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Sustainability of Building Material, a Review of Burnt Clay Brick in the Context of Bangladesh authored by Sustainability of Building Material, a review of burnt clay brick in the context of Bangladesh

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Minimization of energy consumption has become a primary concern today in every aspect of human civilization. Buildings, building materials and components are significant to consume both renewable and non-renewable sources of energy. Nearly 40 % of global energy annually expended in building's life cycle stages, such as production and procurement of building materials, construction, operational energy and demolition. To mitigate the energy embedded into a building, it is fundamental to evaluate less energy intensive technologies for construction, as well as low environmental impact building materials. However, assessment of environmental sustainability of the same material is not comparable in every context. Based on the production technology, method of procurement and type of energy used in the production; the environmental footprint of any material should be different in every different regions. The aim of this research is to appraise the environmental sustainability of the most prominent building material in South Asian countries, especially based on the context of Bangladesh. In the South East Asia the most used building material is Burnt Clay Brick. With the high rate of infrastructural development, production of brick is increasing every year. In Bangladesh, about 4,500 brick industries are in operation, producing about 9 billion bricks per year. Towards a sustainable future it is important to assess the environmental impact and embodied energy of this widely used material in the South Asian context. This paper investigates the EE, water consumption, emissions and environmental footprint of burnt clay brick based on the LCA (Cradle to Gate) methodology and a program based assessment in Simapro 8.1. A comparison between previous research and current study apprises the feasibility of burnt clay brick in this region, in term of environmental sustainability.
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Prof. Fuad H Mallick
Convener
Seminar Committee
ARCASIA FORUM20
Prof. Abu Sayeed M Ahmed
Convener
Organizing Committee
ARCASIA FORUM20
INSTITUTE OF
ARCHITECTS
BANGLADESH
The Institute of Architects, Bangladesh
is pleased to acknowledge that the
paper entitled
Sustainability of Building Material, a Review of Burnt Clay Brick in the Context
of Bangladesh
authored by
Md Shafique Rahman
&
Redowan Kabir Kaushik
was presented at the seminar held on the occasion
of
Arcasia Forum 20
held in Dhaka
on 3rd and 4th November, 2019
organized by the Institute
Sustainability of Building Material, a review of burnt clay brick in the
context of Bangladesh.
Shafique Rahman01, Redowan Kabir Kaushik02
01 Assistant Professor, Department of Architecture, AUST, Bangladesh.
02 Lecturer, Department of Architecture, SUB, Bangladesh
Minimization of energy consumption has become a primary concern today in every aspect of human
civilization. Buildings, building materials and components are significant to consume both renewable and non-
renewable sources of energy. Nearly 40 % of global energy annually expended in building’s life cycle stages,
such as production and procurement of building materials, construction, operational energy and demolition.
To mitigate the energy embedded into a building, it is fundamental to evaluate less energy intensive
technologies for construction, as well as low environmental impact building materials. However, assessment
of environmental sustainability of the same material is not comparable in every context. Based on the
production technology, method of procurement and type of energy used in the production; the environmental
footprint of any material should be different in every different regions. The aim of this research is to appraise
the environmental sustainability of the most prominent building material in South Asian countries, especially
based on the context of Bangladesh. In the South East Asia the most used building material is Burnt Clay
Brick. With the high rate of infrastructural development, production of brick is increasing every year. In
Bangladesh, about 4,500 brick industries are in operation, producing about 9 billion bricks per year. Towards
a sustainable future it is important to assess the environmental impact and embodied energy of this widely
used material in the South Asian context. This paper investigates the EE, water consumption, emissions and
environmental footprint of burnt clay brick based on the LCA (Cradle to Gate) methodology and a program
based assessment in Simapro 8.1. A comparison between previous research and current study apprises the
feasibility of burnt clay brick in this region, in term of environmental sustainability.
