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The present paper describes an archaeozoological assemblage from Late Eneolithic settlement of Gordineşti II-Stînca goală. The studied osteological material is characterized by low number of remains of wild animals, the predominant position of cattle and small cattle (with apparent importance of Capra hircus among small cattle), sparce remains of horse and apparent ab- sence of pig in this sample. Systematical structure of the archaeozoological material from Gordineşti II-Stînca goală and specific post-mortem modifications of bone remains are similar to the animal remains complexes from the described earlier sites of the Cucuteni-Tripolie Culture Horodca X and Trinca-La Șanț.
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Chișinău 2012
serie nouă vol. VIII nr. 1 - 2
V
2010
serie nouă vol. XIII nr. 1-2
CHIŞINĂU 2017
ISSN 1857-016X
ACADEMIA DE ŞTIINŢE A MOLDOVEI
INSTITUTUL PATRIMONIULUI CULTURAL
CENTRUL DE ARHEOLOGIE
REVISTA ARHEOLOGICĂ
Redactor şef/Editor-in-chief: dr. hab. Oleg Leviţki
Colegiul de redacţie/Editorial Board
Dr. hab. Igor Bruiako (Odesa), dr. Ludmila Bacumenco-Pîrnău (Chişinău), dr. Roman Croitor
(Aix-en-Provence), dr. hab. Valentin Dergaciov (Chişinău), prof. dr. Svend Hansen (Berlin),
dr. Maia Kaşuba (Sankt Petersburg), prof. dr. Michael Meyer (Berlin), prof. dr. Eugen Nicolae
(Bucureşti), prof. dr. hab. Gheorghe Postică (Chişinău), dr. Svetlana Reabţeva (Chişinău), prof.
dr. Petre Roman (Bucureşti), dr. hab. Eugen Sava (Chişinău), dr. hab. Sergei Skoryi (Kiev), prof.
dr. Victor Spinei, membru al Academiei Române (Bucureşti), dr. Nicolai Telnov (Chişinău),
dr. hab. Petr Tolochko, membru al Academiei Naţionale de Ştiinţe a Ucrainei (Kiev), dr. Vlad
Vornic (Chişinău)
Secretar de redacţie/editorial secretary – Larisa Ciobanu
Machetare şi prelucrarea materialului ilustrativ/
layot and processing of the illustrative material – Ghenadie Sîrbu
Manuscrisele, cărţile și revistele pentru schimb, precum și orice alte materiale se vor trimite pe adresa: Colegiul de redacţie al
„Revistei Arheologice”, Centrul de Arheologie, Institutul Patrimoniului Cultural AȘM, bd. Ștefan cel Mare și Sfânt 1, MD-2001,
Chișinău, Republica Moldova, proces-verbal nr. 09 din 26 septembrie 2017
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© AȘM, 2017
Roman Croitor, Ghenadie Sîrbu
Animal remains from the Late Eneolithic settlement
of Gordineşti II-Stînca goală (Edine district). Part 1
Revista Arheologică, serie nouă, vol. XIII, nr. 1-2, 2017, 215-219
CERCETĂRI INTERDISCIPLINARE – МЕЖДИСЦИПЛИНАРНЫЕ
ИССЛЕДОВАНИЯ – INTERDISCIPLINARY SURVEYS
Keywords: domestic animals, antler material, tool marcs, burn bones.
Cuvinte cheie: animale domestice, coarne de cerbi, urme de unelte, oase arse.
Ключевые слова: домашние животные, олений рог, следы использования орудий, обожжённые кости.
Roman Croitor, Ghenadie Sîrbu
Animal remains from the Late Eneolithic settlement of Gordineşti II-Stînca goa (Edine district). Part 1
e present paper describes an archaeozoological assemblage from Late Eneolithic settlement of Gordineşti II-Stînca
goală. e studied osteological material is characterized by low number of remains of wild animals, the predominant position of
cattle and small cattle (with apparent importance of Capra hircus among small cattle), sparce remains of horse and apparent ab-
sence of pig in this sample. Systematical structure of the archaeozoological material from Gordinești II-Stînca goală and specic
post-mortem modications of bone remains are similar to the animal remains complexes from the described earlier sites of the
Cucuteni-Tripolie Culture Horodca X and Trinca-La Șanț.
Roman Croitor, Ghenadie Sîrbu
Resturi de animale din așezarea eneolitică târzie Gordinești II-Stînca goală (r-nul Edine). Partea întâi
În articolul de faţă se prezintă vestigiile arheozoologice descoperite în așezarea eneolitică târzie Gordinești II-Stînca goală.
