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This document has been setup to providing fundamentals of Geology in Sri Lanka. More than 90% of Sri Lanka's surface lies on Precambrian strata, some of it dating back 2 billion years. The granulite facies rocks of the Highland Series (gneisses, sillimanite-graphite gneisses, quartzite, marbles, and some charnockites) make up most of the island and the amphibolite facies gneisses, granites, and granitic gneisses of the Vinjayan Series occur in the eastern and southeastern lowlands. Jurassic sediments are present today in very small areas near the western coast and Miocene limestones underlie the northwestern part of the country and extend south in a relatively narrow belt along the west coast. The metamorphic rock surface was created by the transformation of ancient sediments under intense heat and pressure during mountain-building processes. The theory of plate tectonics suggests that these rocks and related rocks forming most of south India were part of a single southern landmass called Gondwanaland. Beginning about 200 million years ago, forces within the Earth's mantle began to separate the lands of the Southern Hemisphere, and a crustal plate supporting both India and Sri Lanka moved toward the northeast. About 45 million years ago, the Indian plate collided with the Asian landmass, raising the Himalayas in northern India, and continuing to advance slowly to the present time. Sri Lanka does not experience earthquakes or major volcanic events because it rides on the center of the plate. The island contains relatively limited strata of sedimentation surrounding its ancient uplands. Aside from recent deposits along river valleys, only two small fragments of Jurassic (140 to 190 million years ago) sediment occur in Puttalam District, while a more extensive belt of Miocene (5 to 20 million years ago) limestone is found along the northwest coast, overlain in many areas by Pleistocene (1 million years ago) deposits. The northwest coast is part of the deep Cauvery (Kaveri) River Basin of southeast India, which has been collecting sediments from the highlands of India and Sri Lanka since the breakup of Gondwanaland
The first account of Ceylon Precambrian was done by Wadia (1929). He was instrumental in
completing the draft geological map covers entire Sri Lanka, although some work had been
previously by Ananda Coomaraswamy (1903,1904,). Coates (1935) made more systematic
clarification of rock. Most of the geological work in the early times was based on
morphological variation with less weight on mineralogical & petrological identification. The
geological knowledge of Sri Lanka was able to mark a substantial improvement after intensive
geological mapping and the structural analyses of rock unit late sixties. Improvement of the
understanding of Sri Lanka geology was facilitated further by the addition of scientific
explanation to the field knowledge gained earlier.
Adam ‘s Three Peneplains Theory
The idea of the geology of Sri Lanka was initially come from the morphology of Sri Lankan
terrain and peneplains concept. A peneplains is defined as a “Plain” produced by a long period
of weathering and erosion. The geo morphology of Sri Lanka can best be described as three
major peneplain as described by Frank Dawson Adams in 1929. The lowest peneplains
surrounds the central hill country in all side, and is a flat, sometimes gently undulating plain
stretching to the coast. It has as average height of less than 30m. But the rise around 90 m to
120m above sea level at the inland boundary. The middle peneplain rises from this inner edge
of the lower peneplain in a steep step of about 300m, and reaches a maximum elevation of
760m above sea level: it is best seen in the south and east of the island. Within it and rising
from it in another steep step of 910m to 1200m is the highest peneplain at a general level of
1500 m to 1800m, but rising at some places up to 2100m to 2450m. The all three peneplains
towards the south can best be viewed from Beragala junction in Haputhalaee. Adams though
that the highest peneplain was the oldest of the three and that the island has been rising thought
out its geological history in a slow vertical movement, exposing more and more land to
atmospheric erosion and denudation.
The highest peneplain is least like a peneplain composed of complex plateaus, mountain
chains, massifs and basins. The southern margin of the heist peneplain is demarcated and
Horton plains, Elk plains, Moon plain (Nuwara- Eliya), Kandapola, Sita eliya plains and
comprised of southern mountain in Sri Lanka. ( Piduruthalagala, Kirigal poththa, Thotupola).
The southern margin of the highest peneplain is demarcated by the Adam’s Peak in the west,
Namunukula mountain in the east world’s end in the south Ramboda- Pussellawa in the north
east. The boundary between highest peneplain and the middle peneplain can best be observed
at the world’s end. Number of waterfalls like Diyaluma and Bambarakanda, drops over its
edges to the middle peneplain. Two cliffs, namely Haputhale Gap are also resulted from the
steep rice from middle to highest peneplain.
Moon Plain © Aravinda Ravibhanu 2013
Escarpments can be observed in many places defining the boundary between the middle and
lower peneplains. Hairpin bends at Kandy- Mahiyangana road mark the northern boundary
whereas, the steep east facing escarps of the Knuckles massif demarcate the north west
boundary. As one looks southwards from the Beragala Juntion, Uggalkaltota escarpment can
be seen. Uggalkalthota escarpment separates second and third peneplain at the south of Sri
Lanka. Alagalla, near Rambukkana- Kadugannawa separates the Kandy plateau from the
lowest peneplain at the south west. The lowest peneplain stretches from coast to coast in the
north part of Sri Lanka and from Trincomalee to Hambanthota at the east and the south. Same
features of lowest peneplain can be observed in the western Sri Lanka as well. Some isolated
hills, popularly known as erosional remnants can be observed in the third peneplain (Ex.
