály soucitu se sebou (viz Benda, 2018) anebo raději nový dotazník SOCS-S (Gu et al., 2020). ...
... v udržování duševního zdraví a osobní pohody, v budoucnu pomohou porozumět také neurobiologické studie. Pokud však jde o dotazníková šetření, doporučujeme vzhledem k některým sporným vlastnostem Škály soucitu se sebou (např.Benda, 2018;Brenner et al., 2018;Halamová et al., 2020; López et 80 al., 2015a;Muris, Otgaar, Pfattheicher, 2019;Muris, Petrocchi, 2017;Pfattheicher et al., 2017) k měření soucitu k sobě v dalších výzkumech používat raději novou Sussexsko- ...
Thesis
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Background. Frequent comorbidity of mental disorders together with the latest findings in neurobiology have been drawing attention of health professionals over the past years to so-called transdiagnostic factors, including, but not limited to difficulties in emotion regulation and self-compassion. It seems that these factors play a significant role in the etiology of many mental disorders as well as in the maintenance of mental health and well-being. Objectives. The aim of this thesis was to theoretically discuss and scientifically verify the expected relationship between parental emotional warmth in childhood, self-compassion and emotion regulation. Sample and procedure. 440 adult respondents (141 men and 299 women) completed the questionnaire “My Memories of Upbringing”- Short Form (s-EMBU), the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale-Short Form (DERS-SF-CZ) and the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS-CZ) together with several demographic questions in an online survey. Statistical analysis. Descriptive statistics and the Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated using IBM SPSS Statistics-23 software. The effect of gender and education on key variables was tested using two-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). Gender differences in correlations were compared using Fisher's r-to-z transformation. We also performed mediation analysis according to Baron and Kenny's procedure. Results. The results revealed significant correlations between the observed variables and showed that self-compassion was a significant mediator of the relationship between parental emotional warmth in childhood and difficulties in emotion regulation. The correlations of parental emotional warmth in childhood with self-compassion as well as with difficulties in emotion regulation were significantly higher in men than in women. Study limitations. This study relied exclusively on self-report measures. Respondents evaluated their parents' warmth only retrospectively.
... The bifactor model brings out a new possibility for the SCS' factor analysis, as it differs substantially from other models. For instance, when assessing single factor, two-factor and six-factor correlated models, there are only two sources from where the items' variance can be attributed: latent factors and error (Halamová et al., 2020). In contrast, the bifactor model allows for a separation between specific factors and general ones, and these types of factor groups coexist, therefore modeling their direct association on individual item responses (Neff et al., 2019;Rodriguez, Reise, & Haviland, 2016). ...
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This study aims at verifying the psychometrical properties of the Self-Compassion Scale-Short Form (SCS-SF) with a sample of 334 Brazilians. The one global factor was the best structure through Exploratory Factor Analysis, while through Confirmatory Factor Analysis, it was the bifactor model, with six specific factors and one global factor. The internal consistency was adequate for the global factor, but low for specific factors. Its total score had a nearly perfect correlation with the long form. The SCS-SF revealed good convergent and discriminative validity and seems to be a concise, reliable and valid analogue to the original SCS in Brazilian samples.
... The construct validity of the SCS was supported and most studies measured self-compassion via the total score of SCS . However, some researchers emphasized the need to differentiate between positive selfcompassion (i.e., compassionately responding to personal suffering) and negative self-compassion (i.e., uncompassionately responding to personal suffering), arguing that the sum score of positive SCS subscales (i.e., self-kindness, mindfulness, and common humanity) and negative SCS subscales (i.e., self-judgment, over-identification, and isolation) should be used separately (Brenner et al., 2017;Halamová et al., 2020). The uniqueness of positive and negative selfcompassion has not been adequately investigated due to the lack of differentiation between these two constructs in previous studies. ...
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Objectives Future-oriented coping and self-compassion have demonstrated promising benefits for psychological well-being, but the effects of self-compassion interventions have not been adequately examined in Chinese samples. Moreover, the role of self-compassion in enhancing future-oriented coping remains unclear. This study aimed to test the effects of a group-based self-compassion intervention on future-oriented coping and psychological distress with a randomized controlled trial using a sample of Chinese college students.MethodsA total of 69 participants were randomized into an intervention group (N = 32) and a waitlist-control group (N = 37). Self-compassion (including positive and negative self-compassion), future-oriented coping (including proactive coping and preventive coping), and psychological distress (depression, anxiety, and stress) were assessed at the baseline, postintervention, and 1-month follow-up.ResultsThe intervention group evidenced an increase in self-compassion and future-oriented coping as well as a decrease in depression and stress compared to the control group. The enhancement of proactive coping played a mediating role in the intervention’s effects on depression and stress.Conclusions This study provided evidence regarding the effects of self-compassion intervention on future-oriented coping. Future studies can further investigate the role of proactive coping as a mechanism of change in self-compassion interventions.
... The Self-Compassion Scale (SCS; Neff, 2003b) is the most widely used measure to assess self-compassion, however, there is significant debate regarding the theoretical and empirical structure of the scale (Muris & Otgaar, 2020;Neff, 2020c). Based on Neff's definition of self-compassion, the SCS contains 26-items to measure six components of self-compassion: three positive SCS subscales (self-kindness, common humanity, mindfulness) and negative subscales (self-judgment, isolation, over-identification). Factor analytic studies support examining self-compassion using two factors of the SCS by summing all the positive subscales together and the negative subscales together, referring to self-coldness and self-warmth (e.g., Brenner, Heath, Vogel, & Cred e, 2017;Halamov a et al., 2021;L opez et al., 2015;Muris & Petrocchi, 2017). Thus, the two subdimensions of the SCS measure two theoretically distinct self-responding processes: selfcompassion (self-warmth) and self-criticism (self-coldness). ...
Article
Objective The objective of the current study was to investigate whether mindfulness and self-compassion are negatively associated with engagement in non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and whether emotion dysregulation would mediate this relation. Method 343 participants (82.2% female; M age = 23.98; SD = 7.47) were recruited from university and community settings, and completed online questionnaires. Two groups of participants were created: those with lifetime engagement in NSSI (n = 153) and a comparison group with no prior engagement in NSSI (n = 190). Results First, two one-way MANOVAs revealed significant mean differences (NSSI/comparison) across the self-compassion dimensions and specific mindfulness facets. Second, logistic regressions revealed that the self-coldness dimension of self-compassion significantly predicted engagement in NSSI, and specific mindfulness facets (nonjudging and acting with awareness) were found to negatively predict NSSI engagement. Lastly, mediation analyses revealed that emotion dysregulation fully mediated the relationships between both mindfulness total and self-coldness, and NSSI group status. Conclusion The present study demonstrates preliminary support for the protective role of key mindfulness facets and potential risk of the self-coldness aspect of self-compassion in NSSI engagement. Implications for potential use of treatment protocols may include teaching key aspects of mindfulness and self-compassion as healthier and kinder alternatives to coping with dysregulated emotions. • Highlights • Mindfulness and self-compassion significantly differ between NSSI/comparison groups • Key mindfulness facets and self-compassion dimensions negatively predict engagement in NSSI • Emotion dysregulation fully mediates self-coldness and mindfulness with NSSI group status
... In other words, one is not the opposite of the other, nor can be expected to not exist in the presence of the other (Petrocchi et al., 2018). A similar finding exists in the results of a study conducted by Halamova and colleagues (Halamová et al., 2020) to examine the factor structure of the Self-Compassion Scale. According to the researchers, it has been noted that the "Self-Compassionate and Self-Uncompassionate dimensions in SCS are related constructs but cannot be reliably included in a single dimension". ...
