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Psychological Effects of the Coronavirus Disease-2019 Pandemic

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Going by the current physical reach of the COVID-19 pandemic in the population there are bound to be long-term implications in terms of socioeconomic and psychological impact. The swift rise of fear and anxiety among people due to uncertainty of the disease are coupled with essential yet socially disruptive measures like lockdowns and quarantines. These can lead to significant psychological and psychiatric disturbances such as post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety, panic disorders, and behavioural disorders. Predisposing factors include staying away from family, loneliness, misinformation on social media, financial insecurity and stigmatization. Healthcare workers have a high risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder and burnout; therefore, it is paramount to understand and research the psychological impact and key determinants to prevent, identify, and manage such problems. Suggested actions include support lines for anxious people, tele-counselling, virtual connecting & help groups, encouraging meditation, conducting research on psychological consequences, and developing and utilising suitable interventions.
Sadhika Sood
Psychological effects of the Coronavirus
disease-2019 pandemic
Medical intern, Kasturba Medical College, MAHE
Corresponding Author:
Sadhika Sood,
Kasturba Medical College,
Manipal Academy of Higher Education (MAHE)
Mangalore, Karnataka, India.
email: sadhika001 at gmail dot com
Cite this article as: Sood S. Psychological effects of the Coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic. RHiME.
Received: 25-MAR-2020 Accepted: 30-MAR-2020 Published Online: 01-APR-2020 23
Going by the current physical reach of the COVID-19 pandemic in the population there are
bound to be long-term implications in terms of socio-economic and psychological impact. The
swift rise of fear and anxiety among people due to uncertainty of the disease are coupled with
essential yet socially disruptive measures like lockdowns and quarantines. These can lead to
significant psychological and psychiatric disturbances such as post-traumatic stress disorder,
depression, anxiety, panic disorders, and behavioural disorders. Predisposing factors include
staying away from family, loneliness, misinformation on social media, financial insecurity and
stigmatization. Healthcare workers have a high risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder
and burnout; therefore, it is paramount to understand and research the psychological impact
and key determinants to prevent, identify, and manage such problems. Suggested actions
include support lines for anxious people, tele-counselling, virtual connecting & help groups,
encouraging meditation, conducting research on psychological consequences, and developing and
utilising suitable interventions.
Keywords:Coronavirus; COVID-19; Mental health; Pandemic; Psychology; PTSD; Self-isolation;
Social distancing; Quarantine
The new decade brought with it the first
pandemic of the social-media age -
Coronavirus Disease 2019, popularly known
as COVID-19. While it reminds us of the
2003 SARS outbreak, COVID-19 has proven
to be much more widespread with numbers
of the affected surpassing SARS. According
to the World Health Organization (WHO), a
total of 8422 people worldwide were
affected with SARS, with 916 deaths.[1]
COVID-19, on the other hand, has already
had over 33,000 deaths.[2] 24
The sudden outbreak of a serious
respiratory illness in China followed by
rapid spread to other parts of the world
prompted researchers to study the disease
and to isolate the virus without much
delay. We now know that the disease is
caused by a previously unknown virus:
2019-nCoV or SARS-CoV2. The uncertainty
of the disease is a major reason for
psychological stress among people. With the
WHO declaring it a pandemic on 11th
March 2020, there was a swift rise of fear
and anxiety among the general
Previous data on mass occurrences, like
natural disasters, shows that large scale
disruptive events are strongly associated
with ill-effects on mental health - post-
traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) being the
most frequently encountered followed by
depression, anxiety, and other behavioral &
psychological disorders.[4] Therefore, the
current pandemic poses a great risk for
psychological and psychiatric morbidity.
The disease caused by a hitherto
unrecognized infection with no vaccines or
approved drug regimens in place further
adds to the distress.
While researchers toiled to develop vaccines
and drugs, the most successful intervention
to slow the spread of disease was found to
be quarantining people in their homes.
Reducing physical interaction, popularly
known as ‘social distancing’, has been
advertised by many countries. However,
after people failed to practice adequate
social distancing during initial stages,
severely affected countries like China and
Italy had to switch to strict lockdown and
quarantine of its citizens. As more countries
opt for lockdown, the long-term
psychological impact of the circumstances
remains debatable. There is very limited
data available on the mental health aspect
of previous medical outbreaks. Some
literature shows that life threatening
medical illnesses can lead to symptoms
associated with PTSD following
recovery.[5,6] The question thus arises: are
we heading towards a mental health
The vulnerable
WHO recently changed the term ‘social
distancing’ to ‘physical distancing’ to make
people feel less lonely and isolated. An
earlier meta-analysis had concluded that
loneliness is a risk factor for all-cause
mortality.[7] People living away from their
families for education or work, or
otherwise separated from their loved ones
are at a higher risk for developing mental
health problems such as depression,
anxiety, etc. Elderly people living alone are
also greatly predisposed.
