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What are bruises? Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Remedies

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... 5 The success of pharmacology, pharmacy and thermology in the following years confirmed the high importance of temperature pharmacology for pharmacy, medicine and medical technology. Internationally recognized achievements of domestic pharmacology were the discovery of the following new groups of drugs: 30,31,32,33 ISSN: 2250-1177 ...
Article
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It is shown that temperature pharmacology is a new scientific and practical direction in which the local interaction of drugs is considered taking into account the local temperature of selected parts of the body. It is indicated that the main provisions of this direction were formulated in Russia by 1988. Catalysts for the formation of a new direction were the results of in vitro experiments with isolated mitochondria at different local temperatures. The chronology of the resolution of contradictions between the existing public opinion and new ideas about the role of local temperature in the mechanism of action of drugs in hypoxia and ischemia is indicated. Scientists, doctors and journalists who were the first to believe in the prospects of temperature pharmacology are listed. The first scientific articles and inventions that formed the basis of a new scientific direction are presented. The latest achievements and visible prospects for the development of temperature pharmacology in medicine, biology, pharmacology and pharmacy are indicated. Keywords: history of science, pharmacology, pharmacy, medicines, local temperature.
Article
The review shows that the gas content in tablets and solutions of medicines can significantly change their physical and chemical properties, qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the mechanism of action of medicines when applied topically, and even allows you to turn “old” and known medicines into “new” medicines with completely new and previously unknown mechanisms of action. Therefore, artificial changes in the gas content in solid and liquid dosage forms were recommended as an original method of developing new drugs. It has been shown that this method is particularly promising for the development of new antiseptic, cosmetic and hygiene products. The fact is that the additional forced introduction of gas into a liquid or into solid through excessive pressure increases their volume, reduces their specific gravity and strength. Moreover, it allows you to “blow up” them by cold boiling. Conversely, the removal of gas from them due to vacuum reduces the volume, increases the specific gravity and strength. By analogy with the change in the physical and chemical properties of liquid and solid medicines, achieved by removing gases from them, it is proposed to reduce the porosity and volume of concrete and increase its specific weight and strength by degassing the water used for wetting cement in the concrete manufacturing process. Due to the fact that under normal conditions, the gas content in the water used for the manufacture of concrete directly depends on the atmospheric pressure, it is concluded that the production of concrete at different atmospheric pressure changes its quality. In particular, low atmospheric pressure can reduce the porosity and volume of concrete, as well as increase the specific gravity and strength of concrete. On the other hand, high air and/or gas pressure can increase the porosity and volume of concrete and reduce the concrete’s specific gravity and strength. Therefore, the amount of atmospheric pressure and/or air and/or gas pressure on concrete during its production should be included in the list of controlled indicators of concrete manufacturing technology.
Article
: A review of the literature shows that bruises impair the aesthetic appearance of the skin. At the same time, official medicine has no cure for urgent skin discoloration in the area of bruises. Attention is drawn to the fact that alkaline hydrogen peroxide solutions effectively decolorize blemishes and the traces of blood by local interaction under in vitro and in vivo conditions. It has been shown that the main ingredients of these solutions are water, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium hydrogen carbonate. Some products have been developed for bleaching blood stains and marks on textiles, bandages, skin, nails, and inside the skin in the area of bruises. Here, the leading medical technologies for whitening cosmetic products are reviewed.
Article
Background: Heparin is an anticoagulant medication that is usually injected subcutaneously. Subcutaneous administration of heparin may result in complications such as bruising, haematoma, and pain at the injection site. One of the factors that may affect pain, haematoma, and bruising is injection speed. Several studies have been carried out to determine if speed of injection affects the amount of pain and bruising where the injection is given; however, the results of these studies have differed, and study authors have not reached a clear final conclusion. This is the second update of a review first published in 2014. Objectives: To assess the effects of duration (speed) of subcutaneous heparin injection on pain and bruising at the injection site in people admitted to hospitals or clinics who require treatment with unfractionated heparin (UFH) or low molecular weight heparin (LMWH). We also looked at haematoma at the injection site. Search methods: The Cochrane Vascular Information Specialist searched the Cochrane Vascular Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL databases and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials.gov trials registers to 22 June 2020. We undertook reference checking of included studies to identify additional studies. Selection criteria: We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effects of different durations of subcutaneous injection of heparin on pain, bruising, and haematoma at the injection site. Data collection and analysis: For this update, two review authors independently selected studies and extracted data via Covidence software and assessed methodological quality using Cochrane's risk of bias tool. The primary outcomes of interest were pain intensity at injection site and size and incidence of bruising. The secondary outcomes of interest were size and incidence of haematoma at injection site. We