Nomenclature: EE: Embodied Energy, LCA: Life Cycle Analysis, IA: Impact Assessment
Keywords: Sustainability, Building Material, Brick, Impact Assessment, Life Cycle Analysis, LCA, Embodied
Energy
Introduction
2.1 Background of the study
Today world is facing major environmental
problems i.e. global warming, ozone layer
depletion and waste accumulation. Over the last
few decades the research indicates that the
global climate is changing rapidly. (Ipcc,
2001)And the major driving factor behind the
environmental damage is the unprecedented
consumption of energy derived from non-
renewable resources. The process of extraction
of fossil fuel and various stages of utilization
discharge enormous amount of solid, liquid and
gaseous waste into the environment.
Buildings, building materials and components
consume nearly 40% of global energy annually in
their life cycle stages, such as production and
procurement of building materials, construction,
use and demolition. (Dixit, Fernández-Solís,
Lavy, & Culp, 2012) (G., 2004) One third of
related global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions
are attributable to the building sector as it creates
significant economic, environmental and social
impacts. (Ibn-Mohammed, Greenough, Taylor,
Ozawa-Meida, & Acquaye, 2013)
Sustainable development is viewed as
development with low environmental impact and
high economic and social gains. (Ramesh,
Prakash, & Shukla, 2010) To achieve the goals
of sustainability it is important to adopt a multi-
disciplinary approach covering a number of
features such as energy saving, improved use of
materials including water, reuse and recycling of
materials and emissions control. As the global
ecosystem has no border, consequently, it is
therefore essential for the building construction
industry to achieve sustainable development in
every single region to mitigate the overall
environmental damage of the world.
Building material is significant toward the
emergence of energy efficient and low
environmental impact buildings. Examples are
found in various researches, which shows that
the construction phase of a building consumes a
larger proportion of building energy in its overall
life cycle. In consequence, construction stage,
production and procurement of building material
also has a substantial emission. In the UK, Engin
and Francis reported that embodied energy is
3035% of 100 year life-cycle energy demand
based on different building options (Engin.A,
2010). Thus, sustainability of building material
should be a major concern in rapid urbanization
of 21st century.
This study focused on the EE and environmental
footprint of burnt clay brick, one of the oldest and
widely used building material around the world.
Recently, the air pollution emission from brick
kilns has gained international attention. (Anh,
Nguyen, & Kim, 2010) However, brick production
technology is not similar in every region. And
based on the production technology, i.e. type of
raw material, extraction, transportation, fuel
consumption and mechanism, the environmental
impact and EE of brick differs widely from region
to region. The manufacturing of bricks is an
energy-intensive process. All developed
countries and some developing ones have
shifted away from traditional low-efficiency
manufacturing processes to modern high-
efficiency ones. A few countries in Asia still
remain in the traditional brick production
technologies.
A few studies conducted earlier have found
fluctuating value of EE among bricks produced in
different regions. The kilns used in South-Asian
countries including Bangladesh are extremely
crude, and as a result, are energy-inefficient and
polluting.
A recent study (Chadwick, n.d. AIA02A) , has
shown that the specific thermal energy
consumption varies from 1.3 to 9 MJ/kg of brick
depending on the type of technology and fuel
used in firing; the higher values are for the kilns
in Vietnam, while Chinese and Indian kilns have
lower specific energy consumption. The study
further states that Vietnam’s high energy
consumption is due to the use of biomass, such
as wood and rice husk in the kilns, which are
inefficient. On the other hand, Bangladesh has a
different scenario in production. Brick
manufacturing in Bangladesh is more human
labour based and also different regarding energy
consumption. In Bangladesh, about 4,500 brick
industries are in operation, producing about 9
billion bricks per year. (Gomes & Hossain, 2003)
Therefore, it is essential to assess the
sustainability of burnet clay brick in the South-
Asian context; hence the rate of brick production
in this region is extensive to accumulate the rapid
growth of infrastructural development. The aim of
this research is to assess EE and Environmental
footprint of brick produced in Bangladesh,
towards environmentally sustainable
development.
2.2 Traditional Brick Manufacturing
Technology in the context of Bangladesh
In Bangladesh, bricks are the main building
material in urban areas. It has also become a
significant building material in the rural areas.