While social media is aiding people in
being more connected in times of physical
isolation, it is also a major source of
rumors and false information adding to the
stress. The hourly updates on death tolls
and rising case numbers can be consuming,
especially for people predisposed to mental
health issues or already on medications for
psychiatric disorders. Furthermore,
lockdown has already caused many
manufacturing industries to shut down and
businesses to incur severe losses.[8] The
enormous hit on the economy has caused
financial insecurity and stress in the
population which will indirectly have
consequences on health. Most shaken up
are the daily wage workers who do not
have access to their sustenance income.[8]
Suspected cases and confirmed patients
perhaps suffer the most in feeling
stigmatized by the community for carrying
an infection that may inadvertently affect
other people. Being unable to meet their
close ones in isolation can add to their
suffering. The uncertainty about the
severity of infection and unsureness of the
treatment effectiveness may be the
determinants of utmost importance. 25
The impact on Physicians
Another major concern is physician burnout
and added stress on healthcare workers
who have to constantly be on their toes
with not only increasing patient load, but
also new guidelines and policies.[9] It is
expected that as the pandemic progresses,
more healthcare professionals will be found
at the brink of psychological breakdown.
Expected consequences
The sudden panic created recently with
people hoarding supplies is an indication
to perhaps expect a rise in cases of panic
disorders. With more people staying
indoors, there is a likelihood for the
development of anxiety related to
claustrophobia. Inaccessibility to drugs
will escalate withdrawal syndromes in
addicts and people who regularly abuse
In addition, there may also be a steep
rise of somatoform disorders as the
outbreak peaks and then settles down.
Therefore, mental health crisis is
inevitable during and after the pandemic.
The mental health effects of COVID-19
will further affect physical health after
the outbreak. Therefore, it is important
to understand and research the
psychological impact of the pandemic to
better prepare physicians, irrespective of
their field of specialization, to actively
look for such signs in their patients. This
will aid in early identification and
management of a large-scale influx of
patients with behavioral and
psychological problems.
A stumbling block in providing healthcare
to a vast magnitude of population is the
underequipped and moderately
provisioned healthcare set-up along with
limited number of psychiatric and
psychological health providers in the
country.[10] Hence, the pandemic should
serve as a wakeup call to invest
adequately and strengthen our healthcare
system so that the country is better
equipped to fight all medical battles.
Suggestions for psychological
As governments update daily guidelines,
the healthcare set-ups formulate new
policies, and the general population
practices either social distancing or strict
quarantine, everyone seems to be
proactively doing their bit to stop the
physical spread of the disease. However,
with response and recovery teams in place,
do we also have a plan of action for
Some actions that can be adopted are:
First, setting up of support lines for
coronavirus related doubts, clarification of
misinformation, and online and tele-
counselling for people facing anxiety and
stress during the pandemic can be a means
to alleviate panic and fear. Second,
connecting virtual and online neighborhood
groups could reduce the risk of loneliness.
After the outbreak, these can be converted
into voluntary community help-groups to
help people reknit their social fabric. Third,
people currently in quarantine or under
lockdown could be encouraged to take up
an indoor exercise routine blending yoga,
meditation, music and stretching exercises.
Fourth, studies and researches need to be
conducted to assess and evaluate the
psychosocial repercussions on healthcare
workers, on patients, and on the general
population. Based on the outcomes,
appropriate interventions can be put into
place and efforts made to mitigate issues.
Determining risks and predisposing factors
prospectively can play a role in selecting
people needing more care.
We need to work on these aspects in a
proactive way to reduce the long-term
psychological morbidity induced by the
pandemic. This can be done at the
community level by owning up to social
accountability and civic responsibility.