Sigiriya, Yapahuwa ect.)
Wadia’s Block Uplift Theory
During the times of D.N.Wadiya, who acted as the Gov mineralogist of Ceylon, had written a
Memo in 1941 suggesting the highland were formed comparatively later by the vertical uplift
of the large block of crust along very large faults, in terms of “Block Uplift”. In contrast, he
proposed that the highest peneplain is the youngest, not the oldest as Adams suggested.
Formation of Three Peneplains: Block Uplift
Wadiya recognized two-fold rock sequences; lower Vijaya series (igneous rock) and upper
Khondalite series (metamorphosed sedimentary rock).He believed the coates(1935) idea, much
younger Khondalite series is associated with Sri Lankan highlands whereas older Vijayan
series located at the lowland. The idea of coates was nicely matched with wadia’s story of block
uplift, which can be used to interpret the formation of Khondalite series as younger group.
Wadia recognized that Charnockites granites and zircon granites as parts of the Vijaya gneiss.
In the late forties geologists were in a point that recognition of rock types are important than
recognition of Sri Lankan basement as a whole. Fernando (1948) came with a suggestion to
the wadia’s theory which suggested that the Vijaya gneisses are basement rock of the
Khondalight found in the central hills. He further suggested that the gneisses found in Sri
Lankan basement were not uniform and preferred to classify them as heterogeneous basement
were not components.
Sri Lankan geology has received increasing attention in the last two decades. The early and
late 1980’s geological works done by Japanese and German research group led by Prof. M
Yashida & Prof . A. Kroner respectively shew new units, on the Sri Lankan Geology. As a
result of this nomenclature of the rock units, as described in the special issue of the Journal of
Precambrian Research on emphasis on Sri Lanka, is now used as the latest account on the
Geology of Sri Lanka
Geological trail of Sri Lanka has been extended to until Archean eon (4000 Mya2500
Mya). Between the latest Proterozoic and the early Mesozoic, Sri Lanka occupied an internal
position within Gondwana Sri Lanka’s geological evolution during this period is poorly
constrained since unlike the juxtaposed fragments of India, East Africa, Madagascar and East
Antarctica where break-up related extension caused intense brittle deformation only sparse
tectonic and/or igneous processes were detected so far. The dispersal of Gondwana started
during the Permo-Carboniferous with the opening of intracontinental rift basins and extension
culminated during Jurassic Cretaceous times. Seafloor anomalies within the Mozambique
Basin ( 158 Ma) and south of Sri Lanka (134 Ma) document oceanic crust formation during the
separation of the Madagascar/India/Sri Lanka block, East Africa and East Antarctica.
Following the initial opening of the proto Indian Ocean, the India/Sri Lanka/Seychelles block
sheared off Madagascar and started to move northward, as recorded by late Cretaceous to
middle Eocene episodes of seafloor spreading and late Cretaceous volcanism. At _65 Ma the
India/ Sri Lanka/Seychelles block finally broke apart when India and Sri Lanka were rifted
away from the Seychelles along the Carlsberg. The collision of India and Eurasia since _50 Ma
finished the extensional phase, seafloor spreading decelerated, and Sri Lanka reached its
present isolated position. In eastern Sri Lanka the first signs of Mesozoic tectonic and igneous
activity is dated between _143Ma and 170 Ma by K-Ar whole rock and Ar/Ar biotite ages from
doleritic dykes. However, scattered occurrences of sedimentary rocks belonging to the Jurassic,
Miocene and Quaternary ages can also be observed within the basement complex. From among
sedimentary sequences in the island, Jurassic rocks are confined to isolated faulted basins in
the Tabbowa, Andigama, and Pallama in the north-western region. The Tabbowa rocks mainly
consist of well-bedded feldspathic sandstones, arkoses, siltstones and mudstones. The
Andigama and Pallama beds mainly consist of brown shales and black carbonaceous shales
with streaks of coal.
The supercontinent Rodinia was formed 900 million years ago and started to break apart about 150 million years
later. Some of its fragments reassembled to form Gondwanaland, which later became part of the supercontinent
Pangaea. South America, Africa, Madagascar, India, Sri Lanka, Antarctica, and Australia were once connected in
Gondwanaland. Adapted from Li et al. (2008) and Dissanayake and Chandrajith (1999)
The Basement Geology of Sri Lanka
The basement complex of Sri Lanka is composed mainly of high-grade metamorphic rocks of
the Proterozoic age, consisting of a variety of ortho- and para-gneisses formed under
amphibolite to granulite facies conditions. Based on the lithology, mineralogy, major and minor
structures, field relationships and the crust formation ages, this basement complex (Cooray,
1994) is dominated by three distinct striking tectonic provinces called the Highland, Wanni
and Vijayan complexes and the central circuit Kadugannava complex. Highland Complex is
the largest unit and forms the backbone of the Precambrian rocks. It consists of a
Paleoproterozoic supracrustal assemblage and granitoid rocks that underwent granulite grade
metamorphism and charnockitization during late Neoproterozoic/early Cambrian orogeny
(540550 Ma). The Wanni Complex NW of the Highland Complex comprises a suite of
gneisses and granites, along with a variety of amphibolite to granulite facies rocks with a
highland-type late NeoproterozoicCambrian tectonic history. The Kadugannava Complex in
the center of the island is dominated by hornblende bearing gneisses whereas the Vijayan
Complex in the east mainly consists of amphibolite facies gneisses and meta sediments. The
marked difference in rock types, metamorphic grades, timing of deformation and nature of the
tectonic contact between the Highland/Wanni and the Vijayan complexes suggest that they
were juxtaposed during final assembly of Gondwana.
