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Leadership Competences in the Digitalised World of Work: A Question of Gender and Culture?

Authors:

Abstract

As a central obstacle to the introduction of digitisation, many companies cite primarily the lack of suitable specialists with specific skills. One solution could be to increase the labour market participation of qualified women and persons with a migrant background. In order to harness the potential of skilled women and migrant women to shape the digital transition, companies and organisations need to reduce their reservations about women and people with a migrant background. Special measures must be used to raise awareness of diversity and highlight its benefits. Qualified women with and without a migration background in particular can play a major role in the context of digitisation due to their specific competences. According to experts, social, intercultural and risk management skills attributed to women and female immigrants are particularly necessary in the digitised world of work. But what specific skills do executives need in times of Industry 4.0? And are there gender-and culture-specific differences? This paper describes the results of an online survey of 515 students and company representatives that was conducted in Germany in the period from November to December 2018. Participants were asked to assess different competences, behaviours and knowledge resources in terms of their relevance to leadership in the world of work of the future. It turns out that "openness to change", "IT and media literacy", "learning aptitude" and "the ability to think in context" are specific competences that industry managers need, according to the respondents. In addition, "problem-solving competence" is important for students and "communicative competence" for company representatives. While the origin of the participants does not seem to have any influence, gender-and age-dependent differences can be observed in the results. For example, the women surveyed consider the four competences "innovation competence", "decision-making ability", "ability to think in context" and "willingness to make decisions" to be less relevant than men do. A comparison between generations also reveals some noticeable differences. Older respondents rated "openness to change", "self-organisation" and "problem-solving competence" as particularly relevant.
Leadership Competences in the Digitalised World of Work: A
Question of Gender and Culture?
Swetlana Franken, Malte Wattenberg and Victoria Herr
Bielefeld University of Applied Sciences, Germany
swetlana.franken@fh-bielefeld.de
malte.wattenberg@fh-bielefeld.de
victoria.herr@fh-bielefeld.de
DOI: 10.34190/IGR.20.135
Abstract: As a central obstacle to the introduction of digitisation, many companies cite primarily the lack of suitable
specialists with specific skills. One solution could be to increase the labour market participation of qualified women and
perso
ns with a migrant background. In order to harness the potential of skilled women and migrant women to shape the
digital transition, companies and organisations need to reduce their reservations about women and people with a migrant
background. Special measures must be used to raise awareness of diversity and highlight its benefits. Qualified women
with and without a migration background in particular can play a major role in the context of digitisation due to their
specific competences. According to experts, social, intercultural and risk management skills attributed to women and
female immigrants are particularly necessary in the digitised world of work. But what specific skills do executives need in
times of Industry 4.0? And are there gender- and culture-specific differences? This paper describes the results of an online
survey of 515 students and company representatives that was conducted in Germany in the period from November to
December 2018. Participants were asked to assess different competences, behaviours and knowledge resources in terms of
their relevance to leadership in the world of work of the future. It turns out that "openness to change", "IT and media
literacy", "learning aptitude" and "the ability to think in context" are specific competences that industry managers need,
according to the respondents. In addition, "problem-solving competence" is important for students and "communicative
competence" for company representatives. While the origin of the participants does not seem to have any influence,
gender- and age-dependent differences can be observed in the results. For example, the women surveyed consider the
four competences "innovation competence", "decision-making ability", "ability to think in context" and "willingness to
make decisions" to be less relevant than men do. A comparison between generations also reveals some noticeable
differences. Older respondents rated "openness to change", "self-organisation" and "problem-solving competence" as
particularly relevant.
Keywords: Digitisation, digitised world of work, qualification potential of women and migrants, digitisation competences
1. Introduction
In order to shape digital change and industry 4.0 and secure the long-term competitiveness of companies and
organisations, specific knowledge resources and skills of employees and managers are necessary. In this
context, the increasing shortage of skilled workers in Germany is becoming a problem factor as considerable
bottlenecks exist especially in STEM occupations, in mechanical and automotive engineering, in mechatronics,
automation and electrical engineering, as well as in information technology and software development
(Bundesagentur für Arbeit, 2018). In order to counteract these negative developments, an increase in the
labour force participation of women, older people and people with a migration background is recommended
as a suitable measure (Handelsblatt, 2017).
In Germany, women rarely opt for STEM occupations; only 15% of STEM employees are female
(Arbeitsagentur, 2019). Unlike in Germany, young women in Eastern Europe, Southeast Asia or some countries
of origin of current refugees are more likely to opt for STEM occupations.