Article
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The study aims to investigate the psychometric properties of the Turkish version of Forms of Self-Criticizing/Attacking and Self-Reassuring Scale (FSCRS) in clinical and community samples. A total of 269 depression outpatients (71.7% females; M age = 28.28, SD age = 9.11) and 305 participants from the general population (54.5% females; M age = 43.11, SD age = 9.60) were recruited. Participants completed the FSCRS, The Levels of Self-Criticism (LOSC) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). A three-factor model of FSCRS (reassured-self, inadequate-self, and hated-self) showed the best-fitting measurement model in both samples. Measurement invariance of the test for clinical and non-clinical samples was also examined, and the findings support the measurement invariance of FSCRS scores across clinical and community sample. The dimensions of self-criticism had positive, and reassured-self had negative correlations with BDI and subscales of LOSC in both groups. Internal consistency was analyzed via Cronbach's alpha coefficients. The Cronbach's alpha coefficients for clinical and non-clinical sample were found to be .86 and .78 for inadequate-self, .85 and .74 for reassured-self, and .75 and .65 for hated-self respectively. Our results show that the FSCRS demonstrates good psychometric properties in clinical and non-clinical sample. The Turkish version of FSCRS can be used as a process and outcome scale for clinicians and researchers in clinical and non-clinical sample.
... The SCS has been validated and demonstrated that positively formulated items (self-judgement, isolation and over-identification) and negatively formulated items (self-kindness, common humanity and mindfulness) SCS subscales are recommended to be calculated separately (e.g. Brenner, Heath, Vogel, & Credé, 2017;Halamová, Kanovský, & Pacúchová, 2018;López et al., 2015) even across different cultures (Halamová, Kanovský, Petrocchi et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Compassion Mind Training (CMT) is a therapeutic approach to guide highly self-critical individuals to generate compassion. The goal was to probe the efficacy of a short-term, online version of the CMT on self-compassion and self-criticism in a non-clinical population. We conducted a randomized controlled trial with pre-, post-measurements and two-month follow-up. Out of 144 randomly allocated participants 26 and 20 of those allocated to the intervention and control groups, respectively, completed the follow-up measures. The intervention group was instructed through email to practice a different CMT exercise every day for 13 consecutive days. There was a significant effect of the intervention on self-criticism, especially Hated-self and the Self-uncompassionate responding. The CMT group reported a reduction in negative thoughts and feelings with effects present at the two-month follow-up. There was no significant effect of the intervention on self-reassurance and self-compassion. Self-criticism is amenable to change following a short-term online intervention of CMT delivered to a non-clinical population with effects lasting at least two months. These findings are promising and suggest that interventions designed to reduce self-criticism can be provided to broader populations without direct involvement of mental health professionals.
Article
The general purpose of this studyis to validatethe Turkish version of the short form of Self- Compassion Scale by Ant Colony Optimization. For this purpose, data were collected from two different samples. Sample-1 (N=398) and Sample-2 (N=233) consist of young and middle-aged adults. Short form was created by selecting the most suitable items for unidimensional, two-factor correlated, six-factor correlated, six-factor higher-order, bifactor- CFA and bifactor-ESEM factor structures over Sample-1, and Confirmatory Factor Analysis and omega reliability findings were obtained. After the determination of the bifactor-ESEM with Sample-1 as the best factor structure, the model data fits and reliability indices of the relevant factor structure were cross-validatedon Sample-2. Strict measurement invariance was establishedbetween age groups. The results indicate that the SCS-SF developed in this studyis a valid and reliable measurement tool with a bifactor-ESEM structure with 12 items, 6 specific factors, and a general factor.
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Introduction: Helping professionals are at high risk of being affected by the negative aspects of helping such as compassion fatigue. To date, no study has provided a comprehensive overview of compassion fatigue and compared the prevalence among different helping professions. Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence and differences in compassion fatigue among different helping professions. We also wanted to explore the relationship between compassion, self-compassion, self-criticism and compassion fatigue. Methods: Six hundred and seven participants working in the helping professions were recruited. The sample consisted of 102 nurses, 44 doctors, 57 paramedics, 39 home nurses, 66 teachers, 103 psychologists, 40 psychotherapists and coaches, 76 social workers, 39 priests and pastors and 41 police officers. The data were collected using an online questionnaire battery measuring levels of compassion, self-compassion, self-criticism, compassion fatigue and compassion satisfaction. Results: We found significant differences in compassion fatigue levels among various helping professions. No large differences were found in the compassion and self-compassion levels exhibited by professionals with medium versus low compassion fatigue scores. However, participants with higher levels of compassion fatigue scored higher in self-criticism. Self-criticism was found to be the best predictor of compassion fatigue. The effect of profession on compassion fatigue as mediated by self-criticism and self-compassion was significant. Conclusions: Based on the results, we recommend designing programs to combat compassion fatigue that teach helping professionals to better manage their work time and workload (hours per week with clients/patients) and learn healthier inner talk (less self-critical and more self-compassionate).
Article
Purpose This study examined the association of self‐focus and self‐compassion with nursing competency. Design and Methods Data of 433 psychiatric nurses comprising demographics, other‐consciousness, self‐compassion, self‐focus, and nursing competency were analyzed using the Other‐Consciousness Scale (OCS), Self‐Compassion Scale (SCS), Japanese version of the Rumination‐Reflection Questionnaire (RRQ), and Oriented Problem Solving Behavior (OPSN). Findings Higher internal aspect and lower fantastic aspect in OCS, higher reflection in RRQ, and lower SCS negative subscales predicted a higher OPSN score. The account rate of variance was 12.5%. Practice Implications Psychiatric nursing education should facilitate other‐consciousness and reflection enhancement, and assuage uncompassionate attitude towards self.
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Lay abstract: In this study, we asked 164 undergraduate students to complete an online questionnaire. The questionnaire measured the students' levels of autistic traits, self-compassion, and experience of anxiety and depression. We were interested in knowing if self-compassion (defined as the extension of kindness to oneself when faced with challenges) had any influence on the relationship between autistic traits and experiences of anxiety and depression. The results of the study indicated that self-compassion may be an important factor influencing the relationship between autistic traits and mental health, with higher levels of self-compassion being related to more positive mental health outcomes. Although the findings should be considered preliminary in nature, they do suggest that self-compassion could potentially be a target for clinical intervention in people with elevated autistic traits and experience anxiety and/or depression.
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The Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) is a widely used measure to assess the trait of self-compassion, and, so far, it has been implicitly assumed that it functions the same way across different groups. This assumption needs to be explicitly tested to ascertain that no measurement biases exist. To address this issue, the present study sought to systematically examine the generalizability of the bifactor exploratory structural equation modeling (bifactor-ESEM) operationalization of the SCS via tests of measurement invariance across a wide range of populations, varying according to features such as student or community status, gender, age, and language. Secondary data was used for this purpose and included a total of 18 samples and 12 different languages (N = 10997). Multigroup analyses revealed evidence for the configural, weak, strong, strict, and latent variance-covariance of the bifactor-ESEM operationalization of the SCS across different groups. These findings suggest that the SCS provides an assessment of self-compassion that is psychometrically equivalent across groups. However, findings comparing latent mean invariance found that levels of self-compassion differed across groups.
