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A REVIEW ON SCOPES, METHODS AND RATIONALE OF INTEGRATIVE APPROACH IN SIDDHA MEDICINE WITH BIOMEDICINE

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In India, according to WHO 2018 statistics, there were 63% of death occurred due to Non-communicable diseases (NCDs), in which Cardiovascular diseases were leading cause of death 27%, followed by Cancer 9%, Chronic respiratory disease 11%, Diabetes 3% and other NCDs 13%. This indicates that NCDs needs to become a priority in controlling and preventing. Therefore, the only effective intervention may be at controlling and preventing NCDs disease is Integrative Medicine. Integrative Medicine is a medical practice synthesizing Traditional medicine and Biomedicine preventive measures and treatment interventions. Autonomy of patients may end in no benefit out of their ignorance to select between the treatment options available in a country like India where Seven Recognized medical systems are available as a platter. Siddha system of medicine is one of the traditional medicines of India, practiced in the southern part of the country. This study aims at providing Health care system under one roof, in order to save public money, time and health as an existing model as co-location in Tamil Nadu. This can be achieved through assessing feasible areas of integration in the Siddha system of medicine with biomedicine. So the study deals with the utilization of Siddha system of medicine, scientific validation of Siddha medicines, Siddha medicine research undertaken by biomedical practitioners and some government policies supporting mainstreaming of Siddha.
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Review Article
A REVIEW ON SCOPES, METHODS AND RATIONALE OF INTEGRATIVE APPROACH IN SIDDHA
MEDICINE WITH BIOMEDICINE
S. RAJALAKSHMI
1*
, P. SATHIYARAJESWARAN
2
, K. SAMRAJ
3
, K. KANAGAVALLI
4
1,3
Siddha Clinical Research Unit (SCRU), Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India,
2
Director, Siddha Central Research Institute (SCRI), Chennai,
Tamilnadu, India,
4
Director General, Central Council for Research in Siddha (CCRS), Chennai, Tamilnadu, India
Email: dr.rajibsms23@gmail.com
Received: 29 Jan 2020, Revised and Accepted: 06 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
In India, according to WHO 2018 statistics, there were 63% of death occurred due to Non-communicable diseases (NCDs), in which Cardiovascular
diseases were leading cause of death 27%, followed by Cancer 9%, Chronic respiratory disease 11%, Diabetes 3% and other NCDs 13%. This
indicates that NCDs needs to become a priority in controlling and preventing. Therefore, the only effective intervention may be at controlling and
preventing NCDs disease is Integrative Medicine. Integrative Medicine is a medical practice synthesizing Traditional medicine and Biomedicine
preventive measures and treatment interventions. Autonomy of patients may end in no benefit out of their ignorance to select between the
treatment options available in a country like India where Seven Recognized medical systems are available as a platter. Siddha system of medicine is
one of the traditional medicines of India, practiced in the southern part of the country. This study aims at providing Health care system under one
roof, in order to save public money, time and health as an existing model as co-location in Tamil Nadu. This can be achieved through assessing
feasible areas of integration in the Siddha system of medicine with biomedicine. So the study deals with the utilization of Siddha system of medicine,
scientific validation of Siddha medicines, Siddha medicine research undertaken by biomedical practitioners and some government policies
supporting mainstreaming of Siddha.