This makes qualified women and immigrants interesting, promising target groups for companies and
organisations in order to prevent a shortage of skilled workers. However, there are still reservations on the
part of companies and organisations about women and people with a migration background who prevent
them from exploiting their potential. Special measures are needed here to sensitise company actors to
diversity and to demonstrate its advantages.
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In addition, qualified women with and without a migration background can play a special role in the context of
digitalisation due to their specific competences: According to experts, the digitised working world of the future
will require social, intercultural and risk management skills that are attributed to women and immigrant
women.
Swetlana Franken, Malte Wattenberg and Victoria Herr
It is also known that cooperation between men and women, natives and immigrants in the sense of
consciously perceived diversity can lead to more balanced decisions and more innovation (Franken and
Christoph, 2014; KIT, 2011; McKinsey, 2018; Stuber, 2009). This can create additional added value for
companies and organisations.
In order to realise these benefits, innovative model instruments are needed to promote the participation of
qualified women in digital change in business and science. These instruments must be applied on both sides
in the special preparation of STEM women for the requirements of the digitised world of work and in the
sensitisation of decision-makers in companies and organisations for women and immigrant women as
contributors to digitisation.
2. State of research
The research on the potentials of qualified women with and without a migrant background for industry 4.0
forms an interface between the subject areas "digitisation/industry 4.0", "gender/women in STEM" and
"migration/integration".
2.1 Digitisation / Industry 4.0
The importance of digitisation and industry 4.0 for the future competitiveness of companies is enormous
(Zühlke, 2014; BDI, 2019).
Industry 4.0 offers companies economic advantages, since individual customer wishes can be considered and
even individual items can be produced profitably (it's OWL, 2014; Brödner, 2017). Studies on the economic
potential of industry 4.0 anticipate constant growth in gross value added in mechanical and plant engineering:
this is estimated at 99.8 billion euros by 2025 in Germany through the application and provision of industry 4.0
technologies and services, which corresponds to an annual increase of 2.2% (Wieselhuber et al., 2015).
Many companies cite a lack of suitable specialists and problems with data security as central obstacles to the
introduction of digitisation (BITKOM, 2015; Kroker, 2019).
For employees, the use of new technologies means a change in their working environment and their tasks
(BMBF, 2015; Vogels, 2018). In future, people will mainly be concerned with setting, monitoring and securing
production strategies (Stehr, 2014; BMBF, 2016); the tasks of traditional production and knowledge-workers
will grow together (Boes and Kämpf, 2016). For digitised work in production and services of the future,
employees need digital competence, a high degree of independence and self-organisation as well as an
understanding of the interaction of all actors in the value creation process (Hirsch-Kreinsen, 2014; Hahne,
2016; LinkedIn, 2017). Social skills (especially communication and team skills) and the ability to work together
in an interdisciplinary and intercultural manner are becoming increasingly important as work will increasingly
take place in cross-functional internal or even cross-company networks (BMBF, 2015), often in digital, virtual
and project form (BMBF, 2015; Bultemeier and Marrs, 2016). According to Franken, Prädikow and Vandieken,
the next five years will see the demand for different skills depending on the employee group. In addition to
openness to change, the ability to learn is particularly important for semi-skilled and unskilled workers, for
managers communicative skills and for academics the ability to think in context. (Franken, Prädikow and
Vandieken, 2019). A further study confirms that digital and media competence, social and communication
competence and problem-solving and optimisation competence are the top three future competences.
When considering both sexes, a different prioritisation of competences was also noticeable. While male
respondents rated problem-solving and optimisation skills, interdisciplinary thinking and acting as well as
social and communication skills as the most relevant, female respondents rated digital and media skills, social
and communication skills as well as personal responsibility. It is also conspicuous that, overall, women rate
competences higher (cf. Franken and Wattenberg, 2019; Franken, Schenk and Wattenberg, 2019).
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The design of digital work should allow more flexibility in terms of working hours and places of work as well as
a better work-life balance (BMBF, 2015; Eisenbeis-Trinkle, 2014; Bultemeier and Marrs, 2016). This will make it
easier to reconcile family and career, which will benefit women and mothers in particular (Robert Bosch, 2014;
German Bundestag, 2018).