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Our goal was to investigate the efficacy of a Mindfulness-Based Intervention (MBI) in the form of a short-term, online intervention using exercises from Mindfulness-Based Stress-Reduction program on self-compassion, self-reassurance and self-criticism in a non-clinical population. We conducted pre-, post- and two-month follow-up measures of self-compassion, self-reassurance and self-criticism. A total of 146 participants, recruited through convenience sampling, were randomly allocated to the intervention with daily exercises for consecutive 15 days and to a control condition with no treatment. The intervention group reported a significant reduction in self-criticism and self-uncompassionate responding with effects present at two-month follow- up. There was a short-term effect of the training on self-compassion with no effect present at the two-month follow-up and no significant effect on self-reassurance. A limitation of the study is that participants’ previous experience with meditation was not assessed, and thus the findings may be a result of previous meditation practice and not the intervention itself. Despite this limitation, the findings show that an online short-term MBI may be helpful in reducing selfcriticism in general population, but a larger study taking into account the limitations needs to be conducted to replicate this effect before recommendations for clinical practice can be made.
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To demonstrate that the positive and negative subscales of Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) are very different in nature, we conducted a series of face validity checks on the items of this questionnaire among psychologists and psychology students (Study 1). Furthermore, a survey was administered to a convenience sample of non-clinical adolescents to examine the relations between various SCS subscales and symptoms of anxiety and depression as well as coping styles (Study 2). The results of the face validity checks revealed that the positive subscales seem to be well in line with the protective nature of self-compassion as they were mainly associated with cognitive coping and healthy functioning, whereas the negative subscales were chiefly associated with psychopathological symptoms and mental illness. The survey data demonstrated that the positive SCS subscales were positively correlated with adaptive coping (r’s between .22 and .50) and negatively correlated with symptoms of anxiety and depression (r’s between −.19 and −.53), while the negative subscales were positively correlated with symptoms (r’s between .49 and .61) and maladaptive coping strategies such as passive reacting (r’s between .53 and .56). Additional analyses indicated the negative subscales of the SCS accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in symptoms, whereas the unique contribution of the positive SCS subscales was fairly marginal. We caution to employ the total SCS score that includes the reversed negative subscales as such a procedure clearly inflates the relation between self-compassion and psychopathology.
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The present study verifies the psychometric properties of the Slovak version of the Self-Compassion Scale through item response theory, factor-analysis, validity analyses and norm development. The surveyed sample consisted of 1,181 participants (34% men and 66% women) with a mean age of 30.30 years (SD = 12.40). Two general factors (Self-compassionate responding and Self-uncompassionate responding) were identified, whereas there was no support for a single general factor of the scale and six subscales. The results of the factor analysis were supported by an independent sample of 676 participants. Therefore, the use of total score for the whole scale would be inappropriate. In Slovak language the Self-Compassion Scale should be used in the form of two general subscales (Self-compassionate responding and Self-uncompassionate responding). In line with our theoretical assumptions, we obtained relatively high Spearman’s correlation coefficients between the Self-Compassion Scale and related external variables, demonstrating construct validity for the scale. To sum up, the Slovak translation of The Self-Compassion Scale is a reliable and valid instrument that measures Self-compassionate responding and Self-uncompassionate responding.
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The current research tested a theoretical model of self-relating that examined the unique relationships of self-compassion and self-coldness with distress and well-being. Self-coldness has recently been identified as theoretically distinct from self-compassion, rather than part of a unitary self-compassion construct. As such, the incremental value of self-compassion and self-coldness on clinically relevant outcomes is unclear. Therefore, the current research tested a theoretical model of the unique relationships of self-compassion and self-coldness and both distress and well-being among university students (N = 457) and community adults (N = 794), as well as interactions between these two constructs. Structural equation modeling results in both samples revealed that self-compassion was uniquely related to well-being (βs = .36-.43), whereas self-coldness was uniquely related to distress (βs = -.34) and well-being (βs = .65-.66). Consistent with the Theory of Social Mentalities, across samples self-compassion more strongly related to well-being, whereas self-coldness more strongly related to distress. Self-compassion did not demonstrate a unique direct relationship with distress, but it did buffer the relationship between self-coldness and distress in both samples and the relationship between self-coldness and well-being in the community sample. Overall, results suggest that clinicians would benefit from tailoring the use of self-compassion and self-coldness interventions. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
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The Self-Compassion Scale (SCS; Neff, 2003a) is the most widely used measure of self-compassion. Self-compassion, as measured by the SCS, is robustly linked to psychological health (Macbeth & Gumley, 2012; Zessin, Dickhaüser, & Garbade, 2015). The SCS is currently understood as exhibiting a higher-order structure comprised of 6 first-order factors and 1 second-order general self-compassion factor. Recently, some researchers have questioned the internal validity of this 1-factor conceptualization, and posit that the SCS may instead be comprised of 2 general factors—self-compassion and self-coldness. The current paper provides an in-depth examination of the internal structure of the SCS using oblique, higher-order, and bifactor structural models in a sample of 1,115 college students. The bifactor model comprised of 2 general factors—self-compassion and self-coldness—and 6 specific factors demonstrated the best fit to the data. Results also indicated the Self-Coldness factor accounted for unique variance in depression, anxiety, and stress, whereas the Self-Compassion factor only accounted for unique variance in its association with depression, providing further evidence for the presence of 2 distinct factors. Results did not provide support for the 1-factor composition of self-compassion currently used in research. Implications for using, scoring, and interpreting the SCS are discussed.
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Objectives. The purpose of the study was to develop and validate a Czech version of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS-CZ) and to examine its psychometric properties. Sample and setting. Three separate Czech samples were used. In Survey 1, the SCS was translated into Czech with a back-translation procedure and then administered through an on-line survey. 5368 participants (sample 1) completed the SCS-CZ, two subscales of the FFMQ, the RSES, the SWLS and a scale measuring the intensity of non-clinical narcissism. In Survey 2, 415 participants (sample 2) completed the SCS-CZ, the BDI-II, the STAI X-2 and the UP-SRS. In Survey 3, 58 participants (sample 3) completed the SCS-CZ two times with the time interval of three weeks. Statistical analysis. Using IBM SPSS Statistics-22 and Amos-23, calculations of descriptive statistics, Cronbach's alpha, Pearson correlation coefficients, test-retest analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were performed. Results. The confirmatory factor analysis (sample 1) confirmed the six-factor structure of SCS-CZ after elimination of six items (SRMR=0.045, RMSEA=0.059, CFI=0.929, GFI=0.942, TLI=0.913). A single higher-order factor model was then also confirmed. The Cronbach's alpha coefficients for total SCS-CZ and subscales were as follows: SCS-CZ (alpha=0,89), self-kindness (alpha=0,86), self-judgment (alpha=0,67), common humanity (alpha=0,75), isolation (alpha=0,78), mindfulness (alpha=0,65) and over-identification (alpha=0,69). As expected, in Survey 1 and 2, the SCS-CZ exhibited a significant positive correlation to measures of mindfulness, self-esteem, life satisfaction and self-acceptance and a significant negative correlation to measures of non-clinical narcissism, depression and trait anxiety. In Survey 3, the SCS-CZ showed a test-retest reliability of 0.90. Study limitation. This study relied exclusively on self-report measures in order to assess validity. The authors recommend the use of interviews as well as clinical or meditator samples in future studies.