Keywords: Complementary medicine, Integrative medicine, Medical pluralism, Siddha, Traditional medicine
© 2020 The Authors. Published by Innovare Academic Sciences Pvt Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22159/ijpps.2020v12i4.36973. Journal homepage: https://innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ijpps
INTRODUCTION
Definition of integrative medicine (IM) is healing-
oriented medicine that takes account of the whole person, including all
aspects of lifestyle. It emphasizes the therapeutic relationship between
practitioner and patient, is informed by evidence and makes use of all
appropriate therapies [1]. Based on the review and close reading of
medical peer-reviewed journals and government health statistics, Null
et al. [2] show that the number of people having In-hospital, adverse
drug reactions (ADR) to prescribed medicine in the US is 2.2 million
per year. The most stunning statistic, however, is that the total number
of deaths caused by conventional biomedicine is 783,936 per year, far
higher than the number of deaths attributable to heart disease in 2001
that was 699,697 and cancer that was 553,251. In India, neither do we
have any statistics of damages caused by medicine, nor a procedure to
record damages due to medical errors and iatrogenic effects. The
increase in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases, drug
resistance and pharmaceutical complications; growing dissatisfaction
with the outcomes of certain biomedical treatments; and the gaps
provide conventional health care to several segments of the
population, have directed much attention to traditional,
complementary and alternative medical (TCAM) systems [3]. This has
led global population to conceive the idea of integration of
Biomedicine with Traditional Medicine as it may mutually benefit both
the medical systems in the form of filling up the gaps.
Indian traditional medicine is prevalent around the globe and
integration exists scatterdly with modern medicine for different
health needs [4]. Siddha system of medicine is one of the traditional
medicines of India, practiced in the southern part of the country. It is
a primordial system of medicine that existed in the world. Siddhars
are the spiritual scientists; they are well versed in Metallurgy,
Geology and Phytochemistry. They have used all kinds of herbs,
metals, minerals and animal products vastly. In spite of their
popularity, the rational design, proper standardization, and careful
monitoring of traditional Indian formulations, along with tough
scientific evidence, are essential for their promotion [4]. In our time,
there are lots of research are undertaken to bring out the scientific
validation of Siddha medicine and they are published in national and
international peer-reviewed journals. In AYUSH research portal
around 1153 Siddha research articles, some of the research articles
for various diseases are listed below (table 1).
Table 1: Some important clinical trials, pre-clinical trials done in Siddha system of medicine (scientific evidence)
First author
/
year
Diseases
Study type
/
Sample size
Siddha Intervention
Carlo Calabrese
/
2008
Cognitive performance,
Anxiety, Depression
Randomized, Double
-
Blind,
Placebo-Controlled Trial (48)
Bacopa monnieri
[5]
Thanikachalam
Sadagopan/2014
Diabetes
Open, non
-
comparative, non
-
randomized, phase IV clinical
trial (95)
Madhumega choornam
(
Internal)
[6]
G. S. Lekha
/
2018
Dengue
Cohort study (100)
Nilavembu Kudineer (
Internal)
[7]
Arul Mozhi P/2016
Cerebral palsy
Phase I Clinical trial
(210)
Brahmi nei (Internal)
[8]
Sugunthan s/2017
Cervical spondylosis
Phase I Clinical trial(60)
Vilvaver kudineer (
Internal),
Varmam (Physical manipulation)
[9]
Velpandian V
/
2013
Osteoarthritis
Phase I Clinical trial (50)
Gowri
chinth
amani chendhuram
(Internal medicine)
[10]
Rajalakshmi S
/
2019
Psoriasis
Open, Comparative clinical trial
(40)
Panchamuga chendhuram (Internal)
Kundavaathi thailam (External oil)
[11]
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
Print ISSN: 2656-0097 | Online ISSN: 0975-1491 Vol 12, Issue 4, 2020
Rajalakshmi et al.
Int J Pharm Pharm Sci, Vol 12, Issue 4, 6-11
7
P
.