Swetlana Franken, Malte Wattenberg and Victoria Herr
2.2 Gender / Women in STEM
Above all, the potential of qualified women should be better exploited against the background of the
increasing shortage of skilled workers and in the interests of equal opportunities.
In 2018, 16.7% of the members of the Executive Board worldwide were women. Northern and Western Europe
are the leading regions, each with an average of 36.3% and 26.7% women. This is followed by the USA and
Canada with 20.9% and Central and Eastern Europe with 15.5%. These differences mainly result from the
women's quotas for members of the Board of Management that have come into force in recent years (EY
Reporting, 2019). In America, women hold 20.4% of the board seats in the R3000 companies, an increase of
17.7% in 2018. 27.7% of the board seats in the 100 largest companies are held by women and 15.7% in the
1000 smallest companies. Women hold more than 20% of the board seats in five out of nine industry sectors.
In 2018, they were represented in only two out of nine industries (2020 Women On Boards, 2019). In 2015, in
Africa's top 307 companies, only 14% of board members were women. The country with the highest
proportion of women on the Executive Board is Kenya (19.8%), while the country with the lowest proportion of
women is Ivory Coast (5.1%) (Oyaro, 2018). Advantages of female board members are an improved decision-
making process in the board, apparent improvement of the presence on the board as well as exemplary
character for women at other organisational levels. Disadvantages could occur in various board teams due to
internal communication problems and communication with management. Board quotas could imply that, due
to a lower total of women in senior management, women with less experience would join the board. In
general, it also seems that quotas have little positive effect on more women joining senior management
(Smith, 2018).
The example of Germany shows that, statistically speaking, women are better qualified than men.
Nevertheless, they still have considerable difficulties getting to the top floors. In 2017, only one in three
managers (29%) was female (Destatis, 2018). In the 100 largest German companies, the proportion of women
on the executive boards was 10% for the first time in 2018 (Hols and Wrohlich, 2019). In the Dax, M-Dax and S-
Dax companies, the proportion of women on the board increased last year but is currently still 8.6% (Haufe
Online Redaktion, 2019). Women are also still underrepresented in science: in 2013, the proportion of women
in professorships was 25% (Destatis, 2019). This means that the qualifications and specific skills of women are
hardly used to shape digitisation in industry and science.
The proportion of women in STEM occupations is slowly rising but is still well below average at 15.4%. The
highest proportions of women are in mathematics and natural sciences, with a good third of women employed
in technical and IT occupations, while the figure for women is only 13 to 17% (Federal Employment Agency,
2019). And it is precisely these occupational groups that are decisive for the success of digitisation. The
number of women studying STEM is steadily increasing but is still very small overall (Kompetenzzentrum, 2015;
Komm mach Mint, 2018).
2.3 Migration / Integration
Less present than the discussion on women in management positions and in STEM occupations is the
discussion on the topic of qualified migrant women. Migration can only be viewed from a specific
perspective
the example of Germany shows that the proportion of people with a migration background has
increased by 62% in the last 10 years to 10.92 million (Federal Statistical Office, 2019). A person then has a
migration background as soon as he or she or at least one parent was not born with German citizenship
(Federal Statistical Office, 2013). In 2018, around 20.7 million people in Germany had a migration background,
which represented a share of more than 25% of the total population and an increase of 21% over 2013. Since
2013, the number of immigrants has risen from year to year (Federal Statistical Office, 2019). This
circumstance is accompanied by an increasing qualification level of migrants and still unsolved integration
problems (Jungwirth, Grigoleit and Wolffram, 2012).
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Of a total of 10.1 million women with a migration background in 2013, 3.3 million have a vocational
qualification, 959,000 are university graduates and 41,000 have a doctorate (Federal Statistical Office, 2015b).
