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KSU Medical Journal 2020;15(1) : 6-10 KSÜ Tıp Fak Der 2020;15(1) : 6-10
6
Özet
Amaç: Bu çalışmanın amacı kadın ve erkek arasındaki el, bilek ve parmak parametrelerinin ölçümlerini karşılaştırmaktır.
Gereç ve Yöntemler: Çalışmaya katılan 25-72 yaşları 318 sağlıklı katılımcıyı (n: 210 kadın, n: 108 erkek) içermektedir. Kahramanmaraş
Sütçü İmam Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Anatomi Anabilim Dalı’nda mezura, dijital kumpas (0.01 mm duyarlılıkta) kullanılmıştır.
Katılımcılardan alınan ölçümler sağ ve sol el çevresi, genişliği uzunluğu ile parmak uzunluğu ile bilek kalınlık ve genişlikleri
karşılaştırıldı.
Bulgular: Kadın ve erkek arasındaki skorlara bakıldığında, kadın ve erkek arasında yaş ve vücut kitle indeksi (BKİ) parametreleri
açısından istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir fark bulunmadı (p>0.05). Karşılaştırma analizinde, kadın ve erkekte el bileği, el ve parmak
parametreleri açısından değerlendirildiğinde ölçüm sonuçları, el bileği çevresi, genişliği, avuç içi genişliği ve uzunluğu, parmak
uzunluğu açısından istatistiksel olarak anlamlı fark bulundu. Bütün kadın parametrelerinin puanları erkeklerden anlamlı derecede
düşük olduğu tespit edildi (p <0.05).
Sonuç: Çalışma sonucunda kadın ve erkek arasında sağ ve sol el bilek, el ve parmak parametreleri açısından istatistiksel olarak
anlamlı fark bulundu.
Anahtar Kelimeler: bilek, avuç içi, parmak, antropoloji, ölçüm
Abstract
Purpose: e aim of this study was to compare measurements of the wrist, hand and finger parameters between female and male.
Material and Methods: is randomized trial included 318 healthy participants (n:210 female, n:108 male) aged 25 to 72 years as
a result of examination participated in the study. Tape measure, digital caliper with 0.01 sensitivity used in the study were obtained
at Kahramanmaraş Sütçü Imam University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Anatomy. e measurements taken from the
participants were right and le wrists circumference, breadth and length, palm breadth, length and fingers length.
Results: Regarding the scores between female and male, no statistically significant dierence was found between the female and
male in terms of age and body mass index (BMI) parameters (p>0.05). In the comparison analysis results of the measurements of
wrist, hand and finger parameters in female and male, statistically significant dierence was found in wrist circumference, breadth,
length, palm breadth and length, fingers length. e points of all parameters of female were significantly lower than male (p<0.05).
Conclusion: As a result of the study, statistically significant dierence was found between female and male in terms of right and le wrist,
hand and finger parameters.
Key Words: wrist, palm, finger, anthropology, measurement
Yazışma Adresi: AtilaYOLDAŞ e-Mail:atillayoldas99@hotmail.com Tlf:+905326913413
ORCID No (Sırasıyla):0000-0002-7807-0661,0000-0003-2405-9317,0000-0003-4710-9540,0000-0002-2378-1183,0000-000-
24892-9527,0000-0001-8925-0230,0000-0002-0785-483,0000-0003-3884-8042
Araştırma Makalesi (Research Article)
The Comparison of Measurements of the Wrist, Hand and Finger Parameters
Between Female and Male
El Bileği, El ve Parmak Parametre Ölçümlerinin Kadın ve Erkek Arasındaki
Karşılaştırılması
Atila YOLDAŞ1, Mehmet DEMİR2, Elisa CALISGAN3, Emre ATAY4, Esin GECGİL5, Mustafa ÇİÇEK1
Tolga ERTEKİN4, AdemDOĞANER6
1 Kahramanmaras Sütcü Imam University School of Medicine, Department of Anatomy, Kahramanmaras,Turkey
2 Kahramanmaras Sütcü Imam University School of Medicine Department of Anatomy, Kahramanmaras,Turkey
3 Kahramanmaras Sütcü Imam University Department of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Kahramanmaras,Turkey
4 Afyon Kocatepe University School of Medicine Department of Anatomy, Afyonkarahisar, Turkey
5 Kahramanmaras Sütcü Imam University Afşin High School of Health Department of midwifery, Kahramanmaras, Turkey
6 Kahramanmaras Sütcü Imam University Department of Biostatistics, School of Medicine, Kahramanmaras, TurkeyGeliş tarihi:
10.01.2020; Kabul tarihi: 03.02.2020; DOI: 10.17517/ksutfd.673110
Geliş Tarihi:01.08.2019 Kabul Tarihi:03.12.2019 DOI: 10.17517/ksutfd.599786
Geliş Tarihi: 01.08.2019 Kabul Tarihi: 03.12.2019 DOI: 10.17517/ksutfd.599786
Kahramanmaraş Sütcü Imam Unıversity School of Medicine, Departmen of Anatomy, Kahramanmaras, Turkey
ORCID No (Sırasıyla): 0000-0002-7807-0661, 0000-0003-2405-9317,0000-0003-4710-9540,00000-0002-2378-1183,0000-000-
2489-9527,0000-0001-8925-0230, 0000-0002-0785-483,0000-0003-3884-8042
Özet
Amaç: Bu çalışmanın amacı kadın ve erkek arasındaki el, bilek ve parmak parametrelerinin ölçümlerini karşılaştırmaktır.
