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Tree-ring anatomy and carbon isotope ratio reveal direct and legacy effects of climate on xylem formation in Mediterranean Pinus pinea

Authors:
Daniele CASTAGNERI,
Giovanna BATTIPAGLIA, Georg VON ARX,
Arturo PACHECO & Marco CARRER
Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL
Marie Skłodowska-Curie individual fellowship
Tree-ring anatomy and carbon isotope ratio
reveal direct and legacy effects of climate
on xylem formation in Mediterranean
Pinus pinea
Daniele CASTAGNERI,
Giovanna BATTIPAGLIA, Georg VON ARX,
Arturo PACHECO & Marco CARRER
Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL
Marie Skłodowska-Curie individual fellowship
Tree-ring anatomy and carbon isotope ratio
reveal direct and legacy effects of climate
on xylem formation in Mediterranean
Pinus pinea
Daniele CASTAGNERI,
Giovanna BATTIPAGLIA, Georg VON ARX,
Arturo PACHECO & Marco CARRER
Tree-ring anatomy and carbon isotope ratio
reveal direct and legacy effects of climate
on xylem formation in Mediterranean
Pinus pinea
Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL
Marie Skłodowska-Curie individual fellowship
Stable isotopes
Tell us about the xylem matter
13C/12C isotope ratio in xylem provides
information on:
Carbon acquisition at leaf level
(fractionation during photosynthesis)
Carbon transfer from leaf to xylem
formation (post-photosynthetic fractionation)
Xylem anatomy
Tells us about the xylem structure
Different cell features provide
information on different processes:
Lumen size -> cell enlargement
Cell wall thickness -> wall thickening
… we used them
in the same study
fcgagric.com
What resolution?
Multiple rings
16
Ring
What resolution?
Intra-ring, early / latewood separation
16
Intra-ring, in continuum
From continuous
information we can
get n parts
Pinus pinea (L.) Umbrella pine or Italian stone pine
Castelvolturno Natural Reserve
Close to the Tyrrhenian seashore
Arenosols with low water holding capacity
Artificial 60 years old plantation
Tree diameter 40 ±11 cm, height 14 ±1 m
Species and study area
Research hypotheses
1) Xylem anatomy is affected by water
availability throughout the growing season
2) Tracheid size is more affected by water
availability than tracheid number and
cell-wall thickness
3) Xylem isotopic composition is related to
precipitation in the growing season
Images taken with
digital camera
10 trees:
Cross sections (12 μm thick)
of 30 rings (1984 to 2013)
Processed with ROXAS,
>700,000 tracheids
Xylem anatomy
Cellulose
extraction
5 trees:
Analysis on
30 rings (1984 to 2013)
Continuous-flow isotope
ratio mass spectrometry
Carbon isotope
Lab: TESAF department (Padua) Lab: IRMS-SUN (Caserta)
Does annual resolution make sense for
Mediterranean trees?
Pacheco et al., 2018
Radial increment rates of Aleppo pines
Methods: resolution
Latewood Earlywood
Cell number on EW and LW
Parameters
on EW and LW
δ13C
Isotopes: earlywood / latewood split
Anatomy: in continuum
Cell number
Lumen and cell size
Cell-wall thickness
on EW and LW
on 15 sectors
on 15 sectors
Parameters
on EW and LW
δ13C
Latewood
EW1
EW2
EW3
EW4
EW5
EW6
EW7
EW8
EW9
EW10
Earlywood
LW1
LW2
LW3
LW4
LW5
Methods: resolution
Statistical methods
1. Inter-relationships among parameters
2. Relationships of parameters with climate
Seasonal level (monthly data)
Intra-seasonal level (daily data)
Daily weather records from
Grazzanise meteorological station,
10 km from the study area
Earlywood (blue)
and latewood (red)
parameters clearly
separated
Cell size and number
separated from
cell-wall thickness and δ13C
Inter-relationships between parameters
Relationships between EW and LW, and seasonal climate
LD (EW)
LD (LW)
CW (EW)
CW (LW)
Nm (EW)
Nm (LW)
δ13C (EW)
δ13C (LW)
More detailed look to climate-anatomy
Precipitation
Max. Temperature
Min. Temperature
Under water shortage, trees
close stomata
Increased δ13C in leaves
Negative relation between
precipitation and δ13C
If recently absorbed carbon
goes in the wood, we should
see this signal
EW
LW
EW
LW
EW
LW
More detailed look to climate-δ13C
Precipitation
Max. Temperature
Min. Temperature
EW
LW
EW
LW
EW
LW
More detailed look to climate-δ13C
We see this in earlywood,
but not in latewood !
Research hypotheses
1. Xylem anatomy is affected by water availability throughout the growing
season, i.e. spring and possibly autumn
2. Tracheid size is more affected by water availability than tracheid number
and cell-wall thickness
Summing-up
Cell enlargement is the process
most affected by water availability
Differentiate climate signals
indicate that xylem formation
is bimodal
Research hypotheses
3) Xylem isotopic composition is related to precipitation in the
growing season
Precipitation
Max. Temperature
Min. Temperature
In earlywood, δ13C is associated to
conditions immediately before xylem
formation
In latewood, it is not. We hypothesize
that carbon comes from mixing pools of
different age, in part older than one year
Summing-up
Daniele CASTAGNERI,
Giovanna BATTIPAGLIA, Georg VON ARX,
Arturo PACHECO & Marco CARRER
Thanks you for
your kind
attention!
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