The level of education and qualification varies depending on the country of origin; immigrants from Western,
Northern and Eastern Europe have a particularly high proportion of university graduates (Höhne and Schulze
Buschoff, 2015). However, this potential is only used to a limited extent: Many migrant women in Germany are
employed under their qualifications, have to struggle with many obstacles on their way to a career, are
unemployed, make it as solo self-employed or are not available to the labour market. As women, they are held
Swetlana Franken, Malte Wattenberg and Victoria Herr
back by the "glass ceiling"; because of their migration background, they often must assert themselves against
prejudices (Franken et al., 2016). According to estimates by Höhne and Schulze Buschoff (2015), the
probability of unemployment among highly qualified ethnic German immigrants, women from the former
Yugoslavia (1
st
generation) and immigrants from EU Eastern Europe is more than twice as high as in the
reference group without a migration background. Women migrants from non-EU countries are even three to
five times more likely to be affected by unemployment (Höhne and Schulze Buschoff, 2015). And it is precisely
amongst these immigrants that many STEM occupations have been learnt (Jungwirth/Grigoleit and Wolffram,
2012). Practical decisions on the employment of qualified migrant women take place in companies and
organisations where barriers and prejudices remain in the minds of many HR managers (Franken and
Christoph, 2014). Some research findings show that, despite their qualifications, highly qualified female
immigrants in STEM occupations, most of who come from Eastern Europe, are confronted with barriers that
are difficult to overcome in companies and organisations (Jungwirth/Grigoleit and Wolffram, 2012). It is
necessary to introduce change here to improve the image of qualified migrant women and to communicate
the advantages of their employment widely. Research and analyses on the effects of a broader participation of
women and migrant women in business and society show higher productivity (quantitatively and qualitatively),
more success in international activities, better cooperation in teams, more creativity, higher customer
satisfaction (especially among heterogeneous customer groups) and a positive image of the company as an
employer (Franken, 2015a; Franken and Christoph, 2014; KIT, 2011; Stuber, 2009).
3. Objective and research question
The current state of research proves that qualified women with and without a migrant background represent a
considerable and currently insufficiently used resource in the context of digitisation. The purpose of research is
to gain a deeper insight into the specific requirements of enterprises in the context of digitisation and industry
4.0 and to work out the specific advantages of a higher participation of women and immigrants in the shaping
of digitisation in order to point out the necessary instruments and measures for their acquisition and
promotion.
The central research question is intended to analyse the competences of qualified women and men, natives
and immigrants for the digitised world of work and to compare them with the requirements of digitised
enterprises.
It is therefore:
RQ: What specific competences are needed in the world of work 4.0 in the opinion of women and men,
company representatives and students as well as people with and without a migration background?
The following hypotheses are based on previous findings:
H1: Men and women rate the competences to be assessed differently relevant for the world of work 4.0.
H2: Participants with and without a migrant background rate the competences to be assessed by them
differently relevant for the working world 4.0.
H3: In contrast to students, persons who are already in professional occupations rate different competences as
relevant for the working world 4.0.
H4: Where available, differences in the assessment of competences between company representatives and
students can be explained by the age difference.
4. Method
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As a survey instrument, a quantitative survey in the form of a questionnaire was carried out in Germany from
November to December 2018. In addition to literature research on the current state of research, the survey
was based on an explorative interview series [n=6] among HR managers and decision-makers in companies as
well as students. In the course of this the questionnaire was developed with nine demographic questions as
well as one question that asked the participants to assess a total of 14 competences, knowledge resources and
behaviours with respect to their relevance for the working world 4.0. The survey was conducted using a six-tier
scale in which respondents were able to express their assessment (not at all significant [1] to very significant
[6]) of the relevance of the items mentioned. The six-step scale and thus the even number of possible answers
was chosen to rule out answer distortions with regard to the tendency towards the middle. From a value of
3.5, a general agreement can be assumed. In order to determine possible correlations between the
Swetlana Franken, Malte Wattenberg and Victoria Herr
assessments and the groups surveyed, the Chi-square was calculated according to Pearson and Cramer's V.
Mean values were also compared with a T-test. The variance homogeneity was checked with the Levene test.
The questionnaire was created online and distributed to students and companies via email distribution lists,
newsletters from the participating universities and previous project partners as well as Facebook and personal
contacts. In addition, the questionnaire was distributed in paper form at workshops and conferences of the
accompanying transfer project and subsequently digitised. The survey included company representatives with
and without management or personnel responsibility as well as students. The evaluation was carried out
according to gender and migration background. A binary gender classification was deliberately used as this is
primarily applied in practice relevant to the company. Nonetheless, it was possible not to make an entry.
5. Results
5.1 Sample characteristics
A total of 515 people took part in the survey and completed the questionnaire in full, 106 of them in paper
form. Three hundred and six persons identified themselves as male, 205 as female and four did not complete
the questionnaire (Table 1). Of all respondents, 114 (22.1%) reported having a migration status.
Table 1: demographic data
Age categories
Sex Migration backgr. Professional position
male female with without Comp.