Gereç ve Yöntemler: Çalışmaya katılan 25-72 yaşları 318 sağlıklı katılımcıyı (n: 210 kadın, n: 108 erkek) içermektedir. Kahramanmaraş
Sütçü İmam Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Anatomi Anabilim Dalı’nda mezura, dijital kumpas (0.01 mm duyarlılıkta) kullanılmıştır.
Katılımcılardan alınan ölçümler sağ ve sol el çevresi, genişliği uzunluğu ile parmak uzunluğu ile bilek kalınlık ve genişlikleri
karşılaştırıldı.
Bulgular: Kadın ve erkek arasındaki skorlara bakıldığında, kadın ve erkek arasında yaş ve vücut kitle indeksi (BKİ) parametreleri
açısından istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir fark bulunmadı (p>0.05). Karşılaştırma analizinde, kadın ve erkekte el bileği, el ve parmak
parametreleri açısından değerlendirildiğinde ölçüm sonuçları, el bileği çevresi, genişliği, avuç içi genişliği ve uzunluğu, parmak
uzunluğu açısından istatistiksel olarak anlamlı fark bulundu. Bütün kadın parametrelerinin puanları erkeklerden anlamlı derecede
düşük olduğu tespit edildi (p <0.05).
Sonuç: Çalışma sonucunda kadın ve erkek arasında sağ ve sol el bilek, el ve parmak parametreleri açısından istatistiksel olarak
anlamlı fark bulundu.
Anahtar Kelimeler: bilek, avuç içi, parmak, antropoloji, ölçüm
Abstract
Purpose: e aim of this study was to compare measurements of the wrist, hand and finger parameters between female and male.
Material and Methods: is randomized trial included 318 healthy participants (n:210 female, n:108 male) aged 25 to 72 years as
a result of examination participated in the study. Tape measure, digital caliper with 0.01 sensitivity used in the study were obtained
at Kahramanmaraş Sütçü Imam University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Anatomy. e measurements taken from the
participants were right and le wrists circumference, breadth and length, palm breadth, length and fingers length.
Results: Regarding the scores between female and male, no statistically significant dierence was found between the female and
male in terms of age and body mass index (BMI) parameters (p>0.05). In the comparison analysis results of the measurements of
wrist, hand and finger parameters in female and male, statistically significant dierence was found in wrist circumference, breadth,
length, palm breadth and length, fingers length. e points of all parameters of female were significantly lower than male (p<0.05).
Conclusion: As a result of the study, statistically significant dierence was found between female and male in terms of right and le
wrist, hand and finger parameters.
Key Words: wrist, palm, finger, anthropology, measurement
Yoldaş ve ark.
KSÜ Tıp Fak Der 2020;15(1) : 6-10
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KSU Medical Journal 2020;15(1) : 6-10
INTRODUCTION
In respect to age and sex, physical and forensic antropology
investigate with using metric methods to determine dieren-
ce size of maxilla, meatus aquisticus externus, cervical bones,
finger size, the length and width of hand , width of phalanx,
fetal skeletal size (1).
Although hand and index finger length were used deter-
mination of age and sex and scientists research the stage of
ossification, there is very little knowledge available about dif-
ferences of wrist, palm and finger parameters between female
and male. Experts still do not know what dierences between
sexes, how to diagnose it physically and eectively (2,3).
Wrist circumference is measured with tape measure on
styloid process of radii; while wrist breadth is measured with
the help of a caliper on the distal line of the palm. Wrist len-
gth is measured with distance between styloid process of ra-
dii and ulnae (4).
e measurement of dierent hand dimensions include
palm breadth and length. e length of palm is evaluated
using distance between artifacts distal line and the skin fold
on the metacarpophalangealis III. e breadth of palm is as-
sessed using distance between metacarpophalangealis II and
skin fold on the metacarpophalangealis V (5).