calculated the odds ratio (OR), mean difference (MD), or standardised mean difference (SMD) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We assessed the certainty of the evidence using GRADE criteria. Main results: We identified one new study for this update, resulting in a total of five included studies with 503 participants who received subcutaneous injections of LMWH into the abdomen. Given the nature of the intervention, it was not possible to blind participants and caregivers (personnel) in any of the included studies. Two studies described blinding of outcome assessors. Overall, the methodological quality of included studies was moderate. The duration of the fast injection was 10 seconds, and the duration of the slow injection was 30 seconds in all included studies. Four studies reported site pain intensity after each injection at different time points. Two studies assessed site pain intensity immediately after each injection; meta-analysis showed no evidence of a difference in site pain intensity immediately after slow injection when compared to fast injection (MD -1.52, 95% CI -3.56 to 0.53; 140 participants; low-certainty evidence). Meta-analysis of three studies indicated that site pain intensity may be slightly reduced 48 hours after the slow heparin injection compared to fast injection (MD -1.60, 95% CI -2.69 to -0.51; 103 participants; low-certainty evidence). Five studies assessed bruise size at 48 hours, and two studies assessed bruise size at 60 hours. Meta-analysis showed there may be a reduction in bruise size 48 hours (SMD -0.54, 95% CI -1.05 to -0.02; 503 participants; 5 studies; very low-certainty evidence) and 60 hours (SMD -0.49, 95% CI -0.93 to -0.06; 84 participants; 2 studies; low-certainty evidence) after slow injection compared to fast injection. There was no evidence of a difference in bruise size 72 hours after slow injection compared to fast injection (SMD -0.27, 95% CI -0.61 to 0.06; 140 participants; 2 studies; low-certainty evidence). Three studies evaluated incidence of bruising and showed there may be a reduction in bruise incidence 48 hours (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.60; 444 participants; low-certainty evidence) and 60 hours (OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.65; 84 participants; 2 studies; low-certainty evidence) after slow injection compared to fast injection. We downgraded the certainty of the evidence due to risk of bias concerns, imprecision, and inconsistency. None of the included studies measured size or incidence of haematoma. Authors' conclusions: Administering medication safely and enhancing patient comfort are the main aims of clinical nurses. In this review, we identified five RCTs that evaluated the effect of subcutaneous heparin injection duration on pain intensity, bruise size and incidence. We found that pain may be slightly reduced 48 hours after slow injection. Similarly, there may be a reduction in bruise size and incidence after slow injection compared to fast injection 48 and 60 hours postinjection. We downgraded the certainty of the evidence for all outcomes to low or very low due to risk of bias concerns, imprecision, and inconsistency. Accordingly, new trials with a more robust design, more participants, and a focus on different injection speeds will be useful in strengthening the certainty of the available evidence.
Article
Purpose . Modern medical standards do not contain information about the urgent bleaching of nail hematomas and bruises. The aim of this work is developing of new ways and means for blood bleaching of the bruising and subungual hematomas for its immediate discoloration. Materials and methods . The peculiarities of hydrogen peroxide effect on blood color alteration in different environment have been studied in laboratory, by experiment and in clinical conditions. We studied the peroxide effect on liquid and dry venous blood in a Petri dishes, in bloody gauze bandages, on the surface of the skin, in hematoma under the nail in humans and in the skin over the bruise created by intradermal injection of pig blood. The studies take into account the role of local interaction such factors as the duration of interaction, the concentration of ingredients, local temperature, the value of alkaline and osmotic activity of the studied solutions. The results were recorded by color photo and video. Results . In laboratory and experimental conditions the red and blue blood as well as red, brown and/or blue stained tissues were shown to be urgently bleached by alkaline solutions of hydrogen peroxide. Hemoglobin was found to be the «dye» of blood-stained tissues. We listed the inventions to the intradermal bruising discoloration, subungual hematomas, and fresh and dried blood. The main ingredients of the inventions for intradermal and subungual hematomas bleaching are reported. The essence of the invented methods of skin and nail hematomas discoloration is presented. Conclusion . The alkaline solution of hydrogen peroxide can be used for emergency discoloration subungual hematoma, the skin in the area of bruise and the bandage stained with blood.
Article
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Inflicted blunt force trauma and/or repetitive acceleration-deceleration trauma in infants can cause brain injury. Yet, the exact pathophysiologic mechanism with its associated thresholds remains unclear. In this systematic review an overview of animal models for shaking trauma and their findings on tissue damage will be provided. A systematic review was performed in MEDLINE and Scopus for articles on the simulation of inflicted head injury in animals. After collection, the studies were independently screened by two researchers for title, abstract, and finally full text and on methodological quality. A total of 12 articles were included after full-text screening. Three articles were based on a single study population of 13 lambs, by one research group. The other 9 articles were separate studies in piglets, all by a single second research group. The lamb articles give some information on tissue damage after inflicted head injury. The piglet studies only provide information on consequences of a single plane rotational movement. Generally, with increasing age and weight, there was a decrease of axonal injury and death. Future studies should focus on every single step in the process of a free movement in all directions, resembling human infant shaking. In part II of this systematic review biomechanical models will be evaluated.