Repr. Students Others
No information 4 9 3 1
Generation Z 50 21 15 56 2 70 0
Generation Y 138 128 77 185 97 162 7
Generation X 79 31 17 93 93 4 12
Baby Boomer 39 25 3 60 58 0 6
Overall 306 205 112 394 253 237 25
515
515
515
The participants were divided into different age groups (Baby Boomer: born before 1964; Generation X: 1964
1979; Y: 19801995; Z: 19962009). Most respondents are in the group Generation Y (266 or 51.7%). The
average age is M=35.3 (MD=30, SD=13.3). In addition to age and gender, a distinction was made between
positions in professional life. Two hundred and thirty-five persons are in employment, 237 are students.
Almost as many employees (48.8%) as persons with decision-making powers (managers 25.4%, managing
directors 18.3% and self-employed 7.5%) were surveyed among company representatives (Figure 1).
Figure 1: Position in company and study programme
Of the students, 146 are in Bachelor's and 91 in Master's studies. The most frequently mentioned courses are
Business Administration (27.1%) and Business Psychology (13.2%).
5.2 Results of the questionnaire
The following table compares an overview of the mean values of the groups surveyed and the respective rank
of competence.
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Swetlana Franken, Malte Wattenberg and Victoria Herr
Table 2: Resulting list of competences
competency mean
&
rank
sex migration
background
status generation
m. f. yes no Corp. Stud. x y z
Openness to change 5.50
1
5.52
1
5.47
1
5.42
2
5.53
1
5.57
1
5.03
8
5.64
1
5.52
1
5.30
1
IT and media
competence
5.40
2
5.36
3
5.45
2
5.47
1
5.37
2
5.39
2
5.40
2
5.40
6
5.45
2
5.25
3
Learning ability 5.36
3
5.41
2
5.30
3
5.38
3
5.35
3
5.44
3
5.12
5
5.55
2
5.32
3
5.26
2
Ability to think in
context
5.25
4
5.32
4
5.15
4
5.19
5
5.26
4
5.39
4
5.41
1
5.41
5
5.23
4
4.96
7
Problem-solving
competence
5.22
5
5.24
6
5.18
5
5.22
4
5.21
6
5.25
7
5.03
7
5.35
8
5.23
5
5.03
5
Ability to work in a team 5.21
6
5.23
7
5.19
6
5.17
6
5.22
5
5.29
6
4.74
13
5.44
4
5.17
6
5.03
6
Communicative
competence
5.20
7
5.26
5
5.11
8
5.16
7
5.21
7
5.33
5
4.42
14
5.44
3
5.10
8
5.07
4
Interdisciplinary thinking
and acting
5.09
8
5.15
8
5.01
9
5.01
9
5.11
8
5.22
8
4.48
12
5.39
7
5.03
9
4.85
9
Innovation competence 5.08
9
5.05
11
5.13
7
5.07
8
5.08
9
5.12
11
5.26
3
5.12
11
5.11
7
4.86
8
Flexibility 5.05
10
5.08
10
5.01
10
4.97
10
5.07
10
5.19
9
5.09
6
5.25
10
5.00
10
4.77
11
Self-organisation 5.03
11
5.08
9
4.96
11
4.95
11
5.05
11
5.17
10
5.18
4
5.31
9
4.94
11
4.76
12
Decision-making ability
4.91
12
5.01
12
4.78
13
4.91
12
4.91
12
4.97
12
4.95
9
5.08
12
4.83
12
4.85
10
Analytical capabilities 4.79
13
4.77
13
4.81
12
4.85
13
4.76
13
4.83
13
4.85
11
4.92
13
4.80
13
4.52
13
Experiential knowledge 4.56
14
4.60
14
4.50
14
4.60
14
4.54
14
4.65
14
4.90
10
4.71
14
4.47
14
4.29
14
In a comparison of all mean values, the interviewees consider openness to change (5.50), IT and media
competence (5.40) and the ability to learn (5.36) to be particularly relevant. Less in demand are analytical skills
(4.79) and experiential knowledge (4.56). However, all the values determined are above 3.5 and thus generally
within the approval range.
Women and men show a slightly different response behaviour [H1] with almost consistently marginal lower
values for women than for men and the overall average. The items innovation competence (χ²=10.895, p=.028,
V=0.146), decision-making ability (χ²=13.801, p=.017, V=0.164) and ability to think in context (χ²=14.228,
p=.014, V=0.167) show a statistically significant correlation. The interviewed men rate these items more
relevantly than women. In the mean value comparison in the T-test, however, a random correlation can only
be excluded and thus confirmed for decision-making ability (T-test p=.006, Levene p=.002).