1. World Health Organization:
Data on SARS, 2003. Geneva:
WHO; 2003 [cited 2020 Mar
31]. Available from:
2. World Health Organization:
Coronavirus disease (COVID-
19) Pandemic. Geneva: WHO;
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3. Nigam C, Kumar A. Covid-
19 pandemic: Depression,
anxiety go viral as nation
observes lockdown. India
today [Internet]. 2020 Mar 26
[cited 2020 Mar 31]. Available
4. Makwana N. Disaster and
its impact on mental health: A
narrative review. J Family
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5. Wu KK, Chan SK, Ma TM.
Posttraumatic stress after
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2005;11(8):1297-300. doi:
6. Sim K, Chua HC. The
psychological impact of SARS:
a matter of heart and mind.
CMAJ. 2004;170(5):811-2. doi:
7. Rico-Uribe LA, Caballero
FF, Martín-María N, Cabello
M, Ayuso-Mateos JL, Miret M.
Association of loneliness with
all-cause mortality: A meta-
analysis. PLoS One.
2018;13(1):e0190033. doi:
8. Mohanty P. Coronavirus
Lockdown I: Who and how
many are vulnerable to
COVID-19 pandemic. Business
today [Internet]. 2020 Mar 27
[cited 2020 Mar 31]. Available
9. Lai J, Ma S, Wang Y, Cai
Z, Hu J, Wei N, et al. Factors
associated with mental health
outcomes among health care
workers exposed to
Coronavirus disease 2019.
JAMA Netw Open.
10. Garg K, Kumar C N,
Chandra PS. Number of
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2019;61:104-5. 26
... The new decade conveyed with it the first pandemic of Corona virus disease infection 2019 (COVID-19) (1). While it is not new one for than virus which cause an outbreak on 2003 (SARS-2003). ...
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Iraq is one of countries of the Middle East which was subjected to COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, to study psychological effect of coronavirus outbreak among healthcare workers at medical services directorate in Baghdad, questionnaire was performed during the last quarter of 2021 that consists of four scales to measure anxiety disturbances, sleep disorder, public health and psychological stress. A total of 68 participants worked at different departments & divisions at directorate and from different jurisdiction, where medical group were highest percent (29.41%) followed by pure sciences group (27.94%) and (13.24%) were medical lab technicians. The results showed 37% of participants had anxiety, stress and nervous for many days, moreover 35% of them had sleep problems and intermitted sleeping which affect their daily activities (work, memory, focusing) that noticeable by others. While 38% of them were careless about doing any work and 53% were sad felling with chest tightness for many days, however 43% had got tired and less energetic most of days. The prevalence of psychological stress and anxiety was estimated in participants were lab technicians and physicians who work at first lines receiving insufficient supplies for protection and lacking confidence in protection measures who were at risk factor for developing post traumatic diseases syndrome. Psychologic intervention should be implemented among healthcare workers (HCWs) during the pandemic to minimize the psychological effect and prevent long-term psychological comorbidities. At the same times, HCWs should be sufficiently trained and well protected before frontlines exposure.
... Several researchers reported that COVID-19 is creating a lot of problems including educational issues for individuals all over the world (Plohl and Musil, 2020;Previtali et al., 2020;Ranney et al., 2020;Seraphin, 2020;Sood, 2020;Swerdlow et al., 2020;Shoaib et al., 2021g;Shoaib et al., 2021f;Shoaib et al., 2021d). It is creating a dangerous environment of fear of infection among students and individuals (WHO, 2020c;WHO, 2020a). ...
This article has been designed to study the role of academic libraries and online academic activities among students during the COVID-19 in higher education institutions. The outbreak spread from Wuhan city of China and placed online learning as well as hybrid modes of academic activities around the globe. A quantitative study design has been used to conduct an online cross-sectional survey in two public sector universities in the Punjab province. A sample of 1058 university students enrolled in BS programs out of 1820 participated through a classified random sampling technique. A structured questionnaire pretested from 30 students was used as a tool for data collection. This study concludes that all the predictors used as an independent variable including online library services, online research support, online library facilities, online material availability, and online audio/video material predict favourably online learning activities among university students during the COVID-19 outbreak.
... The COVID-19 pandemic impacted people mentally and physiologically (Sood, 2020). The uncertainty of this disease had left the public feeling fear and anxiety. ...
... and global PSQI Score ≤ 17 has p value ≤ 0.001, OR (95% CI) 79.6 (30-210). The current study revealed high mean score of insomnia severity index which was in agreement with the study noting COVID-19 patients after recovery will still have increasing levels of depressive manifestation, anxiety level, stressful condition, decreased sleep quality and impaired QoL [33]. ...