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This study reports evidences of adaptation, construct validation, and reliability of the Self-Compassion Scale for use in Brazil. Self-compassion is a positive healthy attitude towards the self when facing suffering and difficulties. It encompasses self-kindness instead of self-judgment, mindfulness instead of over-identification, and common humanity instead of social isolation. A confirmatory factor analysis endorsed the six-factor structure (six subscales) of the original scale; adequate polychoric correlations were identified among subscales; a higher-order factor was confirmed via hierarchical model analysis; and internal consistency was.92. The scale is ready for application on Brazilian samples in continuing validation studies, for example, with available measures of social desirability, self-esteem, depression, and anxiety, as well as with similar constructs, such as self-acceptance, mindfulness, emotional self-regulation, and self-judgment.
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Over the past few years, the topic of self-compassion has attracted increasing attention from both scientific and clinical fields. The Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) was created to specifically capture this way of being kind and understanding towards oneself in moments of turmoil. In this article, we present a French adaptation of the SCS. We first explore the psychometric properties of this adaptation and then investigate its relation to psychological well-being. As in the original version of the SCS, the French adaptation has a strong 6-factor structure but a weaker hierarchical second order structure. However the bi-factor model yields a good omega index suggesting the relevance of a single score accounting for self-compassion. Moreover, there was a relation between the SCS and classical outcomes such as a positive relation with psychological well-being and negative relation with depressive symptoms. We then hypothesized that self-compassion would have a moderating role on the relation between affect and depression. This hypothesis was confirmed: expressing negative affect is correlated with depressive symptoms; however, being kind with oneself lowers depressive symptoms even when expressing negative affect. In conclusion, this research presents a valid self-compassion measure for French-speaking researchers and clinicians and outlines the need for further research on the concept of self-compassion.
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The concept of self-compassion originated from Buddhism, but very little is known about the utility and functions of this concept among Buddhists. Four hundred and eleven individuals (179 Buddhists and 232 non-Buddhists) completed the survey packages using the self-compassion scale (SCS; Neff in Self Identity 2(3):223-250, 2003a. doi: 10.1080/15298860309027 ). Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the original six dimensions of the SCS were not replicated by both samples, and further analysis of the intra-correlations within dimensions of SCS and relationships between SCS and other variables showed unexpected results specific to Buddhists. Among Buddhists, the dimensions of self-kindness and common humanity neither showed negative correlations with their opposite dimensions nor were associated with better emotional outcomes. In addition, these two dimensions were not predicted by the regular practice of loving-kindness meditation. This study argued that the ideas of self-compassion reflected in the SCS are theoretically different from the ideas of Buddhism, and further implications for measuring and clinically applying self-compassion were discussed.
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Recently, the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) has been criticized for problems with psychometric validity. Further, the use of an overall self-compassion score that includes items representing the lack of self-compassion has been called into question. I argue that the SCS is consistent with my definition of self-compassion, which I see as a dynamic balance between the compassionate versus uncompassionate ways that individuals emotionally respond to pain and failure (with kindness or judgment), cognitively understand their predicament (as part of the human experience or as isolating), and pay attention to suffering (in a mindful or over-identified manner). A summary of new empirical evidence is provided using a bi-factor analysis, which indicates that at least 90 % of the reliable variance in SCS scores can be explained by an overall self-compassion factor in five different populations, justifying the use of a total scale score. Support for a six-factor structure to the SCS was also found; however, suggesting the scale can be used in a flexible manner depending on the interests of researchers. I also discuss the issue of whether a two-factor model of the SCS—which collapses self-kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness items into a “self-compassion” factor and self-judgment, isolation, and over-identification items into a “self-criticism” factor—makes theoretical sense. Finally, I present new data showing that self-compassion training increases scores on the positive SCS subscales and decreases scores on the negative subscales, supporting the idea that self-compassion represents more compassionate and fewer uncompassionate responses to suffering.
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The purpose of this study was to apply a set of rarely reported psychometric indices that, nevertheless, are important to consider when evaluating psychological measures. All can be derived from a standardized loading matrix in a confirmatory bifactor model: omega reliability coefficients, factor determinacy, construct replicability, explained common variance, and percentage of uncontaminated correlations. We calculated these indices and extended the findings of 50 recent bifactor model estimation studies published in psychopathology, personality, and assessment journals. These bifactor derived indices (most not presented in the articles) provided a clearer and more complete picture of the psychometric properties of the assessment instruments. We reached 2 firm conclusions. First, although all measures had been tagged "multidimensional," unit-weighted total scores overwhelmingly reflected variance due to a single latent variable. Second, unit-weighted subscale scores often have ambiguous interpretations because their variance mostly reflects the general, not the specific, trait. Finally, we review the implications of our evaluations and consider the limits of inferences drawn from a bifactor modeling approach.
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Self-compassion, typically operationalized as the total score of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS; Neff, 2003b), has been shown to be related to increased psychological well-being and lower depression in students of the social sciences, users of psychology websites and psychotherapy patients. The current study builds on the existing literature by examining the link between self-compassion and depressive symptomatology in a sample representative of the German general population (n = 2,404). The SCS subscales of self-judgment, isolation, and over-identification, and the "self-coldness", composite score, which encompass these three negative subscales, consistently differed between subsamples of individuals without any depressive symptoms, with any depressive syndromes, and with major depressive disorder. The contribution of the positive SCS subscales of self-kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness to the variance in depressive symptomatology was almost negligible. However, when combined to a "self-compassion composite", the positive SCS subscales significantly moderated the relationship between "self-coldness" and depressive symptoms in the general population. This speaks for self-compassion having the potential to buffer self-coldness related to depression-providing an argument for interventions that foster self-caring, kind, and forgiving attitudes towards oneself.
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The Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) is currently the only self-report instrument to measure self-compassion. The SCS is widely used despite the limited evidence for the scale's psychometric properties, with validation studies commonly performed in college students. The current study examined the factor structure, reliability, and construct validity of the SCS in a large representative sample from the community. The study was conducted in 1,736 persons, of whom 1,643 were included in the analyses. Besides the SCS, data was collected on positive and negative indicators of psychological functioning, as well as on rumination and neuroticism. Analyses included confirmatory factor analyses (CFA), exploratory factor analyses (EFA), and correlations. CFA showed that the SCS's proposed six-factor structure could not be replicated. EFA suggested a two-factor solution, formed by the positively and negatively formulated items respectively. Internal consistency was good for the two identified factors. The negative factor (i.e., sum score of the negatively formulated items) correlated moderately to strongly to negative affect, depressive symptoms, perceived stress, as well as to rumination and neuroticism. Compared to this negative factor, the positive factor (i.e., sum score of the positively formulated items) correlated weaker to these indicators, and relatively more strongly to positive affect. Results from this study do not justify the common use of the SCS total score as an overall indicator of self-compassion, and provide support for the idea, as also assumed by others, that it is important to make a distinction between self-compassion and self-criticism.