Due to the widespread demand brick fields are
located overall all around the country. Brick
making in Bangladesh is repetitively reported as
one of the significant energy intensive activities
in Bangladesh. There are four major types of
brick industries in operation. Cottage type
brickmaking industries called Bull’s Trench Kiln
(BTKs) is the leading among 4500 industries in
operation. These industries employ an extremely
crude technology and use low-grade coal to fire
bricks. The emission from BTKs predominantly
has reached alarming proportions.
Figure 1 shows the amount of different type of
brick industries in Bangladesh, according to the
record of (Bangladesh Brick Manufacturers
Owners Association (BBMOA). Figure 2: Amount
in percentage of brick produces in four different
technologies in Bangladesh. According to the
data represented above the most popular type of
brick technology in Bangladesh is BTK (Bull’s
Trench Kiln). In this research production
technology of BTK has been considered for the
assessment.
2.3 Stages of Production, Cradle to Gate
Brick production technology is pointed as a highly
energy intensive activity in Bangladesh.
However, the major difference between brick
production technology in other countries and
Bangladesh is the human labour intensive
process. Bangladesh is a country with a very high
population and labour cost is very cheap in this
region. For the reason, most of the industries are
human labour driven in Bangladesh. And in brick
Figure 1: Proportion of different type of brick industries in
Bangladesh.
Figure 2: Amount in percentage produces in four different
technologies in Bangladesh.
industries most of the processing works are
dependent on human labour. Based on the field
survey an illustration, Figure 3 shows is a typical
brick production framework is Bangladesh.
With the brick produced in this context, stages of
production are collection of raw clay, which is
entirely done by excavation by human labour.
Photograph 1 shows excavating the mud from
which bricks are made. For the industries located
in Dhaka, clay is transported by diesel truck. Clay
unloading and processing also entirely
dependent on human labour. Processing raw
clay involves moulding of clay with water and
casing wet clay in brick cases for specific shape
and size. The type of clay in this context is
directly used for brick making. Photograph 2
shows clay unloading and processing,
Photograph 3 shows casing of wet clay. After
casing the green bricks are dried in Sun. In this
region brick manufacturing runs five months,
November to mid-April, only in dry season.
Photograph 4 depicts human labour involved in
staking of green bricks and unloading of burnet
brick in an industry in Dhaka, Bangladesh. After
drying green bricks are places in burner, which is
known as Bull’s trench kiln (BTK).
Figure 3: Stages of Production, Cradle to Gate
Bull’s trench kiln (BTK)
Bull’s trench kiln (BTK) is essentially an elliptical-
shaped dug-out area in an open field. The kiln is
about 7-9 m long and 17-20 m wide and has two
10-15 m high movable chimneys. The bottom
and the side-walls of the kiln are lined with bricks,
with the top left open. Sun-dried bricks are
stacked in the kiln in an orderly fashion, leaving
enough room for fuel-stoking and air circulation.
After arranging the bricks in the kiln, the top of
the kiln is covered with fired bricks and pebbles.
The bricks are fired from the top and the fire
moves forward towards the chimney. The air
entrance opening (air hole) and the chimney are
located at the two ends in such a way that
combustion air is pre-heated by taking heat from
the fired bricks, and the green bricks to be fired
are pre-heated by the flue gas on its way out of
the chimney. The bricks are fired all around the
kiln, until all bricks in the trench are fired. Bull’s
trench kiln doesn’t require any input for
electricity. The fuel type used are usually Gas
and Coal. 25-30 tons of medium grade coal used
for burning 100,000 bricks.
General specification of a brick - Unit weight of
brick is 2000 kg (per unit) and 3.864 kg (per brick
unit). (Bangladesh, n.d. Technical Specification For
Buildings)
Collection of Raw Clay
Transport
Processin
g
Drying
Brick Kiln
Human Labour Energy
Transport Fuel Energy
Human Labour Energy
Sun Drying No Consumption
Fuel Energy Kiln
Transport Energy For Fuel Transportation
Stages of
Production
Description
Consumption
Labour
Fuel
Water
Stage 1
Raw
Mat.Procur
ement
In Bangladesh raw clay is directly used for brick.