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Background: COVID-19 pandemic became a global health problem affecting the life of millions of people all over the world. The effects of this pandemic were not only on the physical and medical aspects but also on the psychological issues including anxiety disorders, depressive manifestations, sleep problems and others. Sleep disorders were very commonly reported during the novel Coronavirus-19 pandemic either in the acute phase of COVID-19 infection or after recovery. These sleep problems might have a drastic burden on the recovered patients' life. This study aimed to investigate the sleep in the post-Coronavirus-19 period and if has an impact on the different items of patients' quality of life. This cross-sectional observational study investigated the sleep problems in 500 patients in the post recovery period using Insomnia Severity Index and Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), their relation to this critical period and their impact on different domains of Quality of Life which was assessed by the SF36 Health Survey. Results: Socio-demographic characteristics of 500 post-Coronavirus-19 patients were collected; the insomnia severity index and Pittsburgh sleep quality index evaluated the sleep pattern. The quality of life was investigated using Short Form 36 scale. The study revealed high scores of insomnia severity index (13.01 ± 4.9), Pittsburgh sleep quality index (15.37 ± 4.43), also high scores of different items of scale of quality of life in the studied group. Conclusion: Post-COVID-19 sleep disturbances were commonly reported in the recovery period, also these sleep deficits had an impact on the physical and mental aspects of quality of life, so these sleep problems must be managed properly especially in this critical pandemic era.
... [2] On the other hand, the current pandemic is greatly associated with psychological complications and its unknown nature and the lack of a specific vaccine or medication for it are also rapidly increasing people's anxiety, fear, and distress in societies. [6] Besides, public health measures such as being away from the community make people feel isolated and loneliness, which in turn can increase stress and anxiety. However, public health measures are necessary to reduce the prevalence of COVID-19 pandemic. ...
Background: As the 2019 coronavirus spreads rapidly around the world, it has caused widespread fear and anxiety in various populations. This study aimed to explore the psychological effects of COVID-19 on patients with this disease. Materials and methods: A qualitative study was conducted with a phenomenological approach. A purposive sample of 11 patients with COVID-19 was recruited. Data were collected from the beginning of March to the beginning of June 2020 using semi-structured interviews and they were analyzed according to Van Manen's method. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results: Initially, 315 codes were extracted. During data analysis and comparisons, the codes were reduced to 108. Ultimately, 10 categories, 38 subcategories, and 3 themes emerged. The theme of "behavioral responses" including 5 categories (Remorse, Fear and despair, Death anxiety, Growth, Support), "disease-caused helplessness" including two categories (Failure, Denial), and "decline of social networks" including three categories (Rejection, Stigma, Feeling guilty). Conclusions: After understanding the findings of this research, nurses working in the wards of patients with COVID-19 can better consider the importance of assessing and analyzing the psychological challenges and experiences of these patients during the course of illness and quarantine. Findings also enhance the identification and organization of training needs during such a pandemic and the design of nursing programs to meet them.
... The global macroeconomic impacts of COVID-19 have stressed many who have lost their businesses or jobs or struggle to cope with the challenges [43]. Thus, the impacts of the pandemic on socio-economic aspects suggest wider impacts on mental health and psychological effects [44]. Figure 1 below summarises these six categories. ...
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This study explores the diverse and long-term mental impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on societies worldwide. Six primary categories of the mental effects are identified to verify how people are affected by reoccurring lockdowns and social isolations. The study urges holistic research in this field, suggesting that researchers must not neglect the diversity of mental health impacts and context-specific factors. While long-term mental and psychological impacts are mostly hidden for now, we anticipate them to fuel other health issues already experienced by the vulnerable groups, healthcare units, and those fighting the pandemic at the front line. This brief study suggests further case study-based research to evaluate the impacts of lockdowns and social isolations on societal wellbeing and mental health. Globally, the ongoing pandemic has made public health unstable and is expected to continue with its long-term consequences on societies. Research studies should help make governments and policymakers more aware of such long-term consequences to ensure they can respond more effectively to foreseeing public health issues. Keywords: COVID-19; Mental Health; Lockdown; Response; Public health; Social isolation.