Since, with the help of measurements taken from vari-
ous anthropometric points on the hand, finger and indices
calculated from hand parameters, which have started to be
used frequently in identification studies and gender deter-
mination are frequently conducted from individuals. Also,
hand and finger parameters has important to determine age
and sex (6).
Studies have observed on the role of hand and finger me-
asurements in establishing the profile of individuals in ant-
rophological investigations. Besides the lengths of the fingers
umb, Index Finger Length, Middle, ring finger and little
length and their ratios have also been used for sex identifica-
tion of an individual (7). Dieration of finger length between
male and female is related to prenatal estrogen and testoste-
rone levels controlled by the HOX genes (8).
ere is, however, only a limited amount of data related to
the compression of wrist, hand and finger. To the best of our
knowledge, there is no study assessing the sex determination
on using parameters of wrist, hand and finger. e aim of this
study was to objectively compare radiological measurements
of the wrist, hand and finger parameters between female and
male.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
is retrospective study was performed in compliance with
the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki. Informed con-
sent was obtained from all the study participant’s families.
Ethics committee approval was received by, Kahramanmaras
Sütcü Imam University Faculty of Medicine Clinical Resear-
ch Ethics Committee (number: 2018/13).
e target population of the study consisted of healthy
individuals May 2018 and July 2018 at the Department of
Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Kahramanmaraş Sütçü Imam
University. Individuals that met the inclusion criteria were
selected from the target population using probable simple
random sampling. As part of the simple random sampling
method, individuals were listed by number and those to be
sampled were selected using a random number table.
e study included 318 healthy individuals, aged between
25 and 72 years, a mean age of
33.89 ± 11.70 years. A voluntary consent form was obta-
ined from the participants before the study. Individuals who
agreed to participate in the study and met the inclusion cri-
teria were selected by a randomized sampling method in the
relevant phase. e inclusion criteria were healthy children,
aged 25-75 years, and be able to adapt to the study.Individu-
als were excluded from the study if they were outside the age
range of 25-75 years, had any existing health problem such as
did not adapt to the this study, or were not willing to partici-
pate in the study, having any disease that may aect the arm,
forearm and phalanx. Aer the application of these criteria, a
total of 4 individuals were excluded because of 2 female with
shoulder subluxation, 2 male not willing to participate in the
study.
e demographic information and clinical characteristics
of the individuals were recorded including age and gender.
Height-weight meter, tape measure (mm) and digital caliper
(mm) with 0.01 sensitivity were used in the measurements.
e size of wrist circumference, breadth and length was
evaluated using a tape measure, digital caliper with 0.01 sen-
sitivity both female and male aged 25-72 years. e tape me-
asure is important and recommended for evaluation because
of highly reliability.
Wrist circumference measured with tape measure on sty-
loid process of radii (Figure 1/A). Wrist breadth measured
with the help of a caliper on the distal line of the palm (Figu-
re1/B). Wrist length measured with distance between styloid
process of radii and ulnae (9) (Figure 2/A).
Figure 1. Measurement of Wrist Circumference (A) and
Wrist Breadth (B)
KSU Medical Journal 2020;15(1) : 6-10
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KSÜ Tıp Fak Der 2020;15(1) : 6-10
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Palm length and breadth were evaluated wth a tape me-
asure, dgtal calper wth 0.01 senstvty both female and
male aged 25-72 years. Palm length measured wth dstance
between artfacts dstal lne and the skn fold on the meta-
carpophalangeals III. Palm breadthevaluated wth max-
mum dstance between metacarpophalangeals II and skn
fold on the metacarpophalangeals V (10) (Figure 2/B).
Figure 2. Measurement of Wrist Length (A), Palm and
Finger Length (B)
umb length measured wth the dstance between the ta-
carpophalangeals I sknfold and the tp of the thumb. Index
fnger length measured wth the dstance between the meta-
carpophalangeals II sknfold and the tp of the ndex fnger.
Mddle fnger length measured wth the dstance between
the skn fold of the art. metacarpophalangeals III and the tp
of the mddle fnger. Rng fnger length measured wth the
dstance between the metacarpophalangeals IV sknfold and
the tp of the rng fnger. Lttle fnger length measured wth
the dstance between the sknfold of metacarpophalangeals
III and the tp of the lttle fnger (11) (Figure 2/B).
RESULTS
Evaluaton was made of 318 ndvduals, comprsng 210 fe-
male and 108 male wth a mean age of 33.89 ± 11.70 years
(range, 25-72 years). It has been determned that the age va-
rable has no eect on the rght and le wrst parameters,
rght and le palmar parameters, rght and le fnger length
between sex determnaton (p:0.451). A mean of BMI was
26.12±4.73 kg/m2 (range, 15.34-45.66 kg/m2). No statstcal-
ly sgnfcant derence was n terms of BMI between female
and male (p=0.425).