Kamalasoundaram/2018
Dysfunctional uterine
bleeding
Phase I Clinical trial (40)
Perumbadukku pittu (Internal)
[12]
Karthik nagarajan
Male infertility
Open, Comparative
Clinical trial
(40)
Thetran ilagam (Internal) and Yoga
therapy
[13]
Subramaniyan
Sridhar/2018
Osteoarthritis
Phase I Clinical trial (30)
Suttigai (Cauterization)
[14]
Kingsley j/2018
R
h
eumatoid arthritis
Phase I Clinical trial
(20)
Seendhil Chooranam
(Internal)
Serankottai Nei
[15]
Siva josyaa s/2018
Urticaria
Phase I Clinical trial
(20)
Nilavagai Choor
a
nam
(Internal)
Sanjeevi Thylam (External)
[16]
Bapat RD
/1998
Varicose ulcer
Phase I Clinical trial (20)
Attai vidal (Leech therapy)
[17]
G. Ridhambaradevi/2018
Cerebral palsy
Phase I
Clinical trial (10)
Brahmi nei (Internal medicine)
Podithimirthal (Dry powder
massage)
[18]
P
. M
irunaleni
/
2018
Diabetes
Phase I Clinical trial (10)
Yoga therapy
[19]
K
. S
amraj
/
2017
Beni
g
n Prostate
Hypertrophy
Case series (10)
Velvanga parpam
(Internal)
[20]
R
. G
ayatri
/
2019
Renal calculi
Case series (2)
Nilavembu Kudineer (Internal)
[21]
Natrajan
/
2019
Acute avulsion of
posterior cruciate
ligament of knee with
bone fragment
Case study
Varmam (Physical mani
pulation)
[22]
Lalitha sivasankaran/2019
Tennis elbow
Case study
Attai vidal (Leech therapy)
[23]
L. Janani
/
2018
Insomnia
Case report
Varmam (Physical mani
pulation)
[24]
G. S. Lekha
/
2018
Tinea infection
Case study
Sivanaramritham
(Internal)
Thriphala chooranam (Internal)
Karbogi paste (External)
[25]
Sivakkumar S/2018
Varicose ulcer
Case study
Pugai (Fumigation)
[26]
Aruna devi R/2018
Diabetic Ulcer
Preclinical study
Matthan thailam
(External)
[27]
Kumaravel Appavoo/2019
Peptic ulcer
Preclinical study
Sirucinni Uppu
(Internal)
[28]
ChristianGJ
/
2014
Peptic ulcer
Preclinical study
Anda
leghyam
(Internal)
[29]
Sivaranjani K
/
2016
Muscu
l
oskeletol
disorders
Review
Varmam (Physical mani
pulation)
[30]
S. Bhavani/2017
Hepatitis
-
B
Review
Internal
medicine
[31]
Dharani/2016 M
Hemorrhoids
Review
Pugai (Fumigation)
[32]
Chitra, Beyaril/2015
Senile Dementia
Review
Internal medicine
[33]
B K Priya
/
2018
Sinusitis
Review
Nasiyam (Nasal instillation)
[34]
Ananthalakshmi
ramamoorthy/2015
Oncology
Review
Internal medicine
[35]
Jeeva gladys
. R/
2013
Oncology
Review
Internal medicine
[36]
Table 2: Utilization of siddha system of medicines in siddha OPDs around Tamil Nadu
1
st
Author
Sample size
Male/Female n (%)
Place
/
Duration
of the
study
Morbidities n (%)
Kanna
et
al.
1511
Male 1070 (73)
Female 411 (27)
Special
Geriatric Clinic, Siddha
Central Research Institute,
Chennai/January to
December 2009
Skin diseases
Genital Disorder
Fever
Musculoskeletal disorders
Alimentary Canal diseases
Respiratory Diseases
Diabetes
Cardiac Diseases
Eye diseases
113 (7.4)
3 (0.2)
4(0.26)
300 (20)
50 (3.3)
119 (7.88)
84 (5.56)
10 (0.66)
2 (0.13)
[38]
Selva
Raj k
et
al.
763
Male 445 (58.3)
Female 318(41.7)
2 Siddha OPD (Andhiyur and
Bhavani Government
Hospitals), Erode District,
Tamil Nadu, India./June-July
2014
Arthritis
Neuritis
Diabetes
Bronchial Asthma
Hemiplegia
Eczema
Acid peptic Ulcer
Lumbar Spondylosis
Ulcer
Allergy
345 (45.2)
67 (8.8)
50 (6.6)
40 (5.2)
28 (3.7)
25 (3.3)
22 (2.9)
19 (2.5)
16 (2.1)
15 (2)
[39]
M M Reddy
et
al.
