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Genetic Variability in Fenugreek Genotypes

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Abstract

A set of 24 genotypes were evaluated for 14 qualitative characters, to study the variability in fenugreek genotypes. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with two replications. A wide range of variability was observed for quantitative characters. The estimates of genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) were lower than that of phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV). The highest genotypic coefficient of variation as well as phenotypic variation was observed for the copper content in fenugreek followed by zinc content, iron content and total chlorophyll content in leaves. Both the components were lowest for days to harvesting. High estimates of heritability in broad sense were recorded for the characters like total chlorophyll content, copper content, iron content, number of leaves, number of secondary roots, biological yield, leaf area. Moderate heritability percentage was observed for manganese content, number of root nodules and zinc content. However low heritability was observed for days to harvesting. Hence, these characters might be improved by simple selection. High estimates of genetic advance were recorded for total chlorophyll content followed by biological yield, copper content , number of leaves, iron content, number of secondary roots, plant height , number of root nodules , plant height along with root , leaf area , average weight of plant , zinc content, days to harvesting and manganese content.
Gaikwad et al. Ind. J. Pure App. Biosci. (2020) 8(1), 199-203 ISSN: 2582 2845
Copyright © Jan.-Feb., 2020; IJPAB 199
Genetic Variability in Fenugreek Genotypes
S. P. Gaikwad1, S. S. Dhumal2, A. A. Bhagat3* and D. A. Sagbhor4
1Assistant Professor of Horticulture, 3Assistant Professor of Statistics,
National Agricultural Research Project, Ganeshkhind, Pune - 411 067
2Associate Professor of Horticulture, 4M.Sc. (Agri.) Student,
Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Kolhapur
*Corresponding Author E-mail: stataab@gmail.com
Received: 3.01.2020 | Revised: 7.02.2020 | Accepted: 13.02.2020
INTRODUCTION
Fenugreek is widely cultivated in China, North
and South Africa, Ukraine and Greece
(Petropoulos, 2002). In India, it is mainly
cultivated in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu,
Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Himachal
Pradesh and Haryana with total area of 1.23
lakh hectare and production of 1.31 lakh MT.
It is grown in rabi season, in frost free,
moderately cool climate and clear sky
throughout the growth. It is essentially a
winter season crop and grows well in low
temperature, but for leafy vegetables off-
season cultivations also practiced.
Available online at www.ijpab.com
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18782/2582-2845.7958
ISSN: 2582 2845
Ind. J. Pure App. Biosci. (2020) 8(1), 199-203
ABSTRACT
A set of 24 genotypes were evaluated for 14 qualitative characters, to study the variability in
fenugreek genotypes.
The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with two
replications.
A wide range of variability was observed for quantitative characters. The estimates
of genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) were lower than that of phenotypic coefficient of
variation (PCV). The highest genotypic coefficient of variation as well as phenotypic variation
was observed for the copper content in fenugreek followed by zinc content, iron content and total
chlorophyll content in leaves. Both the components were lowest for days to harvesting.
High estimates of heritability in broad sense were recorded for the characters
like total
chlorophyll content, copper content, iron content, number of leaves, number of secondary roots,
biological yield, leaf area. Moderate heritability percentage was observed for manganese
content, number of root nodules and zinc content. However
low heritability was observed for
days to harvesting. Hence, these characters might be improved by simple selection.
High
estimates of genetic advance were recorded for total chlorophyll content followed by biological
yield, copper content , number of leaves, iron content, number of secondary roots, plant height ,
number of root nodules , plant height along with root , leaf area , average weight of plant , zinc
content, days to harvesting and manganese content.
Keywords: Fenugreek, Genotypes, Heritability, Genetic advance and Coefficient of variation
Research Article
Cite this article: Gaikwad, S.P., Dhumal, S.S., Bhagat, A.A., & Sagbhor, D.A. (2020). Genetic Variability
in Fenugreek Genotypes, Ind. J. Pure App. Biosci. 8(1), 199-203. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.18782/2582-
2845.7958
Gaikwad et al. Ind. J. Pure App. Biosci. (2020) 8(1), 199-203 ISSN: 2582 2845
Copyright © Jan.-Feb., 2020; IJPAB 200
Fenugreek is mainly grown as leafy vegetable
throughout Maharashtra. But there is lack of
systematic research work on fenugreek
particularly with respect to crop as a leafy
vegetable in Maharashtra.
Heritability and genetic advance are
the important genetic parameters for selecting
a genotype that permit greater effectiveness of
selection by separating out environmental
influence from total variability. Heritability
estimate provide the information regarding the
amount of transmissible genetic variation to
total variation and determine genetic
improvement and response to selection.
Heritability estimate along genetic advance are
normally more useful in predicting the gain
under selection than that of heritability alone.
However, it is not necessary that a character
showing high heritability will also exhibit high
genetic advance (Johnson et al. 1955). An
attempt was made in the present investigation
to estimate heritability in broad sense and
categorized as low (<50 %), moderate (50 %-
70 %) and high (>70 %) as suggested by
Robinson (1966).With this aim the genotypes
from the different parts of the Maharashtra
were collected and performance was studied
under Kolhapur conditions. In point of view,
present investigation was undertaken to study
the variability by estimating GCV, PCV,
heritability and genetic advance, genetic
divergence in fenugreek genotypes.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The experimental material for the present
investigation consisted 24 lines of fenugreek
collected from different parts of Maharashtra
as well as Vegetable Research Scheme,
NARP, Ganeshkhind, Pune was used in the
present study. A uniform piece of fertile land
was selected and brought to the fine tilth by
adopting recommended preparatory
operations. A basal dose of 25 kg N, 45 kg
P2O5, 45 kg K2O per ha was applied at the time
of sowing. Seeds were directly sown by line
sowing. The spacing of 15 cm between the
rows was adopted. The cultural practices like
plant protection and weeding were followed as
and when required during the crop growth
period. The experiment was laid out in
randomized block design with two
replications. The analysis of variance was
done as suggested by Panse and Sukhatme
(1985). Five plants were selected at random
from each genotype in each replication. The
randomly selected plants were tagged for
recording observations.
Estimation of components of variation
The phenotypic and genotypic variances were
calculated by using the respective mean
squares from variance table (Johnson et al.
1955) as below.
Environmental variance (ϭ2e) = EMS
Genotypic variance (ϭ2g) = 
Phenotypic variance (ϭ2p) = ϭ2g + ϭ2e
Where,
GMS = Genotypic mean sum of square
EMS = Error mean sum of squares
r = Number of replications.
Estimation of coefficient of variation
The genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of
variation were calculated by the formulae as
suggested by Burton and De-vane (1953).
Genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV)