In the ntra-group analyss of statstcally sgnfcant re-
sults were observed at all tme ntervals n respect of rght
and le wrst parameters (wrst crcumference, breadth, len-
gth) of female and male (p<0.001, p<0.001, p:0.016, p:0.019,
p<0.001, p<0.001, respectvely) (Table 1). Statstcally sg-
nfcant derences were determned n respect of rght and
le palmar parameters between female and male (p<0.001)
(Table 2). Statstcally sgnfcant derence was n ter-
ms of rght and le fnger length between female and male
(p<0.001) (Table 3).
Table 1. e Comparson of Wrst Parameters
Between Female and Male
Parameter
(mm)
Female (n:210) Male (n:108) p
p<0.05, Mn: Mnmum, Max: Maxmum, a:Mann-Whtney U
Test; the data are presented n medan (mn, max)
57.47
(25.7791.99)
53.37
(20.8771.16)
<0.001a
<0.001a
56.97
(25.0697.35)
53.42
(33.0672.00)
0.019a
34.92
(15.5060.20)
37.29
(20.5379.91)
0.016a
34.65
(14.2874.33)
37.39
(19.9589.89)
<0.001a
15.30
(5.3023.90)
<0.001a
17.50
(13.0019.50)
Wrist Length
(Left)
Wrist Length
(Right)
Wrist Breadth
(Left)
Wrist Breadth
(Right)
(Left)
19.50
Circumference (10.9024.90)
Wrist
16.00
Circumference (12.5020.50)
(Right)
Wrist
Table 2.e Comparson of Palm Parameters
Between Female and Male
Parameter
(mm)
Female (n:210) Male (n:108) p
<0.001a
106.61
(83.67140.30)
99.85
(65.59126.93)
Palm Length
(Right)
p<0.05,Mn: Mnmum, Max: Maxmum, a:Mann-Whtney U
Test; the data are presented n medan (mn, max)
76.56
(30.5098.48)
84.02
(67.48122.10)
84.09
(68.31124.40)
77.52
(32.2099.74)
107.97
(70.91124.56) (86.62138.41)
99.24
<0.001a
<0.001a
<0.001a
Palm Breadth
(Left)
Palm Breadth
(Right)
Palm Length
(Left)
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KSU Medical Journal 2020;15(1) : 6-10
Table 3. e Comparison of Finger Length Between
Female and Male
Parameter
(mm)
Female (n:210) Male (n:108) p
p<0.05, Min: Minimum, Max: Maximum, a:Mann-Whitney U
Test; the data are presented in median (min, max)
DISCUSSION
is study investigated to compare measurements of the
wrist, hand and fingers parameters between female and male
participants aged 25 to 72 years. e results demonstrated
that the points of right and le wrist circumference, breadth
and length, palm breadth and length, fingers length in male
were higher than in female. To the best of our knowledge,
this is the first study to compare right and le wrist circum-
ference, breadth and length, palm breadth and length, fingers
length between female and male.
When the literature was researched; it is found that small
number of study include hand and wrist measurements for
gender determination.
e study conducted on India populations found that
hand length could be used to determine gender by 83% in
male, 88.5% in female and 87% in male and 91.1% in female.
Jowaheer and Agnihotri observed a statistical regression ba-
sed statistical approach and that the gender could be deter-
mined by an accuracy of 88% (12). is study conducted on
Turkish population found that wrist circumference, breadth,
length, palm breadth and length, all finger length could be
used for sex determination because of having significant ac-
curacy.
Barrett et al. found that index finger and ring finger len-
gth ratio (2D:4D) of human can be used for sex determinati-
on (13). According to Barrett, 2D:4D in male was more less
than female. is situation resulted from level of sex hormo-
ne during 13th gestational week. Higher level of testostero-
ne hormone in fetal stage and over activation of androgen
receptors bring about longer 4th digit with regard to the 2
nd digit because of greater chondrocyte proferation. Also,
male experience higher testosterone during 13 th gestastio-
nal week, their 2D/4D is lower than female (13) . is study
found that 2D and 4D length in male was more significantly
than female. Testosterone could be cause for this conclusion.
According to Casse and Ross, the ability of phalangeal
length to determine sex is better than metacarpal and meta-
tarsal length (14). is conclusion was similar with this study
in terms of accuracy of phalangeal length for sex determina-
tion.
Scientist found that digit ratio is based on individual va-
rience, so, they not found overall variance of dierent popu-
lation (15). Due to not overall variance or gold standard of
dierent population, we not evaluate digit ratio in male and
female.