227
Males 138 (60.8)
Female 89 (39.2)
2 Siddha OPD
(Andhiyur and
Bhavani Government
Hospitals), Erode District,
Tamil Nadu, India, 2015
Fungal Infection
Primary Complex
Bronchitis
Diarrhoea
65 (24.2)
49 (21.6)
29 (10.1)
13 (8.4)
[40]
V. Duraisamy
et al.
1720
Male 807 (46.9)
Female 913 (53.1)
2 Siddha OPD,
(Andhiyur and
Bhavani Government
Hospitals), Erode District,
Tamil Nadu, India/February,
2014.
Arthritis
Neuritis
Fungal diseases
Bronchitis
Acid peptic diseases
362 (21)
172 (10)
116 (6.7)
114 (6.6)
109 (6.3)
[41]
Rajalakshmi et al.
Int J Pharm Pharm Sci, Vol 12, Issue 4, 6-11
8
Utilization of siddha system of medicines
In a study Shalini Rudra et al. explore the out-of-pocket expenditure on
AYUSH treatment. The result shows that, the average expenditure on
AYUSH medicines is Rs 270 in rural and Rs 378 in urban areas and is
lower than average expenditure on non-AYUSH (allopathic) medicine
[37]. This study focuses on AYUSH and lacks individual System wise
which is warranted. To explore the integrative medicine, it is vital to
understand the feasibility, efficacy and acceptability of Siddha
interventions among the public. Some of the studies in Siddha OPDS
around Tamil Nadu are listed below (table 2). The common use of
Siddha medicines is for skin diseases, musculoskeletal disorder,
diabetes, Respiratory diseases, gastrointestinal diseases.
Various siddha medicine research conducted by biomedicine
practitioners
1. Thanikachalam et al., conducted a study to evaluate the clinical
efficacy and safety of the polyherbal compound MMC in the
management of type 2 diabetes. This pilot study was an open, non-
comparative, non-randomized, phase IV clinical trial, conducted at
the PURSE-HIS research station, at Sri Ramachandra University,
Porur, Chennai, India from January 2008-2010. The trial included 95
patients; the results revealed that the fasting, postprandial blood
glucose, HbA1c showed significant reduction after MMC
intervention. The liver, renal functions, along with the hematological
parameters were well within the normal range[6].
2. Govindan et al. conducted a study on the clinical efficacy of
Solanum xanthocarpum and Solanum trilobatum in bronchial asthma
at Madras medical college; the results revealed that improvement in
Peak expiratory Flow rate (PEFR) and the reduction in other symptom
scores clearly show a bronchodilator effect, a decrease of edema and
secretions in the airway lumen. The response to these herbs, equal to
that of deriphylline but less than salbutamol [42].
3. P. M. Murali et al., conducted a randomized, double-blind study
with Plant-based formulation (DCBT1234-Lung KR) in the
management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, result
revealed that, Improved PaO2 was observed in 15.4% of DCBT1234-
Lung KR patients while no improvement was seen with patients in
any other arms. Symptoms like dyspnoea, wheezing, cough,
expectoration, disability and sleep disturbances also considerably
reduced in DCBT1234-Lung KR and the biomedical group patients,
but not in the placebo arm. DCBT1234-Lung KR was alike, but not
better than the present-day treatment with salbutamol, theophylline
and bromhexine combination in COPD patients and this was
ascertained using FEV1 and ABG values [43].
4. P. M. Murali et al., conducted a controlled clinical trial to
compare plant-based formulation (DCBT4567-Astha-15) efficacy
with oral salbutamol and theophylline for Bronchial Asthma, the
results revealed that DCBT4567-Astha-15 was as efficacious as
salbutamol (12 mg/day) in combination with theophylline (200
mg/day) treat reversible asthmatics. Quality of life of patients also
improved with DCBT4567-Astha-15 drug treatment [44].