Clay is collected by human labour
Photograph 1 Shows Human Labour engaged in
the process
4 Number of labour X 4
Hours X Labour Energy
per hour
No Consumption
No Consumption
Stage 2
Transportation of
Raw Material
Raw clay is transported by Diesel Truck
Standard Truck Capacity 450-500 cft/ 14.16 m3
Engine Capacity 5.5L
Travel Distance (For industries in Dhaka) 120-150
km
Travel Time 3 Hours
No Consumption
Fuel Type : Diesel
Fuel Consumption Per Truck
Travel: 30 Litre
Clay for 1000 Bricks per truck.
Net Fuel For 100,000 Brick=
100Trucks X30 Litre= 3000 Litre
No Consumption
Stage 3
Raw
Material
Unloading
Human labour used for raw material unloading
3 labours X 3 hours X
Labour Energy per hour
No Consumption
No Consumption
Stage 4
Raw Material
Processing
Clay mixed with water
Human Labour worked in this process for
moulding clay and water
Clay is formed and shaped in case by human labour
Water Pump-High flow rates- Centrifugal pumps
Flow rate up to 2200 l/min (132 m³/h)
No Consumption
2. 2.2 kwh=0.037 Kw/min
Electricity 50000/2200=22 min
22X0.037= 0.81 Kwh
500X100=50000 L
for 100,000 Bricks
Stage 5
Green Brick
Drying
Formed green bricks are dried in Sun before
sending to kiln
No Consumption
No Consumption
No Consumption
Stage 6
Brick Kiln (BTK)
Raw coal used for brick kiln.
Coal Type: Medium Grade Brown
26-30 tonnes of low grade Coal per 100,000 bricks
Wastage 10-12%
Coal Transportation :
5 Tonnes Per Truck
Travel Distance : 335-350 km
No Consumption
Coal consumption:
23-30 Tonnes per 100,000 Bricks
Coal Transportation :
Fuel (Diesel) per travel:70 Litre
Fuel Consumption:
6TrucksX70L=420 Litre
No Consumption
Photograph 1
Excavate the mud from which
bricks are made
(Mostafa, n.d.)
Photograph 2
Brick factory labors working in a
typical brick industry in
Bangladesh. (Mostafa, n.d.)
Photograph 3
Human labor processing brick for
sun drying.(S. Bangladesh, n.d.)
Photograph 4
Human labour involved in staking
of green bricks and unloading of
burnet brick.(Mostafa, n.d.)
3. Methodology of Assessment (LCA)
There are a great number of tools for
environmental assessment of the built
environment, ranging from construction material
selection, energy labelling and indoor air quality
to a whole building assessment, and then to an
urban-scale built environment assessment,
(Forsberg & Malmborg, 2004). The most
appropriate and accepted method used to
produce a holistic assessment of the
environmental impacts associated with a building
and building materials is the LCA. (Junnila, S.
Horvath, A. Guggemos, 2006) (Cole,
1998)(DING, 2014) LCA is a method defined by
the international standards ISO 14040 and
14044 to analyse environmental aspects and
impacts of product system. (Walter Klopffer,
2013)
The LCA of building relates to both embodied
energy and emission of construction phase,
operational energy in its overall life cycle and
impact of demolition stage. The embodied
energy of building materials includes initial and
recurrent embodied energy. Initial embodied
energy relates to the building materials used for
construction, whilst recurring embodied energy is
required during the operation stage. (DING,
2014) This process is collectively known as
‘cradle-to grave’ analysis. However, apart from
the overall impact assessment, LCA also used
widely for the assessment of building material.
The life cycle of building materials is often
referred to as a ‘cradle-to-gate’ analysis. The
material life cycle relates closely to the pre-use
phase of a building and it includes the raw
materials extraction and manufacturing process.
(Forsberg & Malmborg, 2004) Identified as a
consensus method, a ‘cradle-to-gate’ analysis
has been used for EE and IA of brick in this
research. A ‘cradle-to-gate’ analysis of LCA
includes the process of each raw material
extracted for the production of assessed
material. This extraction comprises both the raw
material for final product and fuel extraction
which engaged in the production process.