Materialul osteologic analizat este reprezentat printr-un număr mic de oase, ce aparţin speciilor de animale sălbatice, predo-
minând bovinele și ovicaprinele (cu un avantaj clar în favoarea caprei domestice printre cele din urmă). De asemenea, se atestă
prezena ocazională a oaselor de cal și absena celor de porc domestic. Sturctura sistematică a materialului arheozoologic din
situl Gordinești II-Stînca goală și modicările post-mortem specice ale rămășielor osoase sunt similare complexelor arheozo-
ologice din așezările specice culturii Cucuteni-Tripolie, precum Horodca X și Trinca-La Șanţ.
Роман Кройтор, Геннадий Сырбу
Остатки животных из позднеэнеолитического памятника Гординешть II-Стынка гоалэ (Единецкий район). Пер-
вая часть
В предлагаемой статье описывается археозоологический комплекс из позднеэнеолитического памятника Горди-
нешть II-Стынка гоалэ. Изученный остеологический материал характеризуется незначительным количеством остат-
ков диких животных, доминирующим положением крупного и мелкого рогатого скота (с явным преимуществом в
пользу домашней козы среди мелкого рогатого скота), эпизодическим присутствием остатков лошади и отсутствием
остатков домашней свиньи в данном ограниченном по численности материале. Систематическая структура археозоо-
логического материала из Гординешть II-Стынка гоалэ и модификация костного материала в процессе археологизации
сходны с особенностями археозоологических комплексов из трипольских памятников Хородка Х и Тринка-Ла Шанц.
Introduction
Animal osteological remains described in
the present work were unearthed during the ar-
chaeological eld campaign 20161 of an Eneo-
1. e archaeological investigations were funded from pro-
ject Synchronizing the interrelations between population of the
Cucuteni-Tripolye cultural complex and the Funnel Beaker cul-
ture, Opus 8 2014/15/B/HS3/02486, coordinated by dr.hab.
Małgorzata Rybicka, Institute of Archaeology from Rzeszów,
Polonia.
lithic settlement from Edine district, Republic of
Moldova (geographic coordinates: 4808’24.25’’N;
2709’34.58’’E). e area of excavation works at-
tained 90 m2 and was divided into the sectors A,
B, C, and D [Sîrbu et al. 2017a, g. 1A; Sîrbu et
al. 2017b]. e investigated area included remains
of rectangular dwelling with open re place inside
and yielded a complex of ne and rough pottery
and other artifacts [Sîrbu et al. 2017a, g. 2; Sîrbu
216
et al. 2017b]. e archaeozoological material was
grouped into three complexes: the archaeozoo-
logical assemblage discovered inside the dwelling,
the archaeozoological assemblage coming from
the accumulation in the Sector E (near the dwell-
ing), and the archaeozoological material coming
from the cultural level of the entire excavated area.
Research methods and material
e osteological material is heavily frag-
mented, therefore, the research methods suitable
for morphological and comparative analysis was
quite limited. e measurements are taken ac-
cording to the methodology of A. Von den Dri-
esch (1976). Fragments of deer shed antlers are
regarded here as manuports and are not included
in the minimum number of individuals. Abbre-
viations used in the text: DLM, lateromedial di-
ameter or measurement; DAP, anteroposterior di-
ameter or measurement; BN, bone number; BBN,
burn bone number; MNI, minimum number of
individuals; TM, tool marks.
Description
1. Dwelling. e osteological material dis-
covered in the dwelling remains includes compara-
tively higher number of cattle (Bos taurus) remains
including limb bone fragments, skull fragments,
and horn core. Only one skeletal element of cat-
tle, the distal epiphysis of tibia, provided suitable
measurements (DLM distal, 72.3 mm; DAP distal,
55.6 mm). e measurements of distal epiphysis of
tibia belong to a very large individual, possibly, a
bull, since its measurements correspond to the larg-
est specimens of Bos taurus from Poduri, Romania
(Cucuteni Culture, phase A): the breadth of distal
epiphysis of the Romanian sample varies from 73.0
mm to 55.0 mm, n = 17 [Cavaleriu, Bejenaru 2009].
e initial stage of wear of P4 suggest a young adult
age of the individual.
e small cattle remains from the dwelling
belong rather to a domestic goat Capra hircus.
is conclusion is drawn from the morphologi-
cal peculiarities of talus reported by H. Fernandez
(2001). Goat remains are represented by small
fragments of ribs, limb bones, and vertebrae. e
small cattle individual is juvenile too, since the
distal epiphysis of humerus still maintains a fu-
sion suture between diaphysis and epiphysis. DAP
distal of the humerus attains 31.7 mm, DLM distal
of the humerus attains 30.2 mm.
e horse is represented only by a longi-
tudinally broken rst phalanx (maximal length
amounts to 84.0 mm).
e wild boar (Sus scrofa ferus) is repre-
sented by two fragments of ribs and a fragment
of large upper male canine. Red deer (Cervus
elaphus) is another wild species represented by a
single complete rst phalanx (L, 58.5 mm; DLM
× DAP proximal, 25.8 × 30.8 mm; DLM × DAP
distal, 24.4 × 19.1 mm.
e archaeozoological material from the
dwelling includes also a shell of grape snail Helix
cf. pomatia, two shells of Unio sp., and rodent re-
mains (Tab. 1).