5. Chidambaram s. babu et al., conducted a trial on Venthamarai
chooranam, a polyherbal Siddha medicine, alleviates hypertension
via AT (1)R and eNOS signaling pathway in 2K1C hypertensive rats,
2014 in Ramachandra University, Porur, Chennai, India. The result
shows, Venthamarai chooranam potentially interacts with renin-
angiotensin components and endothelial functions, and
antihypertensive action[45].
6. Chidambaram s. babu et al., conducted a study on Polyphenols in
madhumega chooranam, a Siddha medicine, ameliorates
carbohydrate metabolism and oxidative stress in type II diabetic rats
in Ramachandra University, Porur, Chennai, India. The results
revealed that Madhumega chooranam mediates its anti-diabetic
action through the inhibition of gluconeogenesis and activation of
glycolytic pathways in type II diabetic rats. Increased GLUT4 and
PPARγ expressions provide more information on its glucose
uptake/sensitising and hypolipidemic potential [46].
7. KR Subash et al. conducted the study in Sri venkateshwara
institute of medical science, tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India. They
evaluated the analgesic activity of Alpinia galanga extract in mice
models and TNF-alpha receptor computational docking analysis on
its leads with pharmacokinetics prediction. The results showed
Alpinia galanga extract had significant antinociceptive activity and
followed by computational analysis of 20 compounds with known
chemical structure predicted Galanal B as a lead compound with
best in-silico pharmacokinetic and drug-like features [47].
8. R. V. Ramanarayana Reddy et al. conducted the study at
Melmaruvathur Adhiparasakthi Institute of Medical Sciences and
Research, Tamil nadu, India. Evaluation of the antidiabetic activity of
polyherbal formulation of Seenthil churnam in Alloxan induced
diabetic rats. Administration of alcohol extract of Seenthil Churnam
produced a dose-dependent decrease in blood glucose levels in
Alloxan induced rats. There was a significant fall in blood sugar level
in the dose of 300 mg/kg; this is comparable to the effect of
Glibenclamide [48].
9. Thyagarajan SP et al. conducted a trial in CMC Hospital, vellore,
India. 24 healthy long-term HBV carriers were treated with
phyllanthus amarus and placebo; the result shows HBsAg clearance
and HBV-DNA levels were significantly reduced [49].
10. J. Saikarthik et al. conducted the trial in Saveetha medical college
and hospital, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India. Phytochemical analysis of
methanolic extract of seeds of Mucuna pruriens by gas
chromatography-mass spectrometry; the analysis reveals the
presence of 5 major compounds namely, pentadecanoic acid, 14-
methyl-, methyl ester, dodecanoic acid, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid
(z,z)-, methyl ester, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid and 2-myristynoyl-
glycinamide which are therapeutically potential [50].
These examples show how the benefits of Siddha medicines could be
brought into the mainstream health care where they are balanced to
play an increasingly important role.
Government health policies for mainstreaming of siddha
Several policies which may help to integrate Siddha medicine for
health care system are listed below,
1. Udupa Committee in its report published in 1958 recommended
that there is a need for integrated system of medicine in India [51].
2. The National Population Policy 2000, National Health Policy
2002, and the National Commission on Macroeconomic and
Health—2005 of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare,
Government of India, emphasized on reorientation and
prioritization of research in Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani,
Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH) and to confirm therapy and
drugs in chronic and lifestyle-related diseases [52,53].
3. The National Health Policy (NHP) 2017 has strongly advocated
mainstreaming the potential of AYUSH within a pluralistic system of
Integrative health care. The NHP 2017 uses a new language of
‘medical pluralism’ and re-emphasizes the need for integrating
AYUSH in the National Health Mission, research and education.
Indeed, the NHP 2017 is the most powerful policy expression of
integrative healthcare since independence for which the Ministry of
Health and Family Welfare must be congratulated. NHP 2017
highlights strategies to meet national health goals through protocol
driven integrative practices [54].