Where,
2g = Genotypic variance and,
= Mean of character
Phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV)


Where,
2 p = Phenotypic variance and,
= Mean of character
The high, medium and low GCV and
PCV estimates were classified as:
Low : 10 per cent
Medium : 10 to 20 per cent
High : > 20 per cent
Gaikwad et al. Ind. J. Pure App. Biosci. (2020) 8(1), 199-203 ISSN: 2582 2845
Copyright © Jan.-Feb., 2020; IJPAB 201
Estimation of heritability (b.s.)
Heritability in broad sense was estimated as
suggested by Hanson et al., (1956).


Where,
h2 = Heritability
2g = Genotypic variance
2p = Phenotypic variance
The high, medium and low heritability
estimates were classified on the basis of values
given by Robinson et al. (1966).
Low heritability = 0-30 %
Moderate heritability = 30-60%
High heritability = > 60 %
Estimation of Genetic advance (G.A.)
Genetic advance (at 5 % selection intensity)
was calculated using the formula given by
Allard (1960).

Where,
2 g = Genotypic variance
2 p = Phenotypic variance
k = Selection differential (at 5 %
selection = 2.06)
2 p = Phenotypic standard
deviation
The high, medium and low estimates
of genetic advance were classified as
Low = 0-10%
Medium = 10- 20%
High = > 20%
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The parameters of genetic variability viz.,
mean, range, PCV, GCV, heritability (b.s.),
per cent genetic advance and genetic advance
as a per cent of mean are summarized in Table
1. The estimates of GCV were lower than PCV
for all the characters under study. The
magnitude of phenotypic coefficients of
variation was greater than genotypic
coefficients of variation. Highest genotypic
coefficient of variation was exhibited in
Cu
content (48.25), followed by Zn content
(40.50), total chlorophyll content in
leaves (33.09), iron content (25.93),
number of secondary roots (20.36),
average weight of plant (20.07),
biological yield (17.92), number of
leaves (15.52), number of root nodules
(14.99), leaf area (14.85), Mn content
(9.07), plant height (8.06), plant height
along with root (6.02), days to harvesting
(2.24).
The categorization of the genotypic
coefficient of variation (GCV) and phenotypic
coefficient of variation (PCV) as low (less
than 10%), moderate (10-20%) and high (more
than 20%) was done as suggested by
Sivasubramanian and Madhavamenon (1973).
The inherent phenotypic variability is
expressed by the genotypic coefficient of
variation. Highest values for phenotypic
coefficient of variation was observed for
Zn
content (50.00), Cu content (48.51),
followed by total chlorophyll content in
leaves (33.11), Fe (
26.12
), average weight
of plant (21.81), number of secondary
roots (21.32), biological yield (18.81),
number of root nodules (18.44), number
of leaves (15.97), leaf area (15.72), Mn
(10.81), plant height (9.01), plant height
along with root (7.11), days to harvesting
(3.58) The lowest range of GCV and
PCV was recorded in days to harvesting
(2.24 to 3.58) respectively.
Phenotypic coefficient of variation
(PCV) was higher than the genotypic
coefficient of variation (GCV) for all the traits
indicating that environmental factors were
influencing their expression. Wide difference
between phenotypic and genotypic coefficient
of variations indicated their sensitiveness to
environmental fluctuations whereas narrow
difference showed less environmental
interference on the expression of these traits.
The traits which showed high phenotypic and
genotypic coefficient of variations are of
economic importance and there is scope for
improvement of these traits through selection.
The present findings are in agreement with
Gaikwad et al. Ind. J. Pure App. Biosci. (2020) 8(1), 199-203 ISSN: 2582 2845
Copyright © Jan.-Feb., 2020; IJPAB 202
those of Mamatha et al. (2017), Sarada et al.
(2008), Shukla and Sharma (1978) and
Hariharan and Vijaya kumar (1997), Pant et al.
(1983), Singh (1995), Datta et al. (2005) in
fenugreek. They also observed smaller values
of the genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of