According to previous studies, the size of wrist and pha-
langeal length was seen bigger in male, aged 20-60 years,
because of higher level of testosterone hormone (16). In the
current study, right and le wrist, palm and finger parame-
ters was seen a high score on the frequently in male, the ran-
ge of 20-60 years. e conclusion of this study was similar to
those of previous studies.
Kanchan and Kumar’ study showed that the accuracy of
ringer length and 2D/4D ration for determination is %80 for
males; while it is about %74-%78 for female in South India.
ey utilizied from finger length, 2D/4D ratio and phalanx
length to predict sex. According to their study, finger len-
gth and 2D/4D ratio used for sex determination using with
discriminant analysis (17). is study evaluated the points of
right amd le wrist circumference, breadth and length, palm
breadth and fingers length in male and female. All parame-
ters was found higher than in female. In addition, 2D/4D ra-
tion was evaluated in previous studies the outside of wrist
and palm breadth or length. erefore, this parameters were
investigated firstly with this study.
Bailey et al. (18) assessed the relationship between finger
length and ratio (2D/4D) in male and female. ey found
that man with lower 2D/4D had highr aggression scores be-
cause of testosterone organizational eect but not observed
this relationship in women. is conclusion was similar to
the conclusion of the current study in terms of the sex deter-
mination from fingers length. Also, this study concluded that
finger length is connected with testosterone hormone in 13
th gestastional week.
60.95 56.60
(36.5078.61) (42.04100.38)
62.77
(41.0994.71)
57.69
(41.1179.82)
69.51
(51.7087.53) (45.50103.81)
74.47
70.19
(52.8689.19) (50.44113.12)
75.91
75.28
(59.2796.62) (58.33111.77)
81.17
80.44
(41.0095.00) (58.74113.52)
75.78
68.84
(20.8092.36) (51.24104.41)
73.67
68.53
(54.8990.99) (54.44106.52)
73.04
61.60
(45.1988.36)
67.74
(41.1897.62)
67.98
(42.7893.32)
62.31
(45.1277.14)
<0.001a
<0.001a
<0.001a
<0.001a
<0.001a
<0.001a
<0.001a
<0.001a
<0.001a
<0.001a
Tumb Finger
Length(Left)
TumbFinger
Length(Right)
IndexFinger
Length(Right)
IndexFinger
Length(Left)
Middle Finger
Length(Left)
MiddleFinger
Length(Right)
Ring Finger
Length(Right)
Ring Finger
Length(Left)
Little Finger
Length(Right)
Little Finger
Length(Left)
KSU Medical Journal 2020;15(1) : 6-10
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KSÜ Tıp Fak Der 2020;15(1) : 6-10
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is study evaluated size of wrist circumference, length,
breadth, palm length and breadth, fingers length in male and
female aged 25-72 years. Wrist, palm and finger parameters
should be helpful for sex determination. In the other words
statistically significant dierence was observed in terms of
wrist, palm and finger parameters between female and male.
In conclusion, this study showed that the evaluation of
right and le wrist circumference, breadth and length, palm
breadth and length, finger length have higher accuracy rates
for determination of sex. In addition, the results of this study
provide further evidence of the finding out how anthropo-
metric measurements taken from male and female aged 25
to 72 years dier in terms of right and le wrist, palm and
fingers parameters. Statistically significant dierences were
determined in respect of right and le wrist circumference,
wrist and palm breadth and length, fingers length between
male and female.
Compliance with ethical standards
Funding
e authors received no financial support forthe resear-
ch, authorship and/or publication of this article.
Conict of interests
e authors have no conict of interests to declare.
REFERENCES
1.
Phelps VR. Relative index finger length as a sex-inuenced trait
in man. Am J Hum Genet 1952;4(2):72–89.
2.
Manning JT, Scott D, Wilson J, Lewis-Jones DI. e ratio of 2nd
to 4th digit length: a predictor of sperm numbers and concent-
rations of testosterone, luteinizing hormone and estrogen. Hu-
man Reprod 1998;13 (11):3000–4.
3.
Garrido VCE, ompson TJU. Metric dimensions of the proxi-
mal phalanges of the human hand and their relationship to side,
position, and asymmetry. Homo 2011;62(2):126–43.
4.
Brown WM, Hines M, Fane BA, Breedlove SM. Maculinized
finger length patterns in human males and females with conge-
nital adrenal hyperplasia. Hormon and Behav 2002;42: 380–6.
5.
Manning JT, Scott D, Wilson J, Lewis-Jones DI. e ratio of 2nd
to 4th digit length: a predictor of sperm numbers and concent-
ration of testosterone, leutenizing hormone and oestrogen. Hu-
man Repr 1998;1311: 3000–4.
6.
Manning JT, Taylor RP. Second to fourth digit ratio and male
ability in sport: implications for sexual selection in humans.