4. Ministry of AYUSH, along with Directorate General of Health
Services (DGHS) is implemented NPCDCS (National Programme for
Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases
and Stroke) for health promotion, prevention and management of
Noncommunicable diseases or Lifestyle related disorders [55].
5. Nilavembu kudineer
At the time of dengue epidemic 2012, the Tamil Nadu government
distributed a Siddha herbal decoction, Nilavembu kudineer (NVK) at
free of cost. Health and Family Welfare Department letter No.
41459/IM1(2)/2012, dated 21.11.2012 stated that “Nilavembu
decoction, traditional Siddha drug is effective in the treatment of
viral fevers like dengue”. The Nilavembu kudineer has 9 ingredients
they are Nilavembu (Andrographis paniculata), Vilamichai Ver
Rajalakshmi et al.
Int J Pharm Pharm Sci, Vol 12, Issue 4, 6-11
9
(Plectranthus vettiveroides), vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides), Cukku
(Zingiber officinale), Milagu (Piper nigrum), Korai kizhangu (Cyperus
rotundus), Santanam (Trichosanthes cucumerina), Parpadagam
(Mollugo cerviana). This is not only to treat diseases, but also to
prevent diseases [56]. As a result, there is a reduction in morbidity
and mortality of dengue fever. The antiviral activity of nilavembu
kudineer was estimated by Jaspreet jain et al. [57], dengue and
chikungunya virus through in vitro evaluation shows, NVK provides
protection against CHIKV and DENV-2 during active infection and
also help to prevent virus infection in the cells.
6. Amma magapeeru sanjeev kit
For the first time, drugs of Siddha systems have been incorporated
into the kits of ante-natal cases throughout the state of Tamilnadu.
Health and Family Welfare Department Demand No.19 Policy Note
2016-17 stated that Amma maperu sanjeevi, at Rs. 10 crore scheme,
which will have a bouquet of 11 siddha medicines for pregnant
women and newborn.” A kit contains Madhulai Manappagu,
Karuveppilai Podi, Nellikkai Legiyam, Elathy tablet, Annabedhi
tablet, Ulundhu thailam and Pinda Thailam (both for external
application), Paavana Panchakula thailam, sathavari legium,
kunthiriga thailam, Urai mathirai. These medicines will reduce
nausea, vomiting, balancing iron deficiency, reducing false pain,
improve immunity in infants. This helps the health systems to take
care of many of women and children as a first line of care through
the Siddha medicine [58].
Areas of focus in integration
Varmam (Physical manipulation)
In biomedicine, the treatment for musculoskeletal disorders are
local injections of steroids, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
(NSAIDs), opioids, antidepressants, muscle relaxants are either
ineffective or provide short-lasting benefits [59]. With this hitch the
medical industry is in need of effective, long lasting benefits in
musculoskeletal disorders. Siddha varmam therapy originated from
the southern part of Tamilnadu, is now practiced in South Asian
countries like India, Srilanka and Malaysia. Varmam specifies the
therapeutic manipulation of certain points in which the life energy is
found pooled. Handling on these points with a particular force for
the definite time will release the life energy from these points and
fetch relief to the affected individual by regulating the flow of life
energy which is blocked due to attack on particular Varmam points
or due to other causes [22]. It offers a conservative management
approach to pain, Neuro-musculoskeletal disorders, metabolic
disorders, sensory defects, gastrointestinal, respiratory diseases,
endocrine disorders, pediatric diseases like autism and trauma
[9,22,24,30]. The advantages of varmam are non-invasive technique,
cost effective, easy to manipulate. Siddha varmam therapy may open
new perspectives in the area of pain management. A national
Guidelines to Practice varmam is available in India published by
CCRS (Central Council for research in Siddha), Ministry of AYUSH,
Government of India [60].