When looking at the values with regard to the interviewees' migration background, only minimal differences in
height and ranking can be found. For example, people with a migration background consider IT and media
skills to be the most relevant. However, further evaluation shows no significant connections between a
migrant background and the assessment given, so that [H2] cannot be confirmed statistically.
More noticeable differences in response behaviour can be observed among company representatives and
students [H3]. Thirteen of the competences are rated more highly by company representatives than by the
population as a whole; eight competences are rated significantly higher than by students, above all
communicative competence (+0.91) and interdisciplinary thinking and acting (+0.74). Only
experiential
knowledge (-0.25) is clearly classified as less important. The following Table 3 shows the items that are
significant in both Cramer's V and the T-test, but not in the Levene test, and thus indicate at least a partial
connection.
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Swetlana Franken, Malte Wattenberg and Victoria Herr
Table 3: Relational dimensions of companies / students
Items χ² p V
Ability to work in a team 30.888 .001 0.173
Interdis. thinking and acting 29.399 .001 0.169
Self-organisation 22.766 .004 0.149
Communicative competence 21.387 .019 0.144
Experiential knowledge 20.774 .023 0.142
Openness to change 19.831 .011 0.139
Innovation competence 17.529 .025 0.131
Since this allows correlations, but not causes, to be identified for the different assessments of company
representatives and students, a comparison is also carried out according to different age groups—due to the
small number of cases without baby boomers [H4]. It can be seen throughout that Generation X and Y and
thus older participants consider competences to be more important than younger ones. The only exception is
IT and media competence, which is rated the highest in Generation Y. Table 4 also shows the items that were
significant at Cramer's V in a generational comparison.
Table 4: Interdependency measures for generation comparison
Items χ² p V
Ability to work in a team 35.407 .002 0.152
Interdis. thinking and acting 33.197 .003 0.149
Experiential knowledge 31.982 .006 0.145
Self-organisation 27.793 .006 0.135
Innovation competence 23.656 .023 0.124
Openness to change 21.045 .050 0.118
When evaluating the mean values using the T-test, generation X and Z are used for comparison. This shows
that for the items openness to change (T-test p=.004, Levene p=.004), self-organisation (T-test p<.001, Levene
p=.020) and problem-solving competence (T-test p=.011, Levene p=.019) there is a significant correlation
between age and assessment.
6. Conclusion
The present study deals with the manifold competence and knowledge requirements for the world of work 4.0
from the point of view of women and men, persons with and without a migration background as well as
company representatives and students.
According to the assessment of all interviewees, the study confirms that openness to change, IT and media
competence and learning ability will be of particular relevance in the future. The gender comparison reveals
interesting findings. Young qualified women have expectations of the competences required for the digitised
world of work that are almost completely in line with the requirements of companies. There are more
deviations among young men. In addition, the statements made by young women on the importance of
innovation, communication skills and the ability to work in a team prove that as future managers they possess
specific competences for coaching and shared leadership, which are crucial for a modern understanding of
leadership (cf. Franken, 2019).
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Furthermore, there are differences in the way we look at company representatives, students and age groups.
Company representatives and representatives of Generation X consider competences to be more relevant,
especially openness to change, communicative competence and interdisciplinary thinking and acting. Reasons
for this may lie in the experience of the interviewees in companies as well as in how they deal with change. No
significant differences could be found with regard to migration status. It is conceivable that, for example, a
similar level of education led to comparable response behaviour. Future studies should take this circumstance
into account and, if necessary, investigate culture-dependent aspects within the framework of their own
attribution of culture or personal migration experience depending on their country of origin. As a
recommendation for companies and organisations, it can be deduced that it is necessary to focus more
strongly on the target groups of qualified women and immigrants in order to tap their valuable specific
potential, not only as a measure against the shortage of skilled workers but also for the new work and
management concepts in the digitalised world of work.
Swetlana Franken, Malte Wattenberg and Victoria Herr
Acknowledgements
The project on which this Report is based was promoted with funds from the Federal Ministry of Education
and Research under the reference number 01FP1621. Responsibility for the contents of this publication lies
with the authors.
This contribution would not have been possible without the support of the entire "Denkfabrik Digitalisierte
Arbeitswelt" team. We would like to thank all team members for their outstanding commitment in all previous
and upcoming projects.
References
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