Geological map of Sri Lanka
The Highland Complex(HC), a n association of interlayered, predominantly
granulite- facies, granitoid gneisses ( metamorphosed igneous rock orthogneisses )
and clastic to calcareous shallow water metasedimentary (metamorphosed
sedimentary rock para-gneisses) .The gneisses were ubiquitously intruded by mafic
dykes that are now structurally concordant(layered parallel to gneissic) with their host
rocks. The HC consist mainly of interbedded meta perlites, quartzite, marble,
metabasites and charnockites. Calc- silicate gneisses, sapphirine bearing gr anulites,
cordierite bearing gneisses and corundum bearing gneisses are exposed in minor
quantities. Some granulite are exposed in the southern part of VC near Buttala and
Katharagama. They comprise rocks similar to those of HC and are interpreted as
tectonic nappes namely:Buttala klippe, Katharagama klippe, Kuda oya klippe.
The Wanni Complex (WC), an upper amphibolite to granulite- facies
assemblage of 770- 1100 Ma granitoid, grabbroic, charnockitic and enderbitic
gneisses, migmatites, minor clastic meat sediments, including garnet- cordierite
gneisses, as well as late to post tectonic granites. The Characteristic feature of rock
in Wanni Complex is the absence of thick marble and quartzite bands, which is the
dominant feature in HC. The Vijayan Complex(VC) , an upper amphibolites- facies
suite of 1000 -1030 Ma calc alkaline granitoid gneisses, including augen- gneisses,
with minor amphibolites layers (derived from mafic dykes) and sedimentary xenoliths
such as metaquartzite and calc silicate rock. The Kadugannawa Complex (KC),
rock of the Kadugannawa complex are seen in the cores of the six doubly plunging
synforms, which were name as Arenas by Vithange (1972). The dominant rocks of
the KC are hornblende biotite gneisses, granitic, grandioritic and tonalitic
association, which are identical, rock types of the WC as well. In some recent
publications, Kadugannawa complex is included in the WC because of this similarity.
The rock from VC,WC, and KC, which are predominantly of orthogneisses, yield
relatively younger deposition ages at 1.1 Ma ago. This implies that igneous activity
had occurred after the deposition of rock of HC .
Igneous Rock of Sri Lanka.
Rocks with igneous origin are very rarely exploded in the Sri Lanka crust. The series of
serpentinites (ultramafic igneous rock) are reported in many places especially along the
HC/VC boundary in Ussangoda & Ginigalpelessa. Ussangoda has one of largest serpentine
outcrops of the five known occurrences in the HC/VC geological boundary(three of those
serpentinites area of Sri Lanka are Ginigalpelessa & Indikolapelessa both close to
Udawalawa and Ussangoda near Nonagama junction). This tectonic boundary stretches
from the SE coast curving in NE direction to the coast in Trincomalee. It is suggested that
the HC plate had been over thrusted over VC during the Pan- Africa event (The event
called the collision of East and West Gondwana). This model explains that during or after
the period of over thrusting, the serpentinite rich ultramafic magma was intruded to the
crust and believes to be formed green colored serpentinites rock including Ussangoda,
Serpentinites. It seems that from the Cambrian to the early Permian, Sri Lankan
Precambrian crust underwater magmatic activities, after the peak event occurring in the
late Jurassic to early cretaceous, forming the series of ultramafic rock along the HC/VC
boundary. The carbonate rich rock from carbonatite magma occurs as several low hills
at Eppawala. This deposit is now popularly know as “Eppawala Apatite Deposit” . Several
Dolerite dikes of igneous origin are present on the eastern side of the island, intrusive into
the best know being Galllodai dike near welikanda. The pure intrusive granites are
reported to be found in many places including Tonigala, Ambagaspitiya and Arangala, but
later confirmed that they have been metamorphosed too some extent in the recent times.
Sedimentary Deposits in Sri Lanka
Jurassic Deposits: After the Permian age, there is no evidence for any kind of deposition in
Sri Lankan crust, perhaps the agitated environment during that period may prevent any thick
deposition, Collision of plates or continuous subduction or obduction of lithospheric plates
may prevent such deposition. In Sri Lanka such deltaic deposits are found as three small basin.
This is the next immediate deposition reported after resting the Precambrian crust in the calm
environment. Sediments were deposited in the early Jurassic period forming the siltstone,
mudstone and arkosic sandstone now exposed on the Thabbowa, Andigama and Pallama, The
beds are faulted into the Wanni complex basement rocks as horst and graben structure.