2. Sector E. e remains of cattle (Bos tau-
rus) from this complex also belong to a young or
even juvenile individual (Tab. 2). is conclusion
is supported by the unfused to the bone body
caput femoris and by the initial stage of wear of
lower second molar (M2). Distal epiphysis of met-
acarpus (DLM distal, 44.0 mm; DAP distal, 33.0
mm) is exceptionally narrow and belongs rather
to a female. e distal breadth of metacarpus from
Species BN MNI BBN
Bos taurus 46 1 3
Capra hircus 17 1 3
Sus scrofa ferus 2 1
Equus ferus caballus 1 1
Cervus elaphus 1 1
Helix cf. pomatia 1 1
Unio sp. 2 1
Rodentia gen. et sp. 4 1
Total 74 8 6
Tab. 1. Systematical and quantitative structure of the archaeozoological assemblage from the dwelling (Gordineşti II-Stînca goală).
Roman Croitor, Ghenadie Sîrbu
217
Gordineşti-Stînca goală is signicantly smaller
than the rather large sample from Poduri charac-
terized by distal breadth ranging from 57.0 to 78.0
mm, n = 21 [Cavaleriu, Bejenaru 2009]. A proxi-
mal epiphysis of metatarsus (DLM proximal, 46.8
mm; DAP proximal, 44.4 mm) possibly belongs
to another larger individual, which falls within
the variation range of cattle remains from Poduri
(DLM proximal = 45.0 – 56.0 mm, n = 27).
As in the previous archaeozoological com-
plex, the remains of small cattle belong to goat
(diagnostic characters are provided by talus). e
heavly fragmented bone remains (limb bones, ribs,
mandible, isolated lower deciduous tooth PD4) be-
long to a juvenile individual.
e burn fragment of antler of red deer with
tool marks represents a special interest. e porous
internal antler tissue is destroyed. Apparently, the
antler fragment (g. 1,A) bears a longitudinal cut
or/and was polished [Sîrbu et al. 2017a, g. 2,7].
3. Cultural layer. Skeletal remains of Bos tau-
rus belong to an adult individual (the upper second
premolar P2 is characterized by the medium stage
of wear). e bone remains of small cattle are heav-
ily fragmented, therefore the species determination
was impossible. M2 is on the initial stage of wear,
while caput femoris is not completely ossied, thus
indicating a young age of the individual.
e nding of a single damaged upper cheek
horse tooth is interesting. e tooth (g. 2) is burnt
and is not touched by physiological wear and thus
belongs to a juvenile individual. e rather long
tooths protocone (14.2 mm) distinguishes the speci-
men under study from the wild European tarpan.
e length of protocone in upper cheek teeth var-
ies in tarpan between 10.0 and 11.5 mm [Gromova
1949]. erefore, we assume that the tooth from
Gordineşti-Stînca goală rather belongs to a domestic
horse characterized by the specic long protocone.
Wild animals are represented by fox Vulpes
vulpes (g. 3,A-B) (right hemimandible with Р4
and М1), roe deer Capreolus capreolus (a proximal
Species BN MNI BBN TM
Bos Taur u s 62 2 6
Capra hircus 26 1
Sus scrofa 2 1
Cervus elaphus 1 1 1 1
Aves gen. et sp. 1 1
Total 92 5 7 1
Tab. 2. Systematical and quantitative structure of the archaeozoological assemblage from the Sector E (Gordineşti II-Stînca goală).
Fig.1. Fragments of deer antlers with cut marks: A, fragment
of red deer Cervus elaphus antler; B, proximal part of shed
antler of roe deer Capreolus capreolus.
Animal remains from the Late Eneolithic settlement of Gordineşti II-Stînca goală...
218
Fig. 2. Isolated upper cheek tooth of horse Equus ferus cabal-
lus: A, upper view; B, labial view; C, lingual view.
part of shed antler (g. 1,B): [Sirbu et al. 2017a,
g. 2,8], and a small fragment of antler of red deer
(Cervus elaphus) antler with tool marks (Tab. 3).