Evol Hum Behav 2001;22: 61–9.
7.
Mc Fadden D, Bracht MS. e relative lengths and weights of
metacarpals and metatarsals in baboons (papio hamadryas).
Hor Behav 2003:43;347– 55.
8.
Mazıcıoğlu MM. Büyüme gelişme izleminde kullanılan antro-
pometrik ölçüm yöntemleri: Büyüme takibinin metodolojisi.
Türk Aile Hekim Derg 2011;15(3):101-8.
9.
Duyar İ. Ankarada yaşayan çocukların bazı antropometrik öl-
çülerinde 1950– 1986 yılları arasında gözlenen değişimler. Ha-
cet Üniv Edeb Fak Derg. 1995;12:1-13.
10.
Duyar İ, Özener B. İnsanda Boy Uzunluğunun Evrimi ve Ergo-
nomik Açıdan Önemi. Univ Gazi Jour Soc Sci 2009;8 (1):63-75.
11.
Krogman WM, İşcan MY. e Human Skeleton in Forensic Me-
dicine. İllinois: Charles C omas; 1986.
12.
Sen J, Kanchan T, Ghosh A, Mondal N, Krishan K. Estimation
of Sex from Index and Ring Finger Lengths in an Indigenous
Population of Eastern. Jour Clin Diag Res. 2015;9(11):HC01-5.
13.
Barrett CK, Case DT. Use of 2D: 4D Digit Ratios to Determine
Sex. J Foren Sci.2014;59(5):1315-20.
14.
Case DT, Ross AH. Sex determination from hand and foot bone
lengths. J Foren Sci 2007;52(2):264–70.
15.
Gupta S, Gupta V, Tyag N, Ettihree, Bhagat S, Dadu M, Anthwal
N, Ashraf T. Index/Ring Finger Ratio, Hand and Foot Index:-
Gender Estimation Tools. Jour Clin Diag Res. 2017;11(6):ZC73-
7.
16.
Gargi V, Prakash SM, Malik S, Nagaraju K, Goel S, Gupta S.
Sexual dimorphism of foramen magnum between two dierent
groups of Indian population: A cross- sectional cone –beam
computed tomography study. J Foren Sci Me 2018;4:150- 5.
17.
Kanchan T, Kumar GP. Index and ring finger ratio – a morp-
hologic sex determinant in South-Indian children. Forensic Sci
Med Pathol 2010;6 (4):255–60.
18.
Bailey AA, Hurd PL. Finger length ratio (2D:4D) correlates
with physical aggresion in men but not women. Bio Psych
2005;68:215-
is study evaluated size of wrist circumference, length,
breadth, palm length and breadth, fingers length in male and
female aged 25-72 years. Wrist, palm and finger parameters
should be helpful for sex determination. In the other words
statistically significant dierence was observed in terms of
wrist, palm and finger parameters between female and male.
In conclusion, this study showed that the evaluation of
right and le wrist circumference, breadth and length, palm
breadth and length, finger length have higher accuracy rates
for determination of sex. In addition, the results of this study
provide further evidence of the finding out how anthropo-
metric measurements taken from male and female aged 25
to 72 years dier in terms of right and le wrist, palm and
fingers parameters. Statistically significant dierences were
determined in respect of right and le wrist circumference,
wrist and palm breadth and length, fingers length between
male and female.
Compliance with ethical standards
Funding
e authors received no financial support forthe resear-
ch, authorship and/or publication of this article.
Conict of interests
e authors have no conict of interests to declare.
REFERENCES
1.
Phelps VR. Relative index finger length as a sex-inuenced trait
in man. Am J Hum Genet 1952;4(2):72–89.
2.
Manning JT, Scott D, Wilson J, Lewis-Jones DI. e ratio of 2nd
to 4th digit length: a predictor of sperm numbers and concent-
rations of testosterone, luteinizing hormone and estrogen. Hu-
man Reprod 1998;13 (11):3000–4.
3.
Garrido VCE, ompson TJU. Metric dimensions of the proxi-
mal phalanges of the human hand and their relationship to side,
position, and asymmetry. Homo 2011;62(2):126–43.
4.
Brown WM, Hines M, Fane BA, Breedlove SM. Maculinized
finger length patterns in human males and females with conge-
nital adrenal hyperplasia. Hormon and Behav 2002;42: 380–6.
5.
Manning JT, Scott D, Wilson J, Lewis-Jones DI. e ratio of 2nd
to 4th digit length: a predictor of sperm numbers and concent-
ration of testosterone, leutenizing hormone and oestrogen. Hu-
man Repr 1998;1311: 3000–4.
6.