Background: Since the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the COVID-19 outbreak a global pandemic and the global spread had created several challenges for the general public and the healthcare workers across the world, the primary aim of this study was to assess the psychological stress, sleep quality, and health-related quality of life (QoL) of individuals with multiple health issues during home quarantine caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: The study was conducted between 28 th March to 30 th April 2020. We recruited 50 individuals who have a history of chronic health issues, and 50 individuals with no health issues for this cross-sectional study. Three questionnaires were used to evaluate the mental health [depression anxiety stress scale (DASS-21)], sleep quality [Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI)], and QoL [short form of health-related questionnaire (SF-36)] of the participants. Statistical analysis was carried out with Student’s t-test, using SPSS software v16. Results: Baseline demographic characteristics were homogenous for both groups of participants. Intergroup analysis revealed statistically significant differences in mental health (p<0.001), sleep quality (p<0.001), and QoL (p<0.001) between the two groups. The results showed high levels of depression, anxiety and stress; poor sleep quality and low health-related QoL in Group A as compared to Group B. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that individuals with chronic health issues exhibit higher mental health problems, lower quality of sleep and have a lower health-related QoL. More research is required and also government should plan on taking care of those patients.
This chapter presents an overview of occupational health in remote work from the self-care perspective. A literature review regarding remote working conditions and their effects on health and well-being is included, along with an analysis of the most relevant self-care and practices that have been developed for working at the distance. The study focuses on faculty, specifically at a private university in Puebla, Mexico, and the effects of the pandemic-induced remote work schemes on their well-being, along with the most common ailments that emerged from remote working conditions and self-care practices that can be adopted to prevent or reduce them. A survey was conducted among faculty members to understand the health implications of remote work and what people have been doing to deal with them. The concept of health circles is introduced to help explain specific actions taken to promote self-care and group care.
This chapter presents a study performed in a private university in the state of Puebla, Mexico to analyze the effects of remote work on the health and well-being of faculty during the third trimester of 2020 that could lead to burnout. The study includes working conditions, psychosomatic factors, and emotional exhaustion. Results have been analyzed based on gender differences. The university authorities decided to take on the challenge of identifying and tackling increasing well-being issues, especially considering two official regulations in the country that deal with psychosocial risks and remote work. Different activities and webinars were developed to help faculty and staff make self-care part of their daily routine during social distancing, thus reducing added stress and burnout.
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of online existential psychotherapy on attitudes toward life and death-related Perplexities in in Recovered Patients of COVID-19. The research method was a quasi-experimental design with pre-test, post-test and control groups. The statistical population in this study included all recovered patients of COVID-19 in 2020 in Urmia, Iran. A sample of 30 people was selected by convenience sampling method and placed in experimental and control groups (N = 15 each). The experimental group received ten 90-minute sessions of online existential group psychotherapy, whereas the control group received no intervention. The Life Attitude questionnaire (Reker, 1992), Death Depression Scale (Templer et al., 1990) and Death Obsession Scale (Abdel-Khalek, 1998) were used for data collection. The collected data were analyzed using single-factor analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The results of this study showed that the mean of life attitude score in the experimental group significantly was increased after the existential psychotherapy intervention in comparison with the control group (P< 0/001) and the mean of death depression and death obsession were decreased (P< 0/001). Based on the results of the present study, it can be concluded that existential psychotherapy can improve attitudes toward life and reduce the degree of perplexities related to death in recovered patients of Covid 19.