Karanool sigichai (Chemical cauterization)
Karanool sigichai is a unique para surgical treatment carried out for
the management of fistula-in-ano. It is a method of chemical
cauterization of fistula. Achyranthus salt, Dalmia extensa salt etc. are
smeared on a surgical thread which is used to cut the tract. The
major advantages of this procedure are, it will preserve the function
of continence and prevents the recurrence of the condition and also
cost effective [61,62]. This will open up a new scope of Siddha para-
surgical procedure in Anal fistula.
Attai vidal (Leech therapy)
In the Act of June 28, 2004, the Food and Drug administration (FDA)
cleared for the first time the commercial marketing of medicinal
leeches for medicinal purposes and determined that leeches are
medical devices. In Siddha text leech therapy, especially indicated
for edema, headache, abdominal pain caused by dysentery,
whooping cough in children, inflammatory joint diseases, eye
diseases. Bio-constituents in leech saliva have vasodilator,
anesthetic, anti-inflammatory activity and also inhibits the blood
coagulation [63]. Leech therapy is used clinically for various
diseases they are Osteoarthritis, Epicondylitis, varicose veins, and
hematoma. It is also evident leech was used in dreadful condition,
menigococcal purpura. As an integrative approach now leech is used
in bone reconstruction surgery.
Yoga
The term ‘Yogam’ means ‘union’. Siddhars have defined yogam as an
art which controls the mind by preventing it from distracting
through sense and sense organs and fuse it with the divinity. The
eight steps or stages of yogam areIyamam (Learning discipline),
Niyamam (Purity of action), Asanam (posture), Pranayamam
(controlling one’s breath), Prathyaharam (Controlling 5 senses),
Dharanai (the practice of concentration), Dhyanam and Samadhi.
Third step or stage of yogam is asanam, means posture or pose, it is
also called as yogasanam. The perfect and scientific art of controlling
one’s breathing is called Pranayamam. It is also called as ‘vasi’ and
‘vasiyogam [64]. Yoga can be integrated with various diseases such
as Musculoskeletal disorders, Bronchial asthma [65], hypertension
[66], depression, insomnia etc [13,19]. It can also be used as an
adjuvant therapy for many non-communicable diseases.
DISCUSSION
The concept of ‘integrative’ medicine has come up several times
earlier and is not new. This, however is not a call for Siddha alone,
but it is all about the direction of change. World Health Organization
(WHO) has announced desirable doctor–population ratio as 1:1,000.
In India as per current population, it gives a doctor (modern
medicine) and a population ratio of 0.77:1,000 [65]. After
considering AYUSH registered medical practitioners it counts, 1.33
billion of Indian population is being served by 1.8 million registered
medical graduates during 2017. So, the ratio is 1.34 doctor for 1,000
Indian citizens as of 2017. This shows that India reached WHO norm
by 1:1,000 doctor population ratio after considering AYUSH doctors.
Besides this an assessment of the mainstreaming of AYUSH in
Rajasthan, India [Society for Economic Development and
Environmental Management (SEDEM) n. d.], revealed that AYUSH is
popular and regularly accessed by the community. Approximately
half the allopathic doctors studied reported never referring patients
to AYUSH doctors
3
the lack of knowledge about traditional medicine
in biomedicine practitioner is the reason behind this crisis; this can
be rectified by including traditional medicine in the MBBS
curriculum itself.
The Indian government also supports to promote the traditional
medicine in India. The budget al. location for the Dept of AYUSH has
increased gradually over the years. In the 12th Five Year Plan of
India (2012–2017), the total allocation for AYUSH was INR. 10,044
crore, which was 235% more than the actual expenditure of 11th
Plan [66]. Till date, AYUSH facilities have been co-located in 506
District Hospitals, 374 sub district Hospitals, 2871 CHCs, 8995 PHCs,
and 5716 other healthcare centers. The Magnitude of AYUSH
infrastructure in the country has reached 7,99,879 registered
practitioners, said by the AYUSH minister on 19 July 2019 [67, 68].