Miocene Deposits in Sri Lanka : After the Jurassic rocks formed. Little has happened
geologically to the Sri Lankan crust unit about 20 Ma. The northern and north western
part were submerged under the sea during the detachment of the Indian Peninsula with Sri
Lankan crust in the Miocene epoch. A thick series of sediment, mostly the a fossiliferous
limestone was then deposited, which we now know see underlying the whole of the Jaffna
peninsula and surrounding island and the north western coastal belt extending southwards
to beyond puttalm. This is popularly known as Wanathawilluwa limestone, and it is almost
flat bedded in highly fossiliferous with gastropods, and foraminifera. A small deposit of
miocenc rock is present at Minihagalkanda on the coast. The Miocene rocks rest
unconformably on the eroded basement of the crystalline complex. These rocks exhibit a
range of sedimentary structures, produced by soft sediment deformation. They from minor
features, such as the hills at Arukakkalu and Kudriramalai. Outcrops of limestone are also
well exposed in the Parappukkadantan and Adampan area on the mainland near Mannar
island. Sediment similar to Tabbowa, Adigama, Pallama beds were recently found to be
present in the drill cores in the mannar area, lying below 10 meters of Miocene beds. It is
still possible that these types of deposits of Jurassic age may exist in the faulted basins
within the crystalline basement, hidden by latter deposits of Miocene and Quaternary age.
Quaternary Deposits: Formation of laterite belongs to Pleistocene epoch . The laterite is
a mottled deep red, yellow, or reddish brown ferruginous earth showing vesicular
structure, the vesicles (cavities within the rock) are often lined by paler material. It is
extensively developed in Colombo district and long the southwest coast, extending down
to Mathara & Thangalla. The laterite is clearly the alteration product of underlying
crystalline rocks due to fluctuation of water table which dissolve silicate minerals while
keeping iron- bearing minerals in the lateritic profile. Fluctuation of water table is high in
the wet zone of Sri Lanka and hence laterites are mostly observed in the wet zone. The
typical laterite profile shows the transition from partly decomposed granites or gneisses
through an intermediate zone of kaolin and angular quartz to the typical cellular laterites
of high porosity and permeability, usually capped by loose layer of small ferruginous
Panthera tigris or Panthera leo sinhaleyus (Fossil No PSLSA02) Canine tooth in right lower
mandible. Location- Galukagama MahaEla, Puwakattaovita (Gem Pit) Kuruwita, Sri Lanka ©
Aravinda & Kamal et al 2015
         
  (Archean Eon-4000 Mya2500 Mya)   . 
(Neoproterozoic1000 Mya541 Mya)      
         (Igneous
processes)     (Spares tectonic)  
.         
   (Orogenic belts)  
   .   (East Gondwana -
550 Mya  180 Mya)        () 
  (Tectonic dispersal)       
 .         
  .       
        ()    ,
  50          
 .         
     ,    (Uplift) 
       (Basement rock data)  
  (Crystallization data),   (Isotopic analysis [A]),
  (Geochronological analysis [B]),   (Geochemical
analysis [C])"    (Petrological analysis [D])  
 (Thermochronology analysis [E])     
        .   :
  (HC-3000 Mya 2200 Mya)"   (WC-2000Mya - 1000Mya)"
  (VC-2000 Mya 1000 Mya)"   (VC-2000 Mya 1000
Mya)"      .      
         
     (Jurassic-201Mya-145 Mya),  (Miocene-23.05
Mya-5.3 Mya)  (Pleistocene-2.58 Mya - 0.012 Mya)    
    .      
     ,   (Ratnapura
Formation)=,   (Iranamadu Deposits)=    /  
 (Wetland caves/Open habitats)    , A,B,C,D,E  
         
(Multi-proxy climate data in palaeo)     ( 
  ,  ).    (Harbor Life )  
(Celestial Sphere)    (Earth Precision)   
 .
There are five major complexes in Sri Lanka (Cooray 1994). Highland complex, The
Vijayan Complex, The Wanni Complex, The Kadugannawa Complex, Limestone
complex. The rock units found in Sri Lanka crust are described here in the chronological
order with their probable origin during the breakup of the Gondwana. More than 90 percent
of rock found in the Sri Lanka rocks are belongs to crystalline metamorphic rock with
Precambrian age. Since then some deposition were recorded according to the geological
timescale with some unconformities.
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volume of Stalagmite & Stalagtites Rakwana, Sri Lanka. Unpublished.
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Processing Biological Composition (Micro Fossils): A Review on Metamorphic and Sedimentary Petrology of
Polonnaruwa (Sri Lanka) Meteorite Stone. Retrieved June 19, 2019, from
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Processing Biological Composition (Micro Fossils): A Review on Metamorphic and Sedimentary Petrology of
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Danigala Rock is a unique geological site situated near Kandegama at Polonnaruwa district. The aerial view of the rock shows a semi-circular shape, which was affected by geological weathering. The northwest slope part of Danigala inselberg has interesting petroglyphs discovered in Chithra Lena (7°41'0.44"N | 81°12'45.66"E). These symbols are relatively new and, for the first time, discovered in Sri Lanka during an archaeoastronomical survey conducted by Eco Astronomy Sri Lanka in a corporation with Central Cultural Fund (Polonnaruwa-Alahana Parivena Project). These petroglyphs, now perceived and assessed as art, are mute science prints of ancient cultural vestiges of a bygone society. The predominant forms found are partially similar with few forms found in some sites in Sri Lanka, but with distinct differences in the engraving process. Notably, samples of the bind rune coding of Danigala petroglyphs are quite similar to bind rune’s symbols of Shamanic cultures. Besides, the engraving technique is remarkably similar to the technique used in the petroglyphs of Edakkal Caves in India. This paper is an attempt to document and analyze this bind rune coding in purpose to uncover the archaeo-astronomical meaning and the historical beliefs.