variability with larger differences in their
magnitude for different characters.
Heritability % (b.s.)
The highest degree of heritability was
observed for the characters total chlorophyll
content (99.9 %), copper content (98.9%), iron
content (98.6% ), number of leaves (94.4 %),
number of secondary roots (91.1%), biological
yield (90.8 %), leaf area (89.1 %) while
moderate heritability was observed for
manganese content (70.3), number of root
nodules (66.1 %), zinc content (65.6 %). Low
heritability was observed for days to
harvesting (39.0 %). Similar results were also
reported by Choudhary et al. (2017) and
Mamatha et al. (2017) in fenugreek.
Genetic advance
In the present study, estimates of genetic
advance ranged from 0.31 to 72.01. Highest
estimate of genetic advance was recorded for
total chlorophyll content in leaves (72.01%)
followed by biological yield (19.01 %), copper
content (9.53 %), number of leaves (7.98 %),
iron content (7.57%), number of secondary
roots (7.06%), plant height (3.28 %), number
of root nodules (3.15 %), plant height along
with root (3.08 %), leaf area (1.92 %), average
weight of plant (0.92 %), days to harvesting
(0.82 %), zinc content (0.46 %) and
manganese content (0.31%).
Table 1: Genetic variability for 14 characters in 24 genotypes of fenugreek
Characters
General
mean
Range
GCV
(%)
PCV
(%)
Heritability
(b.s.) %
G.A. (%)
G.A as a
percent
of mean
(%)
Minimum
Maximum
Plant height along
with root (cm)
29.31
25.55
33.24
6.02
7.11
71.8
3.08
10.51
Plant height (cm)
22.06
18.77
26.02
8.06
9.01
80.0
3.28
14.86
No. of leaves
25.70
19.90
33.05
15.52
15.97
94.4
7.98
31.08
No. of secondary
roots
17.61
13.30
25.95
20.36
21.32
91.1
7.06
40.08
No. of roots
nodules
12.55
8.15
16.85
14.99
18.44
66.1
3.15
25.10
Chlorophyll
content (mg/100g)
105.67
25.33
154.04
33.09
33.11
99.9
72.01
68.14
Cu (mg/kg)
9.64
3.70
22.80
48.25
48.51
98.9
9.53
98.86
Fe (mg/kg)
14.28
8.30
21.10
25.93
26.12
98.6
7.57
53.05
Zn (mg/kg)
0.69
0.50
1.50
40.50
50.00
65.6
0.46
67.57
Mn (mg/kg)
1.99
2.20
1.90
9.07
10.81
70.3
0.31
15.67
leaf area (cm²)
6.66
4.75
8.01
14.85
15.72
89.1
1.92
28.88
Days to
harvesting
28.75
27.50
31.50
2.24
3.58
39.0
0.82
2.88
Biological yield
(q/ha)
54.06
35.50
78.25
17.92
18.81
90.8
19.01
35.17
Average weight of
plant at
harvesting (g)
2.42
1.09
3.10
20.07
21.81
84.7
0.92
38.05
Variability in 24 genotypes of fenugreek
GCV= Genotypic coefficient of variation, b.s. = Broad sense, PCV = Phenotypic coefficient of variation, G.A. = Genetic advance
Gaikwad et al. Ind. J. Pure App. Biosci. (2020) 8(1), 199-203 ISSN: 2582 2845
Copyright © Jan.-Feb., 2020; IJPAB 203
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RiCENT studies on a number of characters of soybeans have been directed toward estimation of heritability, that is, the fraction of variance in phenotypic expression that arises from genetic effects. However, the different methods employed do not necessarily estimate the same thing. For example, variance and regression methods of estimating heritability of F2 plant differences estimate the same thing only if all gene effects are additive. The nature of the selection units (plant, plot, mean of several plots, etc.) and sampling errors also influence greatly the magnitude of heritability estimates. Therefore, any meaningful comparison of the estimates obtained in different situations must include a careful evaluation of the methods and materials employed
Relationship between genetic diversity and heritability for grain yield and its different environment
  • R N Allard
Allard, R.N. (1960). Relationship between genetic diversity and heritability for grain yield and its different environment. Crop Sci. 1(2), 127-133.
Estimation heritability in tall fesue (Fesue arundinacea) from replicated clonal material
  • G W Burton
  • E H De-Vane
Burton, G.W., & De-vane, E.H. (1953).Estimation heritability in tall fesue (Fesue arundinacea) from replicated clonal material. Agron. J. 45, 478-481.