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A Auto-Compaixão é uma estratégia de auto-regulação emocional com um efeito amortecedor no desenvolvimento da psicopatologia. O primeiro estudo apresenta as propriedades psicométricas da versão portuguesa da Escala da Auto-Compaixão (Self-Compassion Scale, SCS; Neff, 2003); as experiências adversas na infância associadas negativamente à auto-compaixão e a relação com a comparação social e psicopatologia, numa amostra de 631 estudantes universitários. Os valores de consistência interna, de estabilidade temporal e de validade convergente e divergente são satisfatórios. O segundo estudo mostra que o criticismo e desinteresse do pai (nos homens) e da mãe (nas mulheres) contribuem para auto-compaixão baixa. Esta é fundamental para a aceitação social, assim como a existência de uma mãe calorosa (nas mulheres). A sobre-identificação contribui para a depressão, nos homens, e o isolamento, a dificuldade em ser tolerante e amável consigo próprio e a sobre-identificação nas mulheres. A auto-compaixão e pais cuidadores protegem da depressão, nas mulheres.
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There has been a growing interest in the concept of self-compassion in Eastern psychology. The aim of the present study was to explore the dimensionality of the widely used Self-Compassion Scale (SCS; long and short versions) in both clinical and nonclinical samples METHOD: Several confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) were computed in a mixed clinical (n = 316) and a nonclinical sample (n = 1128) from the Portuguese population. Also, differences were tested between the groups in the SCS 6 factors. The CFA supported both a 6-factor model and a hierarchical model in both samples. The SCS also showed good psychometric properties, with good internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent validity. Our study further suggests that individuals with several psychopathological disorders showed significantly lower self-compassionate abilities. The SCS (long and short versions) is thus a reliable instrument to assess self-compassion and is useful for research and, in particular, clinical practice. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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A Japanese version of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS-J) was developed. In Survey 1, confirmatory factor analysis of data from 366 participants indicated that the SCS-J had an acceptable fit to the model, as well as good internal consistency, similar to the original. In Survey 2, a test-retest correlation of the SCS-J for 101 participants indicated good reliability for the scale. In Survey 3, 148 participants completed the SCS-J and the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, the Subjective Happiness Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait form, and the Beck Depression Inventory. The partial correlations between the SCS-J and the other scales were analyzed, using self-esteem, or self-criticism as the control variables. The results demonstrated that self-compassion was associated with self-esteem and the mental health of the Japanese participants. These results indicate that the SCS-J has good reliability and validity as a measure of self-compassion.
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Structural equation modeling (SEM) is a vast field and widely used by many applied researchers in the social and behavioral sciences. Over the years, many software pack-ages for structural equation modeling have been developed, both free and commercial. However, perhaps the best state-of-the-art software packages in this field are still closed-source and/or commercial. The R package lavaan has been developed to provide applied researchers, teachers, and statisticians, a free, fully open-source, but commercial-quality package for latent variable modeling. This paper explains the aims behind the develop-ment of the package, gives an overview of its most important features, and provides some examples to illustrate how lavaan works in practice.
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Self-compassion is a key psychological construct for assessing clinical outcomes in mindfulness-based interventions. The aim of this study was to validate the Spanish versions of the long (26 item) and short (12 item) forms of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS). The translated Spanish versions of both subscales were administered to two independent samples: Sample 1 was comprised of university students (n = 268) who were recruited to validate the long form, and Sample 2 was comprised of Aragon Health Service workers (n = 271) who were recruited to validate the short form. In addition to SCS, the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait (STAI-T), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ) were administered. Construct validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability and convergent validity were tested. The Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) of the long and short forms of the SCS confirmed the original six-factor model in both scales, showing goodness of fit. Cronbach's alpha for the 26 item SCS was 0.87 (95%CI = 0.85-0.90) and ranged between 0.72 and 0.79 for the 6 subscales. Cronbach's alpha for the 12-item SCS was 0.85 (95%CI = 0.81-0.88) and ranged between 0.71 and 0.77 for the 6 subscales. The long (26-item) form of the SCS showed a test-retest coefficient of 0.92 (95%CI = 0.89-0.94). The Intraclass Correlation (ICC) for the 6 subscales ranged from 0.84 to 0.93. The short (12-item) form of the SCS showed a test-retest coefficient of 0.89 (95%CI: 0.87-0.93). The ICC for the 6 subscales ranged from 0.79 to 0.91. The long and short forms of the SCS exhibited a significant negative correlation with the BDI, the STAI and the PSQ, and a significant positive correlation with the MAAS. The correlation between the total score of the long and short SCS form was r = 0.92. The Spanish versions of the long (26-item) and short (12-item) forms of the SCS are valid and reliable instruments for the evaluation of self-compassion among the general population. These results substantiate the use of this scale in research and clinical practice.
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Background: The construct of self-compassion is receiving increased attention due to its strong link to mental health. Nonetheless, many questions concerning its dimensionality and construct validity remain open. Aims: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factorial structure and construct validity of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) in a sample of 424 Italian participants ranging in age from 17 to 65 years. Method: SCS was translated with a back-translation procedure and then administered through an on-line survey, along with measures of self-blame, subjective loneliness, emotion regulation, depression and anxiety. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) confirmed the six-factor model both in the overall sample and in gender and age subgroups. CFA did not support the single higher-order factor of self-compassion, originally found by the author of the scale. Negative associations of Self-Kindness, Common Humanity and Mindfulness subscales with anxiety and depression were confirmed. Moreover, negative correlations of these subscales with self-blame, positive correlations with reappraisal and non-significant associations with expressive suppression and subjective loneliness were found, unveiling aspects of the construct not fully investigated in empirical research. Conclusions: Findings suggest that the SCS is a reliable tool but its dimensionality may vary according to different cultural contexts.
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Nursing focuses on meeting physical, social and emotional health-care needs of individuals, families and society. In health care, nurses directly communicate with patients and try to empathize with them. Nurses give care under emotionally intense conditions where the individual undergoes pain and distress. Research is aimed at analysing the correlation of self-compassion and emotional intelligence of nursing students. The population of the research consisted of all the undergraduate students (571 students) of the 2010-2011 fall semester of the department of nursing. An information form, Self-compassion Scale and Emotional Intelligence Assessment Scale were utilized to obtain data for the research. For the assessment of the findings of research, Statistical Package for Social Sciences 16.0 for Windows was utilized for statistical analysis. Results indicated that there is a correlation between self-compassion and emotional intelligence and that emotional intelligence, which includes the individual perceiving one's emotions and using the knowledge one gained from them to function while directing thoughts, actions and professional applications, has positive contributions to the features of nurses with developed self-compassion.
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Linear factor analysis (FA) models can be reliably tested using test statistics based on residual covariances. We show that the same statistics can be used to reliably test the fit of item response theory (IRT) models for ordinal data (under some conditions). Hence, the fit of an FA model and of an IRT model to the same data set can now be compared. When applied to a binary data set, our experience suggests that IRT and FA models yield similar fits. However, when the data are polytomous ordinal, IRT models yield a better fit because they involve a higher number of parameters. But when fit is assessed using the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), similar fits are obtained again. We explain why. These test statistics have little power to distinguish between FA and IRT models; they are unable to detect that linear FA is misspecified when applied to ordinal data generated under an IRT model.