Conference Paper
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We propose to monitor temperature in the area of bruises for assisting the diagnosis of soft tissue injuries based on the presence, shape and area size of local hyperthermia. Infrared thermography is a promising test in the forensic medical examination to assess the severity of the injury and determine the track-imprint left by a hard blunt object. Further research is warranted.
Article
A method of infrared detection of mammary gland’s additional lobe has been developed due to changes in the local temperature of the anterior and lateral surfaces of the chest detected with a thermal imager that has an accuracy of 0.01 °C. It is shown that infrared thermography allows to diagnose, determine the location, shape and size of the additional lobe of the mammary gland in the last 3 days before menstruation.
Article
Objective: This review shows the history of inventions of devices, hygiene products, and methods of dissolution and removal of pus, sulfur plugs, blood crusts, and plaque. Material and methods: The search for inventions was carried out in the databases, such as Google Patent, Google Scholar, Scopus, and PubMed. The key words used in this search were as follows: toothbrushes, toothpicks, toothpastes, plaque, cleaning products for teeth and dentures, teeth whiteners and dentures, bleach bruises and blood stains, pus, sulfur plugs, and pus solvents. A total of 24 inventions were evaluated for review. Results: In recent years, hygiene products that quickly dissolve and bleach pus, sulfur plugs, blood stains, and plaque because of alkaline saponification of protein-lipid complexes and cold boiling inside the biological masses have been invented. Such an action has a heated above 37°C supersaturated sodium bicarbonate solutions containing hydrogen peroxide in moderate concentrations and gaseous oxygen under excessive pressure. Cold boiling inside the dense biological masses occurs under the action of catalase and/or due to the normalization of internal pressure in the solution. Conclusion: Alkalinity, hyperthermia, and hyperoxygenation of solutions with high internal pressure optimize whitening of teeth and dentures because of alkaline saponification and cold boiling.
Article
Blunt cardiac injury describes a range of cardiac injury patterns resulting from blunt force trauma to the chest. Due to the multitude of potential anatomical injuries blunt force trauma can cause, the clinical manifestations may range from simple ectopic beats to fulminant cardiac failure and death. Because there is no definitive, gold-standard diagnostic test for cardiac injury, the emergency clinician must utilize an enhanced index of suspicion in the clinical setting combined with an evidence-based diagnostic testing approach in order to arrive at the diagnosis. This review focuses on the clinical cues, diagnostic testing, and clinical manifestations of blunt cardiac injury as well as best-practice management strategies. [Points & Pearls is a digest of Emergency Medicine Practice.]
Article
Blunt cardiac injury describes a range of cardiac injury patterns resulting from blunt force trauma to the chest. Due to the multitude of potential anatomical injuries blunt force trauma can cause, the clinical manifestations may range from simple ectopic beats to fulminant cardiac failure and death. Because there is no definitive, gold-standard diagnostic test for cardiac injury, the emergency clinician must utilize an enhanced index of suspicion in the clinical setting combined with an evidence-based diagnostic testing approach in order to arrive at the diagnosis. This review focuses on the clinical cues, diagnostic testing, and clinical manifestations of blunt cardiac injury as well as best-practice management strategies.
Article
A 10-year-old girl presented with sudden bluish-black discoloration of her right upper eyelid (Fig 1). History revealed projectile vomiting for 5 days associated with a throbbing, intermittent occipital headache for 2 years. There was no history of trauma or orbital surgery before the onset of the discoloration. Autoimmune workup and coagulation profile results were within normal limits. http://www.jaad.org/article/S0190-9622(16)30731-9/fulltext
Article
BACKGROUND: Increase of local skin temperature may indicate an underlying inflammatory process. Bruises are the result of blunt trauma, but other conditions such as insufficient compression after venepuncture may form bruise-like lesions. As inflammation is partly involved in the repair of tissue damage, injury- induced bruises should also present with features of inflammation. AIM OF THE STUDY: To explore if bruises and bruise-like lesion can be the discriminated by means of infrared thermal imaging. METHOD: Using infrared thermography, the temperature dynamics of the forearm skin was studied before, during and after initiation of 4 artificial bruises or 2 bruise-like lesions in 5 healthy adult volunteers. Bruises developed after the research assistant had squeezed skin folds with thumb, index and middle finger of both hands until the skinfold became red. Bruise-like lesions were created by intradermal injections of 0.5 ml of venous blood in two sites of the anterior surface of the forearm. It was also investigated whether injection of isotonic sodium chlorides solution into the region of bruises and bruise-like lesions can alter the bluish or reddish skin colour of these lesions. RESULTS: True bruises appear in red colour that is permanent for approximately 120 minutes. The red spots are associated with a quickly established increase of temperature in the centre of the lesion, exceeding the temperature of the adjacent skin by 1 to 5°C. Bruise-like lesions present with blue colour and are not associated with temperature changes. In other words true bruises appear as red and hot, but pseudo-bruises are blue and cold. Infiltration with 0.9% sodium chloride solution bleached the bluish bruise like lesions, but the skin colour and temperature of true reddish bruises was not altered by the salt solution. CONCLUSION: Infrared thermography may me a promising technique for the discrimination of bruises, which are defined as skin discolouration caused by blunt trauma from bruise-like lesions such as haematoma after venepuncture, or intra-dermal injection of venous blood. Further research is warranted.