Transportation of each raw material and fuel also
calculated in the process. Final energy use in
processing and manufacturing is the major direct
input in the process. Water consumption and
emission in each stage counted for the final
collective output. This process is known as input-
output framework of LCA, which was
chronologically developed from LCA triangle
which was introduced by Society of
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
(SETAC) in 1990-91. (Walter Klopffer, 2013)
Input output method also previously used by
many researchers in leading sustainability
researches. The “Input-Output” method adopted
in the current research is illustrated in Figure: 4.
Figure 4: LCA “input-output” framework adopted
in the present study.
In this research input data have been collected
from on-site surveying. Two major brick
industries located in Dhaka were counted for
data collection. Information from two industries
were similar and considered as authentic
information for this assessment. However, brick
production in the context of Bangladesh highly
dependent on human labour. Being a highly
populated region, human labour is common for
every industrial production in Bangladesh.
Human labour has no direct emission to the
nature and energy consumed for livelihood is a
natural process for each species in the earth. In
the input data human labour were not counted.
Apart from human labour all other inputs are
specific data based on the contextual practice in
Bangladesh.
LCA analysis is a complex procedure and it
requires a large number of data from every stage
of manufacturing. Due to the large amount of
data required to perform an LCA, it is
recommended to use a software application that
makes the study much more efficient. (Uso,
Scarpellini, & Bribia, 2009) At present, there are
various assessment applications on the market
and they allow LCA studies to be carried out to
various degrees of detail. (Grace K.C. Ding, 2007) In
deciding which program to use, Simapro was
selected for study as they are general purpose
LCA software and were found to be most
commonly used LCA software for research
published in the journal as covered in Figure 5.
Simapro is product system modelling and
assessment software released in 1990, and is
also sold worldwide; Simapro is developed and
distributed by Pre-Consultants, based in the
Netherlands.(PreSustainability,n.d.)(Herrmann&Moltes
en,2015).
4. LCA Result Analysis and Discussion
The EPD (Environmental Product Declaration)
2013 method was used to study impact
assessment categories as ozone layer,
ecotoxicity, acidification and eutrophication. This
method is the successor of EPD (2008) and is to
be used for the creation of Environmental
Product Declarations (EPDs), as published on
the website of the Swedish Environmental
Management Council (SEMC). As a document
designed to meet all the requirements of ISO
14025, an EPD offers an international standard
of communication, and is a summary report of all
data collected in the LCA as specified by the
PCR.
Figure 5: Communicative Energy Demand
method for the assessment of EE in Simapro.
For Ecological and Water Footprint, Eco-
indicator was implemented. Eco-indicator 99
method is one of the most widely used impact
assessment methods in LCA. It is the successor
of Eco-indicator 95, the first endpoint impact
assessment method, which allowed the
environmental load of a product to be expressed
in a single score. The emission from fossil fuel
combustion has been estimated by the following
IPCC 2013 (Inter Governmental Panel on
Climate Change) guidelines. IPCC 2013 is the
successor of the IPCC 2007 method, which was
developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on
Climate Change. It contains the climate change
factors of IPCC with a timeframe of 100 years,
Where Total emissions = (Actual fuel
consumption)*(emission factor)*(Fraction of
carbon/ sulphur /nitrogen oxidized)*(Molecular
weight ratio).
For the analysis of EE, the method used in the
study is Communicative Energy Demand. This
model provides breakdown fuel use. This is
based on the fuel inputs across the system and
includes fossil, renewable, nuclear, biomass and
other energy sources. The model also provide a
total sum of energy based on both low and high
heating values. The breakdown of energy
systems is given in lower heating values. Lower
heating values (also known as net heating
values) are the amount of energy available from
combustion of a fuel without recovering energy
associated with water condensing vapour
produced in the combustion
process both from moisture in the fuel (especially
for coals) and water produced as a result of
combustion. High heating values (also referred to
as gross heating value) includes the recovery of
energy associated with condensing of the vapor
and recapture of the latent heat of vaporization.
Figure 6: represents the process of analysis of
EE of Burnt clay brick.