Manning JT, Taylor RP. Second to fourth digit ratio and male
ability in sport: implications for sexual selection in humans.
Evol Hum Behav 2001;22: 61–9.
7.
Mc Fadden D, Bracht MS. e relative lengths and weights of
metacarpals and metatarsals in baboons (papio hamadryas).
Hor Behav 2003:43;347– 55.
8.
Mazıcıoğlu MM. Büyüme gelişme izleminde kullanılan antro-
pometrik ölçüm yöntemleri: Büyüme takibinin metodolojisi.
Türk Aile Hekim Derg 2011;15(3):101-8.
9.
Duyar İ. Ankarada yaşayan çocukların bazı antropometrik öl-
çülerinde 1950– 1986 yılları arasında gözlenen değişimler. Ha-
cet Üniv Edeb Fak Derg. 1995;12:1-13.
10.
Duyar İ, Özener B. İnsanda Boy Uzunluğunun Evrimi ve Ergo-
nomik Açıdan Önemi. Univ Gazi Jour Soc Sci 2009;8 (1):63-75.
11.
Krogman WM, İşcan MY. e Human Skeleton in Forensic Me-
dicine. İllinois: Charles C omas; 1986.
12.
Sen J, Kanchan T, Ghosh A, Mondal N, Krishan K. Estimation
of Sex from Index and Ring Finger Lengths in an Indigenous
Population of Eastern. Jour Clin Diag Res. 2015;9(11):HC01-5.
13.
Barrett CK, Case DT. Use of 2D: 4D Digit Ratios to Determine
Sex. J Foren Sci.2014;59(5):1315-20.
14.
Case DT, Ross AH. Sex determination from hand and foot bone
lengths. J Foren Sci 2007;52(2):264–70.
15.
Gupta S, Gupta V, Tyag N, Ettihree, Bhagat S, Dadu M, Anthwal
N, Ashraf T. Index/Ring Finger Ratio, Hand and Foot Index:-
Gender Estimation Tools. Jour Clin Diag Res. 2017;11(6):ZC73-
7.
16.
Gargi V, Prakash SM, Malik S, Nagaraju K, Goel S, Gupta S.
Sexual dimorphism of foramen magnum between two dierent
groups of Indian population: A cross- sectional cone –beam
computed tomography study. J Foren Sci Me 2018;4:150- 5.
17.
Kanchan T, Kumar GP. Index and ring finger ratio – a morp-
hologic sex determinant in South-Indian children. Forensic Sci
Med Pathol 2010;6 (4):255–60.
18.
Bailey AA, Hurd PL. Finger length ratio (2D:4D) correlates
with physical aggresion in men but not women. Bio Psych
2005;68:215-
is study evaluated size of wrist circumference, length,
breadth, palm length and breadth, fingers length in male and
female aged 25-72 years. Wrist, palm and finger parameters
should be helpful for sex determination. In the other words
statistically significant dierence was observed in terms of
wrist, palm and finger parameters between female and male.
In conclusion, this study showed that the evaluation of
right and le wrist circumference, breadth and length, palm
breadth and length, finger length have higher accuracy rates
for determination of sex. In addition, the results of this study
provide further evidence of the finding out how anthropo-
metric measurements taken from male and female aged 25
to 72 years dier in terms of right and le wrist, palm and
fingers parameters. Statistically significant dierences were
determined in respect of right and le wrist circumference,
wrist and palm breadth and length, fingers length between
male and female.
Compliance with ethical standards
Funding
e authors received no financial support forthe resear-
ch, authorship and/or publication of this article.
Conict of interests
e authors have no conict of interests to declare.
REFERENCES
1.
Phelps VR. Relative index finger length as a sex-inuenced trait
in man. Am J Hum Genet 1952;4(2):72–89.
2.
Manning JT, Scott D, Wilson J, Lewis-Jones DI. e ratio of 2nd
to 4th digit length: a predictor of sperm numbers and concent-
rations of testosterone, luteinizing hormone and estrogen. Hu-
man Reprod 1998;13 (11):3000–4.
3.
Garrido VCE, ompson TJU. Metric dimensions of the proxi-
mal phalanges of the human hand and their relationship to side,
position, and asymmetry. Homo 2011;62(2):126–43.
4.
Brown WM, Hines M, Fane BA, Breedlove SM. Maculinized
finger length patterns in human males and females with conge-
nital adrenal hyperplasia. Hormon and Behav 2002;42: 380–6.
5.
Manning JT, Scott D, Wilson J, Lewis-Jones DI. e ratio of 2nd
to 4th digit length: a predictor of sperm numbers and concent-
ration of testosterone, leutenizing hormone and oestrogen. Hu-
man Repr 1998;1311: 3000–4.
6.