Conclusions
e remains of game animals (red deer, roe
deer, wild boar, and fox) are very scanty in the ar-
chaeozoological assemblage and attain only 4.8% of
the total number of animal remains. e low number
of wild animals in the archaeozoological complexes
represents a specic trait of certain monuments of
Cucuteni-Tripolie Culture of Prut-Dniester Area,
such as Horodca X (ca. 5% of wild animal remains)
and Trinca-La Șanț (4% of wild animal remains)
[Kroitor, Bodean 2008; Kroitor et al. 2012]. e ab-
sence of remains that certainly may be ascribed to
domestic pig is noteworthy. e osteological assem-
blage is characterized by a certain degree of bone
modication: the 7.6% of bone remains are burn,
and three fragments of antlers of roe
deer and red deer bear the traces of tool
marks. e rather signicant number
of burn bone remains approaches the
archaeozoological complex Gordinești
II-Stînca goală to Horodca X (burn
bones attain 8-11% of the sample).
Generally, the archaeozoological ma-
terial from Gordinești II-Stînca goală,
Horodca X, and Trinca-La Șanț yield-
ed conspicuously similar assemblages
of domestic animals, characterized
by predominant position of cattle and
small cattle (with apparent importance
of Capra hircus among the small cat-
tle remains), and sparce remains of horse and pig
(which, apparently, is missing in the studied sample
from Gordinești II-Stînca goală).
Fig. 3. A right hemimandible (A) of fox Vulpes vulpes with Р4
(medial view) and isolated М1 (B), which apparently belongs
to the same hemimandible.
SpeciesBN MNI BBN TM
Bos Taur u s 43 1 3
Capra hircus /Ovis aries 31 2 2 2
Equus ferus caballus 111
Vulpes vulpes 1 1
Cervus elaphus 4 -
Capreolus capreolus 1 -
Unio sp. 2 2
Total 83 7 6 2
Tab. 3. Systematical and quantitative structure of the archaeozoological assemblage from the cultural layer (Gordineşti II-Stînca
goală).
Roman Croitor, Ghenadie Sîrbu
219
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Stefan cel Mare 1 str., of. 549, ghena.sirbu2014@gmail.com
Animal remains from the Late Eneolithic settlement of Gordineşti II-Stînca goală...
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Article
Full-text available
Diagnostic criteria are described for the taxonomic discrimination of adult mandibles of sheep (Ovis aries) and goat (Capra hircus). These criteria, based on morphological distinctions in the mandible, permanent premolars (P3–P4) and molars (M1–M3), have been successfully tested on a large and diverse body of modern reference material. In conjunction with published work on deciduous premolars, the new criteria enable complete and fragmentary mandibles of young, adult and elderly individuals to be identified to sheep or goat with acceptable levels of accuracy.
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Cavaleriu, Bejenaru 2009: R. Cavaleriu, L. Bejenaru, Cercetări arheozoologice privind Cultura Cucuteni faza A (Editura Universității "Alexandru Ioan Cuza" Iaşi 2009).
Ostéologie comparée des petits ruminants eurasiatiques sauvages et domestiques (genres Rupicapra, Ovis, Capra et Capreolus): diagnose différentielle du squelette appendiculaire. Thèse pour obtenir le grade de Docteur en sciences, mention biologique
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Kroitor et al. 2012: R. Croitor, O. Levitski, Gh. Syrbu, Arkheozoologicheskii compleks iz tripolʼskogo pamiatnika Trinka-La Shants. RA VIII, 1-2, 2012, 291-304 // Р. Кройтор, О. Левицкий, Г. Сырбу, Археозоологический комплекс из трипольского памятника Тринка-Ла Шанц. RA VIII, 1-2, 2012, 291-304. Fernandez 2001: H. Fernandez, Ostéologie comparée des petits ruminants eurasiatiques sauvages et domestiques (genres Rupicapra, Ovis, Capra et Capreolus): diagnose différentielle du squelette appendiculaire. Thèse pour obtenir le grade de Docteur en sciences, mention biologique, Université de Genève (Genève 2001), T. 1-2.
Isnoriia loshadei (roda Equus) v Starom Svete. 1. Obzor i opisanie form. Trudy PIN, 17, 1, 1949, 1-374 // В. Громова, История лошадей (рода Equus) в Старом Свете. 1. Обзор и описание форм
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Investigațiile arheologice din aşezarea Gordineşti II-Stînca Goală. Campania anului 2016. Cercetări arheologice în Republica Moldova
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Sîrbu et al. 2017b: Gh. Sîrbu, L. Sîrbu, O. Leviţki, M. Rybicka, D. Król, Raport despre investigațiile arheologice din aşezarea Gordineşti II-Stînca goală (campania 2016). Chişinău 2017, Arhiva MNIM, nr. inv. 589. Von den Driesch 1976: A. Von den Driesch, A guide to the measurement of animal bones from archaeological sites (Harvard University 1976).