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Importance Health care workers exposed to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) could be psychologically stressed. Objective To assess the magnitude of mental health outcomes and associated factors among health care workers treating patients exposed to COVID-19 in China. Design, Settings, and Participants This cross-sectional, survey-based, region-stratified study collected demographic data and mental health measurements from 1257 health care workers in 34 hospitals from January 29, 2020, to February 3, 2020, in China. Health care workers in hospitals equipped with fever clinics or wards for patients with COVID-19 were eligible. Main Outcomes and Measures The degree of symptoms of depression, anxiety, insomnia, and distress was assessed by the Chinese versions of the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire, the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale, the 7-item Insomnia Severity Index, and the 22-item Impact of Event Scale–Revised, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with mental health outcomes. Results A total of 1257 of 1830 contacted individuals completed the survey, with a participation rate of 68.7%. A total of 813 (64.7%) were aged 26 to 40 years, and 964 (76.7%) were women. Of all participants, 764 (60.8%) were nurses, and 493 (39.2%) were physicians; 760 (60.5%) worked in hospitals in Wuhan, and 522 (41.5%) were frontline health care workers. A considerable proportion of participants reported symptoms of depression (634 [50.4%]), anxiety (560 [44.6%]), insomnia (427 [34.0%]), and distress (899 [71.5%]). Nurses, women, frontline health care workers, and those working in Wuhan, China, reported more severe degrees of all measurements of mental health symptoms than other health care workers (eg, median [IQR] Patient Health Questionnaire scores among physicians vs nurses: 4.0 [1.0-7.0] vs 5.0 [2.0-8.0]; P = .007; median [interquartile range {IQR}] Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale scores among men vs women: 2.0 [0-6.0] vs 4.0 [1.0-7.0]; P < .001; median [IQR] Insomnia Severity Index scores among frontline vs second-line workers: 6.0 [2.0-11.0] vs 4.0 [1.0-8.0]; P < .001; median [IQR] Impact of Event Scale–Revised scores among those in Wuhan vs those in Hubei outside Wuhan and those outside Hubei: 21.0 [8.5-34.5] vs 18.0 [6.0-28.0] in Hubei outside Wuhan and 15.0 [4.0-26.0] outside Hubei; P < .001). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed participants from outside Hubei province were associated with lower risk of experiencing symptoms of distress compared with those in Wuhan (odds ratio [OR], 0.62; 95% CI, 0.43-0.88; P = .008). Frontline health care workers engaged in direct diagnosis, treatment, and care of patients with COVID-19 were associated with a higher risk of symptoms of depression (OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.11-2.09; P = .01), anxiety (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.22-2.02; P < .001), insomnia (OR, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.92-4.60; P < .001), and distress (OR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.25-2.04; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance In this survey of heath care workers in hospitals equipped with fever clinics or wards for patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan and other regions in China, participants reported experiencing psychological burden, especially nurses, women, those in Wuhan, and frontline health care workers directly engaged in the diagnosis, treatment, and care for patients with COVID-19.
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The purpose of this study is to understand the linkages between disaster and its impact on mental health. To fulfil this objective, an attempt has been made to examine the existing qualitative literature on disaster and mental health. In this paper, disaster and mental health as a concept has been used in a holistic sense. Based on the review of literature, the following broad themes have been identified: natural disaster and its impact on mental health, man-made disaster and its effect on mental health, effects of industrial disaster on mental health. It examines the post-disaster behavioural and psychological symptoms associated with an impairment in functioning. By this review, various protective factors, including resilience and other coping strategies which amplified the individual's capacity while encountering negative situations, have been identified. The effectiveness of post-disaster intervention techniques is also highlighted. Better preparedness and community empowerment can improve the condition of the vulnerable population affected by the disaster. Thus, efforts should be given for holistic rehabilitation of the affected population.
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Introduction Loneliness has social and health implications. The aim of this article is to evaluate the association of loneliness with all-cause mortality. Methods Pubmed, PsycINFO, CINAHL and Scopus databases were searched through June 2016 for published articles that measured loneliness and mortality. The main characteristics and the effect size values of each article were extracted. Moreover, an evaluation of the quality of the articles included was also carried out. A meta-analysis was performed firstly with all the included articles and secondly separating by gender, using a random effects model. Results A total of 35 articles involving 77220 participants were included in the systematic review. Loneliness is a risk factor for all-cause mortality [pooled HR = 1.22, 95% CI = (1.10, 1.35), p < 0.001] for both genders together, and for women [pooled HR = 1.26, 95% CI = (1.07, 1.48); p = 0.005] and men [pooled HR = 1.44; 95% CI = (1.19, 1.76); p < 0.001] separately. Conclusions Loneliness shows a harmful effect for all-cause mortality and this effect is slightly stronger in men than in women. Moreover, the impact of loneliness was independent from the quality evaluation of each article and the effect of depression.
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Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can arise in patients with medical illness. We used 2 Chinese self-report measures to examine features of PTSD, anxiety, and depression in 131 survivors of severe acute respiratory syndrome at 1 month and 3 months after discharge from the hospital. Risk factors associated with psychological distress were identified. In the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Hong Kong in 2003, a total of 1,755 people were infected, and 299 died. Among the infected, 386 were healthcare workers (1). According to the literature, a lifethreatening physical illness can lead to symptoms associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after recovery. The prevalence rates of PTSD are 1%–5 % for childbirth and 14%–59 % for a life-threatening situation in
Covid-19 pandemic: Depression, anxiety go viral as nation observes lockdown. India today
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Coronavirus Lockdown I: Who and how many are vulnerable to COVID-19 pandemic. Business today
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