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Norway spruce xylem anatomy responds
to intra-seasonal climate variability and
extreme events
D. Castagneri1,3 *, M. Brunetti2, M. Carrer3, P. Fonti1, G. Petit3, A.L. Prendin3, G. von Arx1
1Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Birmensdorf, CH
2Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, National Research Council, Bologna, IT
3TeSAF Department, Università degli Studi di Padova, Padova, IT
* Marie Sklodowska-Curie Fellow — INTREE project — H2020-MSCA-IF-2017
Why is tree-ring anatomy
interesting?
1. Cell differentiation
2. Cell enlargement
3. Cell wall thickening
4. Cell wall lignification
(cell programmed death)
Xylem genesis Tree-ring anatomy
1
X climate variability
TRACE CONFERENCE, Caserta, 8-10 May 2019
1. Cell number
2. Cell size
3. Cell wall thickness
4. Amount of lignin
The common approach is to assess
anatomical parameters at the ring level
Total cell number
Mean cell area
Maximum cell area
Maximum cell wall thickness
One information per year,
not informative of intra-annual
growth processes
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But we can perform analyses at the intra-ring level,
to get information on cells formed
at different times within the growing season
Peters et al., 2018
Castagneri et al., 2018
Castagneri et al., 2017
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Climate influence on Norway spruce xylem
1. Climate inter-annual variability (1926 – 2012)
2. Temperature extremes (1800 – 2011)
Croda da Lago
2100 m
1600 m
1200 m
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Climate influence on Norway spruce xylem
1. Climate inter-annual variability (1926 – 2012)
2. Temperature extremes (1800 – 2011)
Croda da Lago
4
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2100 m
1600 m
1200 m
Methods
Microsections (12-18 μm)
with rotary microtome
Microsection images
processed with ROXAS
5 mm cores
from 8 trees
Intra-ring
CELL LUMEN DIAMETER (CD) and
CELL-WALL THICKNESS (CWT)
Splitting the ring
in 10 “sectors”
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0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
-0.2
-0.4
-0.6
r value
Temperature
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
-0.2
-0.4
-0.6
r value
Precipitation
Cell diameter
6
TRACE CONFERENCE, Caserta, 8-10 May 2019
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
-0.2
-0.4
-0.6
r value
Cell-wall thickness
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
-0.2
-0.4
-0.6
r value
Temperature
Precipitation
7
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How do climate extremes affect ring anatomy?
Climate extremes are rare… Investigation from 1800 to 2011
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Site at
2100 m
In extremely warm-summer years, LW cell wall is thicker
In extremely cold-summer years, all parameters are reduced
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90100 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90100
Cell diameter (CD), number (CN), and wall thickness (CWT) of the
10 warmest-summer (JJA), 10 coldest-summer years in the period
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Any carry-over effect of climate extremes?
In the year following an extreme, no significant deviation from
the average for any parameter
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90100 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90100
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With intra-ring QWA, we identified the effects of
climate intra-season variability,
and of climate extremes,
on spruce intra-ring xylem structure
Conclusions
Detailed retrospective analysis
provides information
complementary to the observation
of xylogenesis phases
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Thanks for your attention
Any question?
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