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The effectiveness of two online exercises intended to help individuals experience (1) self-compassion (n = 63) and (2) optimism (n = 55) were compared to a control intervention where participants wrote about an early memory (n = 70). A battery of tests was completed at 1 week following the exercise period, and at 1-, 3-, and 6-month follow-ups. Both active interventions resulted in significant increases in happiness observable at 6 months and significant decreases in depression sustained up to 3 months. The interventions were examined in relationship to dependency and self-criticism, both related to vulnerability to depression. Individuals high in self-criticism became happier at 1 week and at 1 month in the optimism condition in the repeated measures analysis. A sensitivity test using multi-level modeling failed to replicate this effect. More mature levels of dependence (connectedness) were related to improvements in mood up to 6 months in the self-compassion condition. This study suggests that different personality orientations may show greater gains from particular types of positive psychology interventions.
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Objective: Scientific research into compassion has burgeoned over the past 20 years and interventions aiming to cultivate compassion towards self and others have been developed. This meta-analysis examined the effects of compassion-based interventions on a range of outcome measures. Method: Twenty-one randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from the last 12 years were included in the meta-analysis, with data from 1,285 participants analyzed. Effect sizes were standardized mean differences calculated using the difference in pre-post change in the treatment group and control group means, divided by the pooled pre-intervention standard deviation. Results: Significant between-group differences in change scores were found on self-report measures of compassion (d = 0.55, k = 4, 95% CI [0.33-0.78]), self-compassion (d = 0.70, k = 13, 95% CI [0.59-0.87]), mindfulness (d = 0.54, k = 6, 95% CI [0.38-0.71]), depression (d = 0.64, k = 9, 95% CI [0.45-0.82]), anxiety (d = 0.49, k = 9, 95% CI [0.30-0.68]), psychological distress (d = 0.47, k = 14, 95% CI [0.19-0.56]), and well-being (d = 0.51, k = 8, 95% CI [0.30-0.63]). These results remained when including active control comparisons. Evaluations of risk of bias across studies pointed towards a relative lack of publication bias and robustness of findings. However, the evidence base underpinning compassion interventions relies predominantly on small sample sizes. Conclusions: Future directions are provided for compassion research, including the need for improved methodological rigor, larger scale RCTs, increased specificity on the targets of compassion, and examination of compassion across the lifespan. Although further research is warranted, the current state of evidence highlights the potential benefits of compassion-based interventions on a range of outcomes.
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This revised book provides a thorough explanation of the foundation of robust methods, incorporating the latest updates on R and S-Plus, robust ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) and regression. It guides advanced students and other professionals through the basic strategies used for developing practical solutions to problems, and provides a brief background on the foundations of modern methods, placing the new methods in historical context. Author Rand Wilcox includes chapter exercises and many real-world examples that illustrate how various methods perform in different situations. Introduction to Robust Estimation and Hypothesis Testing, Second Edition, focuses on the practical applications of modern, robust methods which can greatly enhance our chances of detecting true differences among groups and true associations among variables. * Covers latest developments in robust regression * Covers latest improvements in ANOVA * Includes newest rank-based methods * Describes and illustrated easy to use software.
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This study examined the factor structure of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) using a bifactor model, a higher order model, a 6-factor correlated model, a 2-factor correlated model, and a 1-factor model in 4 distinct populations: college undergraduates (N = 222), community adults (N = 1,394), individuals practicing Buddhist meditation (N = 215), and a clinical sample of individuals with a history of recurrent depression (N = 390). The 6-factor correlated model demonstrated the best fit across samples, whereas the 1- and 2-factor models had poor fit. The higher order model also showed relatively poor fit across samples, suggesting it is not representative of the relationship between subscale factors and a general self-compassion factor. The bifactor model, however, had acceptable fit in the student, community, and meditator samples. Although fit was suboptimal in the clinical sample, results suggested an overall self-compassion factor could still be interpreted with some confidence. Moreover, estimates suggested a general self-compassion factor accounted for at least 90% of the reliable variance in SCS scores across samples, and item factor loadings and intercepts were equivalent across samples. Results suggest that a total SCS score can be used as an overall mesure of self-compassion.
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Maladaptive perfectionism has been linked with body image dissatisfaction and disordered eating behaviors. From the standpoint of social mentality theory, this relationship may be the result of an overactive threat system and/or an underactive self-soothing system. Self-compassion represents the activities of the self-soothing system. This article describes two studies that were conducted in order to investigate whether self-compassion mediates these relationships in a large sample of U.S. college women. Study 1 found that self-compassion mediates the relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and body image dissatisfaction. Study 2 replicated the results of Study 1 but found that self-compassion did not mediate the relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and disordered eating. Results from both studies suggest that the self-judgment component of self-compassion was the most consistent mediator, suggesting that maladaptive perfectionism impacts body image satisfaction and disordered eating through negative self-evaluations.
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To test the hypothesis that self-compassion predicts better physical health and that this is partially mediated through health-promoting behaviours, 147 adults completed self-report measures of self-compassion, health-promoting behaviours and physical health. Self-compassion and health-promoting behaviours were negatively associated with physical symptom scores. Self-compassion was positively associated with health-promoting behaviours. A bootstrapped mediation model confirmed a significant direct effect of self-compassion on physical health through health-promoting behaviours (R(2) = 0.13, b = -8.98, p = 0.015), which was partially mediated through health-promoting behaviours (R(2) = 0.06, b = -3.16, 95 per cent confidence interval [-6.78, -0.86]). Findings underscore the potential health-promoting benefits of self-compassion.
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Self-compassion is increasingly explored as a protective factor in relation to psychopathology. The Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) and its Short Form variant (SCS-SF) are the most widely used instruments for measuring this psychological construct, and previous studies have indeed shown that the total score of this scale is negatively associated with psychopathology. In this article, we point out that half of the items of the SCS and SCS-SF are positive indicators of self-compassion and directly refer to the three key components of self-kindness, common humanity and mindfulness, while the other half of the items are negative indicators of the construct and reflect the precise opposite of the key components, namely self-judgment, isolation and over-identification. A meta-analysis was conducted including 18 studies that reported on the positive and negative indicators of self-compassion as indexed by the SCS/SCS-SF and their relations to various types of psychopathology. Results showed that positive indicators of self-compassion were negatively associated with psychopathology, which confirms their hypothesized protective influence. However, the negative indicators were positively linked to psychopathology, suggesting that these scales tap increased vulnerability to mental health problems. Moreover, tests comparing the strength of the relations between various SCS/SCS-SF counterparts (i.e., self-kindness versus self-judgment, common humanity versus isolation and mindfulness versus over-identification) and psychopathology showed that the negative indicators were significantly stronger linked to mental health problems than the positive indicators. This provides support for the idea that the use of a total self-compassion score of the SCS or SCS-SF, which typically includes the reversely scored negative subscales, will probably result in an inflated relationship with symptoms of psychopathology. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
This study investigated the interactive effects of self-compassion, self-esteem, and age on mental health. Numerous previous studies have found that self-compassion has a significant positive association with well-being but most of these studies were conducted with young adults represented by college students. This study extended the previous findings by comparing its distinctive functions in different age groups. A total of 1,813 adults whose age ranged from twenties to fifties (M=39.28 years, SD=11.27) completed a questionnaire measuring self-compassion, self-esteem, subjective well-being, and depression. The results of hierarchical regression analysis indicated that the positive relationship between self-compassion and subjective well-being was rendered stronger with older adults. In addition, self-compassion moderated the relationship between self-esteem and depression regardless of age. These results imply that self-compassion may be complimentary to self-esteem in improving mental health, especially for older adults.