Technical Report
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Puttalam Coal Power Plant named after the location where it is located in the Puttalam District of the Northwestern Province in Sri-Lanka. An important national asset as symbolically it is not only the very first coal fired power plant in Sri-Lanka but also the largest in terms of capacity with a total output of 900MW that incorporated and operational as early as in 2010. Among which cooling or condenser water is paramount importance in part of the power generation process. Strategically power plants are commonly located by the sea or coastal area to take advantage of the abundant of seawater source as cooling water. Puttalam power plant is no exception and it is taking huge amount of seawater to cater for the cooling purpose considering its scale. To achieve this, purposely built seawater transferring channel is required and in the context of Puttalam Power Plant, seawater is transferred via concrete culverts measuring 3m x 3m and run approximately 400m long before it reaches the pump house. There are 3 separate culverts serving each power station. However, whenever seawater is involved biological fouling can happen inevitably and this implies that separate fouling control mechanism has to be in placed along the seawater intake channel to prevent the growth of marine organisms that could potentially disrupt the power generation process. Commonly the disruption arises due to constricted flow when the channel is fouled hence reduce the net cross-sectional area of flow transferring channel or worse it can lead to the choking of condenser heat exchanger tubes when there is a lapse in fouling control attributed to ineffective treatment. At times, bio fouling can lead to more complex issue like under deposit corrosion which can cause leakages of process flow and exacerbate the condition further. Consequently, this may even lead to abrupt plant shut down that could have detrimental effect to the macro-economy but also the associated cost of maintaining and restoring to working condition can be exorbitant. In view of the occurrences of bio-fouling and its severity it might be, Puttalam Coal Power Plant is therefore seeking a more cost effective solution that is not only effective and consistent in controlling bio-fouling but also environmentally friendly to address the bio-fouling issue to their seawater intake channel made of concrete culverts. To meet this objectives, proprietary BioMag system encompasses the Ultra Low Frequency electromagnetic wave technology is being proposed.
The knowledge of Martian geology has increased enormously in the last 40 yr. Several missions orbiting or roving Mars have revolutionized our understanding of its evolution and geological features, which in several ways are similar to Earth, but are extremely different in many respects. The impressive dichotomy between the two Martian hemispheres is most likely linked to its impact cratering history, rather than internal dynamics such as on Earth. Mars’ volcanism has been extensive, very longlived and rather constant in its setting. Water was available in large quantities in the distant past of Mars, when a magnetic field and more vigorous tectonics were active. Exogenic forces have been shaping Martian landscapes and have led to a plethora of landscapes shaped by wind, water and ice. Mars’ dynamical behavior continues, with its climatic variation affecting climate and geology until very recent times.
This document is profiling importance of the artificial glacier & molding geometry via pagoda. Artificial glaciation is a practice carried out in the Hindu Kush and Himalaya regions aimed at creating small new glaciers to increase water supply for crops and in some cases to sustain micro hydro power. This is formed by piping mountain stream water into a vertical pipe. The stream water is collected from a source at a higher altitude than the ice stupa site so gravity pushes it down the pipe. Because water will always maintain its level, it will always reach the same height as the source. Apart from solving the irrigation problem, the artificial glaciers help in the recharging of ground water and rejuvenation of springs. They enable farmers to harvest two crops in a year, help in developing pastures for cattle rearing and reducing water sharing disputes among the farmers. Geometrical shape of pagoda is so important to gradually melting event of Artificial Ice Stupa.
Technical Report
This document is profiling importance of the artificial glacier & molding geometry via pagoda. Artificial glaciation is a practice carried out in the Hindu Kush and Himalaya regions aimed at creating small new glaciers to increase water supply for crops and in some cases to sustain micro hydro power. This is formed by piping mountain stream water into a vertical pipe. The stream water is collected from a source at a higher altitude than the ice stupa site so gravity pushes it down the pipe. Because water will always maintain its level, it will always reach the same height as the source. Apart from solving the irrigation problem, the artificial glaciers help in the recharging of ground water and rejuvenation of springs. They enable farmers to harvest two crops in a year, help in developing pastures for cattle rearing and reducing water sharing disputes among the farmers. Geometrical shape of pagoda is so important to gradually melting event of Artificial Ice Stupa.