Although we have proof of scientific validation, the utilization of
Siddha medicines for various diseases, the data for Siddha
Intervention as Add-on, limitations for Siddha intervention
(Dislodgement of renal calculi of bigger size), areas where Siddha
can compliment such as usage of Mathan thylam in diabetic ulcer
without disturbing the contemporary treatment module, drug-drug
interactions, drug food interactions and food based health benefits
have to be documented. The discovery of complete integrative
approach guidelines of Siddha medicine with biomedicine is the only
approach to resolve this crisis. Both Siddha and biomedicine experts
in a particular field should assemble and prepare the guideline to
safeguard the public.
CONCLUSION
Hence, there has been a huge utilization of Siddha medicine and also
proof of scientific validation of Siddha medicine its usage in both
communicable and non-communicable diseases, Integrating Siddha
medicine with biomedicine is essential to offer better health
facilities to public. Integration of Siddha with the existing health care
Rajalakshmi et al.
Int J Pharm Pharm Sci, Vol 12, Issue 4, 6-11
10
system, not only helps in preventive and promotive health also
focuses more in complementing Biomedicine by offering profound
Siddha Varmam, Yoga therapy. Integrative approach is the only way
to achieve the dream of health in an efficacious and cost effective
manner.
FUNDING
Nil
AUTHORS CONTRIBUTIONS
All the authors have contributed equally.
CONFLICT OF INTERESTS
Nil
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The Indian medical education system has been able to pull through a major turnaround and has been successfully able to double the numbers of MBBS graduate (modern medicine training) positions during recent decades. With more than 479 medical schools, India has reached the capacity of an annual intake of 67,218 MBBS students at medical colleges regulated by the Medical Council of India. Additionally, India produces medical graduates in the “traditional Indian system of medicine,” regulated through Central Council for Indian Medicine. Considering the number of registered medical practitioners of both modern medicine (MBBS) and traditional medicine (AYUSH), India has already achieved the World Health Organization recommended doctor to population ratio of 1:1,000 the “Golden Finishing Line” in the year 2018 by most conservative estimates. It is indeed a matter of jubilation and celebration! Now, the time has come to critically analyze the whole premise of doctor–population ratio and its value. Public health experts and policy makers now need to move forward from the fixation and excuse of scarcity of doctors. There is an urgent need to focus on augmenting the fiscal capacity as well as development of infrastructure both in public and private health sectors toward addressing pressing healthcare needs of the growing population. It is also an opportunity to call for change in the public health discourse in India in the background of aspirations of attaining sustainable development goals by 2030.
Article
Background: Siddha system is a complementary system of medicine popular in South India. Information on common morbidities for which people seek care in Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy (AYUSH) systems and especially in Siddha hospitals is very limited. This knowledge will help in prioritizing diseases and developing standard treatment guidelines. Objectives: The present study was designed with the aim to describe the morbidity profile of the adult patients attending Siddha Out Patient Department (OPD) at Government Hospitals in Erode district of Tamil Nadu. Materials and methods: A facility-based cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among adult (15-59 years) patients, who attended Siddha Hospital OPDs during February, 2014. Two block level health facilities were randomly selected from ten block hospitals offering Siddha services in Erode district of Tamil Nadu. Information on socio-demographic characteristics like age, gender and education was captured using a pre-tested proforma. Diagnosis was done by treating Siddha practitioners as per reporting format. Data were single entered and analyzed using EpiData software. Results: Of the total 1786 patients who attended the Siddha OPD, 1720 (96%) completed the interviews. Mean (Standard Deviation) age of participants was 41 (11) years and 913 (53%) were females; 20% had no formal education. Of 1720 participants, arthritis (21%), neuritis (10%), fungal diseases (7%) were the top three morbidities, with arthritis and neuritis being most common morbidities in both males and females. Conclusion: Arthritis, neuritis and fungal diseases were the most common morbidities, for which patients sought care in Siddha hospitals. These morbidities can be considered for preparing standard treatment guidelines under the national programme.