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Excessive self-criticism is common to many mental health problems, including depression. Theoretically, positive self-compassion may work to prevent depression by protecting against the proliferation of self-condemning responses. A sample of Norwegian university students (N = 277, mean age = 22.9 years, SD = 3.5 years, 56% women) completed the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) and the SCL-90 Depression subscale. Items of the three positive SCS-subscales (self-kindness, mindfulness, and common humanity) and items of the three negative SCS subscales (self-judgment, over-identification, and isolation) were combined to provide measures of Positive Self-Compassion and Self-Condemnation respectively. A moderation analysis indicated that the association between Self-Condemnation and Depressive Symptoms was weaker for individuals high in positive self-compassion, as expected. Bootstrap mediation analyses (conducted separately in groups scoring high and low in positive self-compassion) suggested that, in individuals high in positive self-compassion, self-compassion worked to reduce depressive symptoms by inversely affecting self-condemnation. When positive self-compassion was low, however, only Self-Condemnation predicted Depressive Symptoms. These results suggest that when positive self-compassion is above a certain level, it can keep self-condemning responses in check. If positive self-compassion is too weak, however, something else is needed, perhaps understanding input from another person.
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Bifactor measurement models are increasingly being applied to personality and psychopathology measures (Reise, 2012). In this work, authors generally have emphasized model fit, and their typical conclusion is that a bifactor model provides a superior fit relative to alternative subordinate models. Often unexplored, however, are important statistical indices that can substantially improve the psychometric analysis of a measure. We provide a review of the particularly valuable statistical indices one can derive from bifactor models. They include omega reliability coefficients, factor determinacy, construct reliability, explained common variance, and percentage of uncontaminated correlations. We describe how these indices can be calculated and used to inform: (a) the quality of unit-weighted total and subscale score composites, as well as factor score estimates, and (b) the specification and quality of a measurement model in structural equation modeling. (PsycINFO Database Record
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Objective: Mindful parenting has been described as a set of parental practices or skills that seek to enhance moment-to-moment awareness in the parent-child relationship. Although it has been suggested that adopting a mindful approach in parenting may foster positive parent-child relationships and promote the psychological functioning of children and parents, little is known about the factors that may be associated with this parental skill. In this study, we aimed to examine whether attachment-related anxiety and avoidance were associated with mindful parenting through self-compassion. Design and methods: The sample included 290 mothers of school-aged children and adolescents recruited in school settings, who completed self-reported measures of adult attachment (Experiences in Close Relationships - Relationships Structures), self-compassion (Self-compassion Scale), and mindful parenting (Interpersonal Mindfulness in Parenting Scale). Results: Structural equation modelling was used to test the proposed mediation model and to ascertain direct and indirect effects among study variables. Whereas attachment avoidance had a direct effect on mindful parenting, attachment anxiety was indirectly associated with mindful parenting through self-compassion. Specifically, higher levels of anxiety were associated with lower self-compassion, which, in turn, was associated with lower levels of mindful parenting. Higher levels of avoidance were directly associated with lower levels of mindful parenting. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that mothers' attachment dimensions play an important role in their levels of mindful parenting, although through different pathways. Interventions aimed at promoting mindful parenting skills should attempt to promote parents' self-compassion and consider parents' levels of attachment insecurity. Practitioner points: The results underline the important role of mothers' attachment on levels of mindful parenting and evidence different pathways through which attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance are associated with this parental skill. Higher levels of attachment avoidance were directly associated with lower levels of mindful parenting, whereas higher levels of anxiety were indirectly associated with lower levels of mindful parenting through lower levels of self-compassion. Mothers who are more self-compassionate are more able to adopt a mindful stance in the parent-child relationship. Parenting interventions aimed at promoting mindfulness skills in the parenting context can benefit from including self-compassionate exercises and are particularly important for insecurely attached parents.
Article
Background During the last years, there has been a growing interest in self-compassion. Empirical evidences show that self-compassion is associated with psychological benefits among young adults and it might be considered a buffer factor in several mental disorders.AimsThe aim of this study was to validate the psychometric properties of the Self-compassion Scale (SCS: Neff, 2003a) after the initial lack of replicating the original six-factor structure.Method Data were collected from the overall database of a research centre (56 men and 305 women; mean age = 25.19) and comprised four groups: borderline personality disorder, anxiety disorder, eating disorder and general population.ResultsConfirmatory factor analysis supported a two-factor model (self-compassionate attitude versus self-critical attitude) with good internal consistencies, construct-related validity and external validity. Configural, weak measurement and structural invariance of the two-factor model of SCS were also shown.Conclusions Findings support the generalizability of the two-factor model and show that both properties and interpretations of scores on self-compassion are equivalent across these population groups. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Key Practitioner MessageA two-factor structure of SCS with strong psychometric validity was supported in clinical and non-clinical samples.Helping individuals with limited experiences of compassion to develop positive internal processing systems seems to be related with better mental health, self-acceptance and self-nurturing abilities.The non-probabilistic sampling limits the generalization of our conclusions.
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Attitudes to ageing exert a powerful influence on health and well-being, yet surprisingly little research has examined factors that contribute to the formation of these attitudes. The aim of this study was to consider the potential role of self-compassion in predicting attitudes to ageing, which in turn contribute to positive and negative mental well-being and self-reported health. This was a cross-sectional study using data from 517 midlife women aged between 40 and 60. Structural equation modelling was used to examine the relationships between self-compassion, three facets of attitudes to ageing and well-being outcomes. Together, self-compassion and attitudes to ageing explained between 36% and 67% of the variance in well-being. Self-compassion was a strong predictor of attitudes towards psychosocial loss, physical change and psychological growth (β range: .22-.51). Furthermore, the relationship between self-compassion and well-being outcomes was partially mediated by attitudes to physical change. Self-compassion may be a modifiable internal resource to promote healthy attitudes to ageing in midlife, when ageing becomes personally relevant. Moreover, attitudes towards physical change may help explain how self-compassion promotes well-being among midlife women.
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This article defines the construct of self-compassion and describes the development of the Self-Compassion Scale. Self-compassion entails being kind and understanding toward oneself in instances of pain or failure rather than being harshly self-critical; perceiving one's experiences as part of the larger human experience rather than seeing them as isolating; and holding painful thoughts and feelings in mindful awareness rather than over-identifying with them. Evidence for the validity and reliability of the scale is presented in a series of studies. Results indicate that self-compassion is significantly correlated with positive mental health outcomes such as less depression and anxiety and greater life satisfaction. Evidence is also provided for the discriminant validity of the scale, including with regard to self-esteem measures.