Technical Report
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Challenges of integrating astronomical research into the general enterprise in multidisciplinary astronomy, the committee realized that the issue of integration was broader and generic to this intrinsically interdisciplinary subject—that is, astrophysics is but one of many disciplines that need to be brought to bear on multidisciplinary approach in astronomy. It decided to attempt to address some of these more generic issues of fostering a healthy interdisciplinary interaction among fields that are themselves so complex that they require a focused, reductive approach. The committee has identified three factors that currently limit the integration of astronomy and astrophysics with astrobiology and, indeed, that limit the integration of robust interdisciplinary research of any kind: (1) a lack of common goals and interests, (2) lack of a common language, and (3) insufficient background in allied fields on the part of experts to allow them to do useful interdisciplinary work. This report has been systemically profiling to general enterprise approach via multidisciplinary astronomy & effectivity of sustainable development on behalf of it
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A controversial theory that suggests an extraterrestrial body crashing to Earth almost 12,800 years ago caused the extinction of many large animals and a probable population decline in early humans is gaining traction from research sites around the world. The Younger Dryas Impact Hypothesis, controversial from the time, it was presented in 2007, proposes that an asteroid or comet hit the Earth about 12,800 years ago causing a period of extreme temperature variation that contributed to extinctions many species of megafauna. As focusing study for developing onshore Digital Elevation Model (DEM) to predict paleo sea level drop around 12800 years before present in Sri Lankan coastal based on comparative systematic analysis of proxy to indicate Younger Dryas cooling in late Pleistocene. Model of DEM implement from images of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) platform which able to examine the location images of beach rock & eroded cut in an enfield coastal sandy soil along the coastline of Sri Lanka. Resulting of systemic comparison in modern data platform which evaluated from proxy ( pCO2 , SSTMg/Ca, alkalinity), images of UAV in between carbon dating relevant to quaternary research in sri lanka and milankovitch cycle, able to reveled as conclusion, sea level fluctuation (26000ybp ) of 7.5 meters and has been reduced to 2.5 m in Younger Dryas cooling period of late Pleistocene Sri Lanka.
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සුවිශේෂී භූ විද්‍යාත්මක පසුබිමක් සහිත ශ‍්‍රී ලංකාවේ භූ විද්‍යාත්මක පුරාණ නිර්මාණ පරිසරය ආකීය යුගය (Archean Eon-4000 Mya–2500 Mya) දක්වා විහිදී යයි. නියෝප්‍රොටෙරොසොයික (Neoproterozoic–1000 Mya–541 Mya) වකවානුව තුළ ශ‍්‍රී ලංකාවේ භූ පිහිටීම ආශ‍්‍රිතව ක‍්‍රියාත්මක වූ ද්‍රවමය අවස්ථාවේ වූ ආග්නේය පාෂාණ වල ක‍්‍රියා හා ප‍්‍රතික‍්‍රියා (Igneous processes) හේතුවෙන් භූ කොටස් ඉලාස්ටික් භු තැටි (Sparse tectonic) තත්ත්වයට පත්වීම සිදුවිය. එම නිසා ශ‍්‍රි ලංකාව ආශ‍්‍රිත භූ පරිණාම ක‍්‍රියාවලිය දුර්වල වුවද නියෝප්‍රොටෙරොසොයික පර්වතකාරක තීරුවල (Orogenic belts) ක‍්‍රියාකාරිත්වය හේතුවෙන් ක‍්‍රමානුකූලව ස්ථාවර තත්ත්වයකට පත්විය. නැගෙනහිර ගොන්ඞ්වානා හි (East Gondwana - 550 Mya සිට 180 Mya) ආංශික කොටසක්ව පැවති ශ‍්‍රී ලංකාව ආශ‍්‍රිත භූ කොටස් (ස්කන්ධ) තව දුරටත් ප‍්‍රචාරණය (Tectonic dispersal) වීම අන්තර් මහද්වීපික ද්‍රෝණි විවෘත වීමත් සමග ආරම්භ විය. ශ‍්‍රී ලංකාවේ දකුණුදිග මුහුදු තීරයේ බොහෝ භූ විෂමතා ඉහත ක‍්‍රියාවලියේ ප‍්‍රතිඵලයක් ලෙස ඇතිවිය. ඉන්දියන් සාගරයේ මූලික ආරම්භයත් සමග තවදුරටත් උතුරු දෙසට චලනය වූ ශ‍්‍රී ලංකාව හා ඉන්දියාව තනි කොටසක් (ඒකකයක්) ලෙස කැඞී ගිය අතර, වසර මිලියන 50 කට පෙර ඉන්දියාව හා යුරේෂියාව