Manning JT, Taylor RP. Second to fourth digit ratio and male
ability in sport: implications for sexual selection in humans.
Evol Hum Behav 2001;22: 61–9.
7.
Mc Fadden D, Bracht MS. e relative lengths and weights of
metacarpals and metatarsals in baboons (papio hamadryas).
Hor Behav 2003:43;347– 55.
8.
Mazıcıoğlu MM. Büyüme gelişme izleminde kullanılan antro-
pometrik ölçüm yöntemleri: Büyüme takibinin metodolojisi.
Türk Aile Hekim Derg 2011;15(3):101-8.
9.
Duyar İ. Ankarada yaşayan çocukların bazı antropometrik öl-
çülerinde 1950– 1986 yılları arasında gözlenen değişimler. Ha-
cet Üniv Edeb Fak Derg. 1995;12:1-13.
10.
Duyar İ, Özener B. İnsanda Boy Uzunluğunun Evrimi ve Ergo-
nomik Açıdan Önemi. Univ Gazi Jour Soc Sci 2009;8 (1):63-75.
11.
Krogman WM, İşcan MY. e Human Skeleton in Forensic Me-
dicine. İllinois: Charles C omas; 1986.
12.
Sen J, Kanchan T, Ghosh A, Mondal N, Krishan K. Estimation
of Sex from Index and Ring Finger Lengths in an Indigenous
Population of Eastern. Jour Clin Diag Res. 2015;9(11):HC01-5.
13.
Barrett CK, Case DT. Use of 2D: 4D Digit Ratios to Determine
Sex. J Foren Sci.2014;59(5):1315-20.
14.
Case DT, Ross AH. Sex determination from hand and foot bone
lengths. J Foren Sci 2007;52(2):264–70.
15.
Gupta S, Gupta V, Tyag N, Ettihree, Bhagat S, Dadu M, Anthwal
N, Ashraf T. Index/Ring Finger Ratio, Hand and Foot Index:-
Gender Estimation Tools. Jour Clin Diag Res. 2017;11(6):ZC73-
7.
16.
Gargi V, Prakash SM, Malik S, Nagaraju K, Goel S, Gupta S.
Sexual dimorphism of foramen magnum between two dierent
groups of Indian population: A cross- sectional cone –beam
computed tomography study. J Foren Sci Me 2018;4:150- 5.
17.
Kanchan T, Kumar GP. Index and ring finger ratio – a morp-
hologic sex determinant in South-Indian children. Forensic Sci
Med Pathol 2010;6 (4):255–60.
18.
Bailey AA, Hurd PL. Finger length ratio (2D:4D) correlates
with physical aggresion in men but not women. Bio Psych
2005;68:215-
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Fetal and adult testosterone may be important in establishing and maintaining sex-dependent abilities associated with male physical competitiveness. There is evidence that the ratio of the length of the 2nd and 4th digits (2D:4D) is a negative correlate of prenatal and adult testosterone. We use ability in sports, and particularly ability in football, as a proxy for male physical competitiveness. Compared to males with high 2D:4D ratio, men with low ratio reported higher attainment in a range of sports and had higher mental rotation scores (a measure of visual-spatial ability). Professional football players had lower 2D:4D ratios than controls. Football players in 1st team squads had lower 2D:4D than reserves or youth team players. Men who had represented their country had lower ratios than those who had not, and there was a significant (one-tailed) negative association between 2D:4D and number of international appearances after the effect of country was removed. We suggest that prenatal and adult testosterone promotes the development and maintenance of traits which are useful in sports and athletics disciplines and in male:male fighting.
Article
Finger length ratio (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait. Men have relatively shorter second digits (index fingers) than fourth digits (ring fingers). Smaller, more masculine, digit ratios are thought to be associated with either higher prenatal testosterone levels or greater sensitivity to androgens, or both. Men with more masculine finger ratios are perceived as being more masculine and dominant by female observers, and tend to perform better in a number of physical sports. We hypothesized that digit ratio would correlate with propensity to engage in aggressive behavior. We examined the relationship between trait aggression, assayed using a questionnaire, and finger length ratio in both men and women. Men with lower, more masculine, finger length ratios had higher trait physical aggression scores (r(partial) = -0.21, N = 134, P = 0.028). We found no correlation between finger length ratio and any form of aggression in females. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that testosterone has an organizational effect on adult physical aggression in men.
mal phalanges of the human hand and their relationship to side, position, and asymmetry
  • A A Bailey
  • P L Hurd
Bailey AA, Hurd PL. Finger length ratio (2D:4D) correlates with physical aggresion in men but not women. Bio Psych 2005;68:215-mal phalanges of the human hand and their relationship to side, position, and asymmetry. Homo 2011;62(2):126-43.