Article
The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ; Baer, Smith, Hopkins, Krietemeyer, & Toney, 2006) and the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS; Neff, 2003) are widely used measures of mindfulness and self-compassion in mindfulness-based intervention research. The psychometric properties of the FFMQ and the SCS need to be independently replicated in community samples and relevant clinical samples to support their use. Our primary aim was to establish the factor structures of the FFMQ and SCS in individuals with recurrent depression in remission, since Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) was developed as a treatment for preventing depressive relapse. In order to determine the consistency across populations, we examined the factor structures of the FFMQ and SCS in 3 samples: (1) a convenience sample of adults, (2) a sample of adults who practice meditation, and (3) a sample of adults who suffer from recurrent depression and were recruited to take part in a trial of MBCT. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) showed that a 4-factor hierarchical model of the FFMQ best fits the community sample and the clinical sample but that a 5-factor hierarchical model of the FFMQ best fits the meditator sample. CFA did not endorse the SCS 6-factor hierarchical structure in any of the 3 samples. Clinicians and researchers should be aware of the psychometric properties of the FFMQ to measure mindfulness when comparing meditators and nonmeditators. Further research is needed to develop a more psychometrically robust measure of self-compassion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
In this study, the authors consider several indices to indicate whether multidimensional data are “unidimensional enough” to fit with a unidimensional measurement model, especially when the goal is to avoid excessive bias in structural parameter estimates. They examine two factor strength indices (the explained common variance and omega hierarchical) and several model fit indices (root mean square error of approximation, comparative fit index, and standardized root mean square residual). These statistics are compared in population correlation matrices determined by known bifactor structures that vary on the (a) relative strength of general and group factor loadings, (b) number of group factors, and (c) number of items or indicators. When fit with a unidimensional measurement model, the degree of structural coefficient bias depends strongly and inversely on explained common variance, but its effects are moderated by the percentage of correlations uncontaminated by multidimensionality, a statistic that rises combinatorially with the number of group factors. When the percentage of uncontaminated correlations is high, structural coefficients are relatively unbiased even when general factor strength is low relative to group factor strength. On the other hand, popular structural equation modeling fit indices such as comparative fit index or standardized root mean square residual routinely reject unidimensional measurement models even in contexts in which the structural coefficient bias is low. In general, such statistics cannot be used to predict the magnitude of structural coefficient bias.
Article
The purpose of this paper was to adapt the Self-Compassion Scale and Mindful Attention Awareness Scale into Greek. Self-compassion and mindfulness are increasingly used in current research and therapy, but not in Greece. This research is the first step toward achieving the expansion of mindfulness and self-compassion research in Greece. In four studies (N = 1,364), this paper evaluated the psychometric properties of the Self-Compassion Scale—Greek and the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale—Greek. Exploratory factor analyses, as well as internal consistency and test–retest analyses, were conducted. Results of the four studies confirmed that (a) the translated versions are equivalent to the original, (b) factor analyses established similar factor solutions to the English versions, (c) reliability coefficients are satisfactory (i.e., Cronbach's α coefficients and test–retests), and (d) construct validity revealed similarities between English and Greek versions, replications consistent with past research, as well as differences explained through theoretical frameworks. Therefore, both scales were accepted as valid and reliable measures for assessing self-compassion and mindfulness in Greek-speaking populations.
Article
Aim: Body image satisfaction significantly influences self-esteem in female adolescents. Increased reports of lowered satisfaction in this population have raised concerns regarding their compromised self-esteem. This research study, therefore, sought to identify a culturally significant moderator of the association between body image satisfaction and self-esteem in Thai female adolescents. Orientation toward self-compassion, found to be particularly high in Thailand, was examined. Materials and methods: A total of 302 Thai female undergraduates from three large public and private universities in the Bangkok metropolitan area responded to a set of questionnaires, which measured demographic information, body image satisfaction, self-compassion, and self-esteem. Data were analyzed using correlation and multiple regression analyses. Self-compassion was tested as a moderator of the relationship between body image satisfaction and self-esteem. Results: Although its effect was relatively small, self-compassion significantly moderated the positive relationship between body image satisfaction and self-esteem. The relationship became less stringent for those with high self-compassion. Discussion: The cultivation of self-compassion was recommended in female adolescents. In addition to moderating the association between body image satisfaction and self-esteem, the benefits to health and well-being of generalizing this cultivation are discussed.
Article
A plausible factorial structure for many types of psychological and educational tests exhibits a general factor and one or more group or method factors. This structure can be represented by a bifactor model. The bifactor structure results from the constraint that each item has a nonzero loading on the primary dimension and, at most, one of the group factors. The authors develop estimation procedures for fitting the graded response model when the data follow the bifactor structure. Using maximum marginal likelihood estimation of item parameters, the bifactor restriction leads to a major simplification of the likelihood equations and (a) permits analysis of models with large numbers of group factors, (b) permits conditional dependence within identified subsets of items, and (c) provides more parsimonious factor solutions than an unrestricted full-information item factor analysis in some cases. Analysis of data obtained from 586 chronically mentally ill patients revealed a clear bifactor structure.
Article
Self-compassion involves being kind to oneself when challenged with personal weaknesses or hardship and has been claimed to be associated with resilience in various areas. So far, there are only a handful of studies that investigate self-compassion and its relation to clinical depression. Therefore, the principal goals of the present study were (a) to compare self-compassion in clinically depressed patients and never-depressed subjects, (b) to investigate self-compassion and its relation to cognitive-behavioral avoidance and rumination in depressed outpatients, and (c) to investigate rumination and avoidance as mediators of the relationship between self-compassion and depressive symptoms. One hundred and forty-two depressed outpatients and 120 never-depressed individuals from a community sample completed a self-report measure of self-compassion along with other measures. Results indicate that depressed patients showed lower levels of self-compassion than never-depressed individuals, even when controlled for depressive symptoms. In depressed outpatients, self-compassion was negatively related to depressive symptoms, symptom-focused rumination, as well as cognitive and behavioral avoidance. Additionally, symptom-focused rumination and cognitive and behavioral avoidance mediated the relationship between self-compassion and depressive symptoms. These findings extend previous research on self-compassion, its relation to depression, as well as processes mediating this relationship, and highlight the importance of self-compassion in clinically depressed patients. Since depressed patients seem to have difficulties adopting a self-compassionate attitude, psychotherapists are well advised to explore and address how depressed patients treat themselves.
Article
The purpose of this study was to adapt the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS; Neff, 2003) into Turkish and test the validity and reliability of the measure. The study was conducted in four phases with 341 (184 female, 157 male) university students. Both the Turkish and original versions of the SCS were applied to 66 English language teachers to examine the language equivalence. Since the scale had high levels of language equivalence, validity and reliability studies were conducted. For construct validity, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, discriminant validity and item-total correlations were employed. For reliability, internal consistency and test-retest analysis were employed. Results demonstrated that the Turkish version of the SCS is a valid and reliable measure.
Article
As counselors we often offer compassion to our clients and support them in cultivating it for themselves; however, this aspect of counselor development may be absent in our own self-care practices. How do counselors cultivate self-compassion given the myriad of challenges that arise in their practice? Although there is a wealth of research on counselor self-care, very little of this research addresses the construct of self-compassion as a means of enhancing counselors' well-being and mitigating the effects of job-related stress. A narrative research design was used to investigate how 15 experienced counselors practice self-compassion in counseling. Themes that emerged in this study, based on the experiences of the participants, provide important information for training and educating practitioners in the areas of self-care and burnout prevention, and enhance our understanding of the role of self-compassion in the practice of counseling and psychotherapy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)