ගැටී ඇතිවූ විස්ථාරණය වීම් මන්දගාමී තත්ත්වයට පත්විය. එම නිසා ශ‍්‍රී ලංකාව වර්තමානයේ දක්නට ලැබෙන මහද්වීපික දුපත් පිහිටීමකට පත්වීමත් ආශ‍්‍රිත මුහුදු පත්ල පිරිහීයාමත්, මුහුදු භූ දර්ප උච්චාවචනයත් (Uplift)විය. ශ‍්‍රී ලංකාවේ භූ ගර්භ ආශ‍්‍රිත වූ මූල පතුල් පාෂාණමය දත්ත (Basement rock data) හා පාෂාණ ස්ඵඨීකරණ දත්ත (Crystallization data), සමස්ථානික විශ්ලේෂණය (Isotopic analysis [A]), භූ කාල විශ්ලේෂණය (Geochronological analysis [B]), භූ රසායන විශ්ලේෂණය (Geochemical analysis [C])" ඛණිජ විද්‍යාත්මක විශ්ලේෂණය (Petrological analysis [D]) හා තාපගතික විශ්ලේෂණය (Thermochronology analysis [E]) වැනි ක‍්‍රමවේද හරහා අධ්‍යයනයන්ට ලක්කිරීම තුළින් ශ‍්‍රී ලංකාව භූ විද්‍යාත්ම සංකීරණ කිහිපයකට බෙදා වෙන්කර ඇත. එම කොටස් නම්: උස්බිම් සංකීරණය (HC-3000 Mya – 2200 Mya)" වන්නි සංකීර්ණය (WC-2000Mya - 1000Mya)" විජයන් සංකීර්ණය (VC-2000 Mya – 1000 Mya)" කඩුගන්නාව සංකීර්ණය (VC-2000 Mya – 1000 Mya)" හා මයෝසීන හා චාතූර්ථික තැම්පතු වේ. ශ‍්‍රී ලංකාවේ පතුල් පාෂාණ වලට ඉහළින් වූ අවසාදිත පාෂාණ දත්ත සහ සාගර කබොල උච්චාවචන දත්ත භූ විද්‍යාත්මකව ගවේෂණය කිරීමේ දී ශ‍්‍රී ලංකාව ආශ‍්‍රිතව ජුරාසික (Jurassic-201Mya-145 Mya), මයෝසීන (Miocene-23.05 Mya-5.3 Mya) ප්ලයිටොසීන (Pleistocene-2.58 Mya - 0.012 Mya) භූ වකවානු වලට අයත් ජෛවීය සාධක රැසක් පොසිල වශයෙන් හමුවෙයි. ශ‍්‍රී ලංකාවේ ප‍්‍රාග් ඓතිහාසික මානව ක‍්‍රියාකාරකම් සහිත ප්ලයිටොසීන යුගයේ චාතුර්ථික කාල වකවානුව, රත්නපුර තැම්පතු (Ratnapura Formation)=, ඉරණමඩු තැම්පතු (Iranamadu Deposits)= හා තෙත් කලාපීය ගුහා/ විවෘත මානව වාසස්ථාන (Wetland caves/Open habitats) හරහා නිරූපණය වන අතර, A,B,C,D,E හදුන්වා දුන් ක‍්‍රමවේද ඔස්සේ අධ්‍යයනය තුළින් භූ විද්‍යාත්මකව ලඝු කොටගත් පුරාතණ පාරිසරික දත්ත (Multi-proxy climate data in palaeo) රැසක් අනාවරණය කරගත හැකිය (පුරාතන දේශගුණික තත්ත්වල නෂ්ඨ වීම්, සුනාමි තත්ත්ව). එසේම ප‍්‍රසස්ථ ජීවයක් (Harbor Life ) සදහා වූ ඛගෝලීය (Celestial Sphere) බලපෑම් පෘථිවි පූර්වායනය (Earth Precision) හරහා තවදුරටත් අධ්‍යයනය කළ හැකිය. මෙම ක‍්‍රියාවලීන්ගේ ප‍්‍රතිඵලයක් වශයෙන් පුරාතන පරිසරය නැවත ප‍්‍රතිනිර්මාණය කළ හැකි අතර, එය තිරසාර සංවර්ධනයට උචිත පරිදි භාවිතා වන ආකාරය Ein Pro Scanning & Reconstruction - 3D Printing& තාක්ෂණය ඔස්සේ හොදින් පෙන්වා දෙයි.
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The study chronicles a series of landmark events of Polonnaruwa Arnaganwila, dry zone of Sri Lanka carbonaceous meteorites that impacted on 29 th December 2012. The main objective of this study was to compile the citied articles for creating a plausible corresponding model to possess the sedimentation of Micro Fossils (Fosil diatoms) found in carbonaceous meteorites. As such, the sampling data of Polonnaruwa stones were investigated using diverse tools and methods. i.e., ICP-OES, GC-MS, SEM, EDAX, CHN, FTIR, Raman Spectroscopy, XRD. The Optical Spectroscopy was adapted as a second major objective to interpret the physical, chemical, mineral properties of stone including oxygen isotope, crystalline and biological composition. Geologic age of the stones was determined by N/C atomic ratio depletion (N/C ARD) technique. Results showed that the Polonnaruwa stone comprised of high porous minerals including Si-K-rich, Al-depleted, amorphous melt enclosing trace (commonly <1μm) anorthoclase, albite, anorthite and quartz. Additionally, it was recognized that bound H 2 O < 0.03wt% originated from hypervelocity impact. SEM analysis revealed that several fossil microorganisms similar to acritarchs, hystricho spheres and diatoms were represented. Geologic age of the stones was recognized as at least ~300 Ma by N/CARD. Triple oxygen isotope analysis provided the value s of Δ17O =-0.335 with δ17O = 8.978 ± 0.050 and δ18O = 17.816 ± 0.100 which indicated constituents of non-terrestrial sources. To conclude, our model was significantly supportive for providing a gradual series of meta-metamorphic to sedimentation that has processed the numerous of condition for stability of microfossil in carbonaceous meteorites.