The impact assessment result derived from
Simapro 8.1 is summarized in Table: 3
As the most used building material in the context
of Bangladesh, Evaluating the environmental
sustainability of Burnt Clay Brick is the aim of this
research. From literature it is seen that Burnt clay
brick is assessed by various researchers,
however, mostly depending on emission factors.
A few were focused on EE. Evaluating a material
toward environmental sustainability should have
a multiple approach, having an assessment of
EE and their other damaging and consumption
factors. An evolution away from energy supply
options, high GHG emissions is an essential
component of a sustainable global energy
system. Reducing GHG emissions will also lower
emissions of unhealthy air pollutants and can
increase energy security through increases in
energy efficiency and diversification of energy
supply. (Ginley, David S.; Cahen, 2012) The
present study evaluates EE, water consumption
and emissions to evaluate environmental
sustainability of burnet clay brick. For the
assessment a comparison table is conducted,
comparing EE between other researches and
Table 3: EE and IA of Burnet Clay Brick (Produced in Bangladesh)
Ref.
Unit
PEI Primary
Energy [MJ]
Non-
Renewable
GWP
Global Warming
Potential
[kgCo2eq]
ODP Ozone
Depletion
[kg R11 eq]
AP
Acidificati
on
[kgSo2eq]
EP
Eutrophicati
on
[KgPO4eq]
Ecologic
al
Footprin
t
Water
Footpri
nt
1kg
1.0025
1.41E-3
3.87E-10
7.1E-9
1.26E-11
1.43E-6
2.24 E -
11
Metho
d
Communicativ
e Energy
Demand
EPD (2013) V1.01
EPD (2013)
V1.01
EPD (2013)
V1.01
EPD (2013)
V1.01
Eco
Indicator
99
Eco
Indicato
r 99
current study. Table 4 illustrates the comparison
of EE from different contexts and literature.
From the comparison of table 4 it is seen that the
Burnt Clay Brick produced in Bangladesh using
BTK technology has the lowest amount of EE
considering neighbouring countries and as well
as with other international context. Based on EE
of Burnt Clay Brick in Bangladesh can be
considered as less energy intensive. The data
used for simulation were collected from onsite
surveying from three different brick fields.
Considering a breakdown of each energy driven
sector, electrical energy input used in the
database has been simulated under Australian
electricity production framework. Which might
have caused an inaccurate result in the net EE of
brick in the specific research context. However,
figure 7 shows a breakdown of broad category of
each energy inputs and it depicts
that the amount of electrical energy in the
production is significantly lower. Therefore,
electrical energy input has a very minimum
contribution on net EE value of the simulation. As
a result, in the present study 1.0025MJ/KG EE
can be considered as a reliable value for burnet
clay brick in Bangladesh. Human labour
dependent industry, available source of raw
material and less transport energy has turned the
local brick in Bangladesh an energy efficient
material. Water footprint measured in the
research also found in a very low amount, 2.24 E
-11 kg per kg of brick, which has minimum impact
on global water system.
Figure 7: Breakdown of each energy input in the
simulation.
Figure 8: A comparison of emission factors between
present study and previous research result adopted from
(Procedia et al., 2014)
Table 4 and Figure 6: Comparison of EE of Burnt Clay Brick between different contexts.
Birmingham, 18-19 December. Leeds: Institute for Large Businesses
Reference
Context
and
Technology
PEI [MJ]/kg
(http://www.greenspec.co.uk/building-
design/embodied-energy/)
UK
3
(Pellegrino, Thakur, Guha, & Simonetti,
2011)
Kolkata
4.5
(Hashemi, Cruickshank, & Cheshmehzangi,
2015)
Uganda
2.85
India
2.96
(Praseeda, Reddy, & Mani, 2015)
India
2.5
(Praseeda et al., 2015)
India
1.27
Present Study
Bangladesh
1.0025
On the other hand, emissions from the
production are a poses threat on environment
and human health. Among the emissions factors
a few are substantial in the production of burnt
clay brick. Global Warming Potential (GWP) and
Ozone Layer Depletion (ODP) factor measured
from the study is 1.41E-3 and 3.87E-10, where
value of GWP is a considerable amount in term
of environmental damage. The other relevant
researches, for example (Procedia, Bombay, &
Bombay, 2014) also constitutes the emission as the
biggest percentage of all releases to the atmosphere.