Article
Melilotus extract has been used as a folk medicine in inflammation-related therapy. This study was undertaken to determine the potential benefits of this herbal extract in treating postoperative ecchymosis and edema after simultaneous rhinoplasty and blepharoplasty. Augmentation rhinoplasty and double-eyelid blepharoplasty were performed in one procedure by the same surgeon on 46 patients. Postoperative edema and ecchymosis were evaluated independently by two investigators checking the upper eyelid, lower eyelid, and paranasal area at postoperative days 1, 4, and 7. Our data showed that the patients receiving melilotus extract (n = 16) had lower scores not only in upper-eyelid and lower-eyelid ecchymosis, but also in paranasal ecchymosis at postoperative day 7 when compared with those in the control group. No significant difference in postoperative ecchymosis was detected in the group receiving dexamethasone treatment (n = 16) when compared with the control group (n = 14) at postoperative days 1, 4, and 7. The mean scores of upper-eyelid, lower-eyelid, and paranasal edema at postoperative days 1 and 4 were significantly lower in the group receiving dexamethasone treatment (n = 16) than that in the control group. Although the scores of eyelid edema reduction in the patients receiving melilotus extract showed no difference when compared with the control group, paranasal edema was reduced much more at postoperative days 4 and 7 when compared with the control group. We suggest the appropriate use of melilotus extract based on its beneficial effects on the postoperative results after simultaneous rhinoplasty and blepharoplasty.
Infrared thermography forearm skin in places intradermal injections of blood or solutions of drugs before and after the appearance of the bruise
  • A L Urakov
  • Chernova L V Fischer
  • E L Nasyrov
Urakov A.L, Urakova N.A, Chernova L.V, Fischer E.L, Nasyrov M.R. Infrared thermography forearm skin in places intradermal injections of blood or solutions of drugs before and after the appearance of the bruise. Thermology Int 2015;25(2):66-7.
Thermodynamic bases of diagnostics of soft tissue inflammation in the area of postinjection bruises
  • A L Urakov
  • Urakova N A Lovtsova
  • L V Zanozina
Urakov A.L, Urakova N.A, Lovtsova L.V, Zanozina O.V. Thermodynamic bases of diagnostics of soft tissue inflammation in the area of postinjection bruises. Med Almanac 2015;4:228 -32.
Types and dynamics of local skin lesions of patients in places where medication is injected
  • A L Urakov
  • Urakova N A Soikher
  • M I Soikher
Urakov A.L, Nikityuk D.B, Urakova N.A, Soikher M.I, Soikher M.G, Reshetnikov A.P et al. Types and dynamics of local skin lesions of patients in places where medication is injected. Doctor 2014;7:56-60.
Infrared thermography skin at the injection site as a way of timely detection injection disease
  • A Urakov
  • N Urakova
  • A Kasatkin
  • A Reshetnikov
Urakov A, Urakova N, Kasatkin A, Reshetnikov A. Infrared thermography skin at the injection site as a way of timely detection injection disease. Thermology Int 2015; 25(1):30.
Why the drug solutions may cause inflammation at the injection site
  • A Kasatkin
  • A Urakov
Kasatkin A, Urakov A. Why the drug solutions may cause inflammation at the injection site. (Proceedings of 6th World Congress on Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Design. (June 07 -08, 2017 Milan, Italy). J Med Chem: Open Access 2017;7(4):78.
New medicines: the bleachers of bruises, blue nails, hematomas, blood stains and bloody crusts
  • A L Urakov
  • N A Urakova
  • A Gadelshina
Urakov A.L., Urakova N.A., Gadelshina A.A. New medicines: the bleachers of bruises, blue nails, hematomas, blood stains and bloody crusts. Aus Med J 2017;10 (11): 942-3.
How to cite: Urakov A, What are bruises? Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Remedies
How to cite: Urakov A, What are bruises? Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Remedies. IP Int J Comprehensive Adv Pharmacol 2020;5(1):