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Sabaragamuwa basin is the dominant type of natural museum in Sri Lanka. Cultural remains of Homo sapiens discovered alongside the skeletal fragments, which include with the geometric microliths. Other discoveries include various fauna and flora that are thought to have formed part of their diet, also the animal bones which was fossilized surrounding the basin called “Rathnapura fauna”. From these animal fossils, elephant fossils also were found. The identified elephant fossils were represented by three species of elephant: Elephas hysudricus, Elephas namadicus, Elephas maximus sinhaleyus, who were extinct at present. Fossilized remains (teeth and bones) of elephants are found at present from gem pits and gem gravels (llama) belong to the Pleistocene Epoch. The gathered Ehephas spp. fossils (five samples, one sample from Highland Complex) found from alluvial sedimentary deposits of gem pits. These were identified according to the special anatomical characters comparing with the similar species recorded in the literature. In addition to sediment samples collected from gem pits, where those fossils can be used for sedimentological analysis. The objective of this study was to paleo biogeographycal patters of Elephas spp. & develop the evaluate an accurate, fully automated 3D histology reconstruction method to visualize the arterioles and venules within the Prehistoric Elephant’s teeth has founed. This approach will provide a valuable tool for high-accuracy 3D histology reconstructions for analysis of sedimental factors of Sabaragamuwa beds & develop the demo for biogeographycal patters base on Interactive 3D map.
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The Rakwana mountain range, which is located in the margin of the northern side of Sinharaja, a UNESCO world heritage site, is an area having rich bio–diversity. The recent excavations of the alluvial deposits in Sabaragamuwa basin associated with northern side of Sinharaja area revealed that the existance of caves in the vicinity of Pannila mountain. The cave formation is seen within the rocks of crystalline limestons (marble),which is popularly known as 'Pannila Hunugala' is of 550 m in length and 350 cm height at its entrance of which 60 cm filled with water, where special cave characteristics are visible. Stalagmite and stalactites of 2.5 m height at the core of the cave was believed to be formed after re-crystallization of pre-existing crystalline limestones-the basement rock-in the Highland Complex of Sri Lanka belongs to the Precambrian age. Speleothem dimensions were used to measure the volume of stalagmite and stalagtites. The action of chemical weathering of crystalline limestone followed by limy solutions makes it secondary features like stalagmite and stalactite.It is postulated from the Geological map of Sri Lanka that the same crystalline limestones bed is extended to the Rakwana Pannila Hunugala' ,Samanalawewa, Handagiriya caves.
#Eco Astronomy is the scientific study of extreme environmental conditions, effecting to the Harbor Life . The life origin, evolution existence of life in the universe related to harbor life concepts, means safe place providing refuge ,comfort and sustainable harbor environment to any object. Eco Astronomical research has implemented focusing -“Comparative systematic analysis of extreme environmental conditions of planet earth, which based on Paleontological & Petrological factors. Therefore this disciplines representing as a kin subject to interpreting comparative model for any Harbor Life.
Introduction to Petrology and Mineralogy to Implement Fossilization is for describe process of the fossilization & their factors,including geology . Fossilization is the process by which a plant or animal becomes a fossil. This process is extremely rare and only a small fraction of the plants and animals that have lived in the past 600 million years are preserved as fossils. This may be surprising, considering the millions of fossils that have been collected over the years, and the many billions still in the rocks. Those plants and animals that do become fossils generally undergo, with some exceptions, several key steps
Conference Paper
Developing onshore digital elevation model (DEM) is useful to predict sea level rise, coastal erosion, and tsunami inundation. This study compares historic changes of coastline in Arugam Bay in Sri Lanka from 2003 to 2015 to indicate flooding and elevation profile changes over time. Bathymetric DEMs have been created using Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) and interpolation techniques such as, inverse distance weighting, spline, and triangulation. In addition, coupling C-and L-bands of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for 2003, 2006 and 2015 were used to create bathymetric models to identify degraded coastal lands. A loss of coastal lands were observed from 2003 to 2006 resulted in weathering and erosion of sea shore habitat and then coastal line was gradually gained in 2015 as a result of natural sand deposition. We mapped eroded cut in an enfield costal sandy soil along the coastal line in Arugam Bay and elevation profile was made using Google Earth platform. In conclusion, our historic bathymetric maps are useful to identify eroded cut vulnerable areas to implement best management practices to protect the coast from tsunami disaster.
The Quaternary period of the geographic history of the earth includes two geologic epochs viz., the Pleistocene and the Holocene. Both epochs divided the faunal stages and human cultural phases based on climate and sea level changes that took place during these periods. The Quaternary ice age began roughly about 2.58 MYO with cool and dry climate conditions. The extinct Australopithecines and many other extinct genera of mammalian mega fauna appeared during this time. Thus, the Quaternary period shows the extinctions of numerous predominantly larger, especially mammalian mega faunal species, many of them lived during the transition from the Pleistocene to the Holocene epoch. The debate on the demise of the mammalian megafauna is often characterized by two highly polarized points of view: (1) climate-induced extinction; and (2) human-induced extinction. In Pleistocene period most parts of the Northern Hemisphere of earth were covered with glaciers creating a cold climate. Due to this glacial formation the main sea level was much lower than it is today. The low sea level facilitated the connection of Sri Lanka with the Indian mainland with a land bridge. Therefore, a number of mega fauna and micro fauna were able to cross to Sri Lanka from India along this land bridge. The last land bridge was emerged around 7500 years BP. During the Pleistocene Period Sri Lanka experienced heavy rainfall causing the emergence of rain forest in the country. The heavy rainfall in the Sabaragamu Basin also provided habitats for a number of marsh loving animals including mammals. However, at the end of the Pleistocene epoch, drastic climatic changes were occurred resulting in the extinction of a number of animal taxa. Pleistocene fauna in Sri Lanka is known as Rathnapura Fauna. Their fossils are found in alluvial deposits in the Sabaragamu basins