However, AP (Acidification) and EP (Eutrophication)
was seen higher value that the present study. Figure 8
represents a comparison of emission factors between
present study and previous research result (Procedia
et al., 2014).
Conclusion
The current paper deals in depth with EE of
Burnet Clay Brick in Bangladesh. Among the
other basic building materials brick can be
appraised as a much energy efficient choice. For
example, (Praseeda et al., 2015) assessed a
bunch of construction materials and reported the
EE of Aluminium 141.55 MJ/Kg, Glass 7.88
MJ/Kg, whereas they measured Brick 1.2-4.05
MJ/Kg. The present study found the EE of brick
1.005 MJ/Kg, which is 50% lower than the
recognized earlier researches. Generally,
manufacturing of construction materials involves
use of both electrical energy and thermal energy.
Brick production in BTK technology mostly
consumes thermal energy. Due to the very
minimum electric energy used and human labour
based production, brick has a very lower amount
of resource consumption. In term of the range of
building materials, brick in the context of
Bangladesh is a highly energy efficient choice
However, study shows that brick technology has
a substantial amount of emission, which lead to
the global warming potential. Other emission
factors are apparently lower, but has a least
amount of impact on human and environment.
The emission factors often relates to the
technology and efficiency of fuel used. There is
an urgent need to mitigate emissions from the
production of Brick in Bangladesh.
Comparison of EE values that literature reveals
from different contexts and the present study has
a wide variation. It is highly impracticable to
arrive at a single unique value for EE of any
building material. EE estimate of a material
relates to the specific technology to the specific
context. Therefore, each material should be
assessed individually for its feasibility in term of
environmental sustainability.
Assessment of Burnt Clay Brick in Bangladesh is
represented as a range of consumption,
emission and damaging factors. Thus, the
current study provides most required
environmental indicators of Brick and
consumption scenario and thereby serves as a
methodology and database to support future
studies, reporting on EE for building materials
and helps the relevant professionals to appraise
brick as a building material for sustainable
practice.
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This paper presents monitoring results of daily brick kiln stack emission and the derived emission factors. Emission of individual air pollutant varied significantly during a firing batch (7 days) and between kilns. Average emission factors per 1,000 bricks were 6.35-12.3 kg of CO, 0.52-5.9 kg of SO(2) and 0.64-1.4 kg of particulate matter (PM). PM emission size distribution in the stack plume was determined using a modified cascade impactor. Obtained emission factors and PM size distribution data were used in simulation study using the Industrial Source Complex Short-Term (ISCST3) dispersion model. The model performance was successfully evaluated for the local conditions using the simultaneous ambient monitoring data in 2006 and 2007. SO(2) was the most critical pollutant, exceeding the hourly National Ambient Air Quality Standards over 63 km(2) out of the 100-km(2) modelled domain in the base case. Impacts of different emission scenarios on the ambient air quality (SO(2), PM, CO, PM dry deposition flux) were assessed.
Chapter
The construction industry is one of the largest exploiters of both renewable and non-renewable natural resources. It was inevitable that it would find itself at the centre of concerns regarding environmental impact. The process and operation of building construction consumes a great deal of materials throughout its service life cycle. The selection and use of sustainable building materials play an important role in the design and construction of green building. This chapter sets out to present an overview of sustainable building materials and their impacts on the environment. It also discusses the life cycle assessment as a methodological principle and framework, and its limitations for the analysis of sustainable building materials.
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This paper provides a detailed examination of the energy and greenhouse emissions associated with the on-site construction of a selection of alternative wood, steel and concrete structural assemblies. The primary objective of the work is to ascertain the relative proportion that the construction process represents of the total initial embodied energy and greenhouse gas emissions and whether there are significant differences between the structural material alternatives.
The Asian Regional Research Programme in Energy
  • M Chadwick
Chadwick, M. (n.d.). The Asian Regional Research Programme in Energy, Environment and Climate -ARRPEEC.