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Course-5 Energy Efficiency



Energy Classification
Primary and Secondary energy
Commercial and Non commercial
Renewable and Non-Renewable
Primary and Secondary Energy
or deep
TreatmentGas well
and refining
Diesel/fuel oils
Coal Coal
Natural gas
Natural gas
Source Extraction Primary energy Secondary
Major primary and secondary sources
Commercial and Non-
commercial Energy
Commercial energy is energy
available at price
Examples are electricity, coal, lignite, oil,
and natural gas
Non-commercial energy is energy not
available in market for a price
Examples are firewood, cattle dung and
agricultural wastes, solar energy, animal
power, wind energy
Renewable & Non-renewable
Global Energy Reserves (End 2008)
Global coal reserves
826,001 million tonnes
1258 billion barrels of
185 trillion cubic
metres of gas
World oil and gas
reserves are
estimated to last 43
years and 60 years
Coal is likely to last a
little over 122 years
Global Primary Energy
Primary Energy Consumption-
Some Developing and Developed Countries
Primary Energy consumption at the end of 2008
Million tones of oil equivalent( Mtoe )
Natural Gas
Total World
Energy Intensity
Energy intensity is energy consumption per unit
of GDP. Energy intensity indicates the
development stage of the country.
Energy Intensive Industries
Energy demand in the Iron and Steel, Chemical
and petrochemical, chlor-alkali, non-metallic and
other minerals,cement, food, paper and textile
industries together currently represent over half of
total industrial energy demand. They are hence
categorised as energy intensive industries.
Energy Pricing
Pricing influenced by economic, social
and political compulsions
Cross-subsidies: Diesel, LPG and
Kerosene subsidized by Petrol
Agricultural and domestic users
subsidized by Industrial and commercial
Energy Security
High energy demand growth rate projected.
Many developing nations has to depend on
import of oil and coal to meet domestic
energy requirement .
Developing nations are vulnerable to external
price shocks and supply fluctuations
Need to reduce dependence on import and
diversify supplies
Energy Security
Building stock piles
Diversification of energy supply sources
Increased capacity of fuel switching
Demand restraint,
Development of renewable energy sources.
Energy efficiency
Sustainable development
Energy Conservation and its importance
60% of world
consumed so far
85% of raw energy
comes from non-
renewable sources
and hence not
available for future
Energy Conservations Vs
Energy Efficiency
Incandescent Lamp
60 W Compact fluorescent Lamp
15 W
Energy Efficient Equipment uses less energy
for same output and reduces CO2emissions
CO2Emission 65 g/hr CO2Emission 16 g/hr
Figure 1.14
Energy Strategy for the Future
Energy Strategies-Immediate
Rationalizing tariff structure of various energy
Efficiency in production, reduction in
distribution losses
Promoting R&D and use of energy efficient
technologies and practices
Promoting energy efficiency standards
Energy Strategies-Medium
Demand side management
Optimum fuel mix
Increased dependence on economic
mode of transportation system for
goods and passenger movement.
Recycling and waste minimisation
Shift to inexhaustible sources of energy
such as solar, wind and biomass energy
Energy Strategies-Long
Optimum utilization of domestic fuel
Improved energy infrastructure
Enhancing energy efficiency
Legislation towards energy efficiency
Energy Management
The strategy of adjusting and
optimizing energy, using systems and
procedures so as to reduce energy
requirements per unit of output while
holding constant or reducing total costs
of producing the output from these
The judicious and effective use of energy to maximize
profits (minimize costs) and enhance competitive
Objective of Energy Management
To achieve and maintain optimum energy
procurement and utilization, throughout
the organization
To minimize energy costs / waste without
affecting production & quality
To minimize environmental effects.
Energy Audit
Energy Audit is defined as
“the verification, monitoring and analysis of
use of energy including submission of
technical report containing recommendations
for improving energy efficiency with cost
benefit analysis and an action plan to reduce
energy consumption “
Need for Energy Audit
Three top operating expenses are energy (both
electrical and thermal), labor and materials.
Energy would emerge as a top ranker for cost
primary objective of Energy Audit is to determine
ways to reduce energy consumption per unit of
product output or to lower operating costs
Energy Audit provides a “ bench-mark”
(Reference point) for managing energy in the
Types of Energy Audit
Preliminary energy audit
Detailed energy audit
Type of energy audit chosen depends
Function and type of industry
Depth to which final audit is needed
Potential and magnitude of cost
reduction desired
Preliminary Energy Audit
Preliminary energy audit uses existing, or easily
obtained data
Establish energy consumption in the organization
Estimate the scope for saving
Identify the most likely areas for attention
Identify immediate ( no-/low-cost) improvements
Set a ‘reference point’
Identify areas for more detailed
Detailed Energy Audit
Evaluates all energy using system,
equipment and include detailed energy
savings and costs
Carried out in 3 phases
Pre-audit Phase
Audit Phase
Ten Steps Methodology for
Detailed Audit
Step 1
Step 2
Phase I Pre Audit Phase
Plan and organise
Walk through Audit
Informal Interview with
Energy Manager, Production
/ Plant Manager
Conduct of brief meeting /
awareness programme with
all divisional heads and
persons concerned (2-3 hrs.)
Resource planning, Establish/organize a
Energy audit team
Organize Instruments & time frame
Macro Data collection (suitable to type of
Familiarization of process/plant activities
First hand observation & Assessment of
current level operation and practices
Building up cooperation
Issue questionnaire for each department
Orientation, awareness creation
Step 3
Step 4
Phase II Audit Phase
Primary data gathering,
Process Flow Diagram, &
Energy Utility Diagram
Conduct survey and
Historic data analysis, Baseline data
Prepare process flow charts
All service utilities system diagram
(Example: Single line power distribution
diagram, water, compressed air & steam
Design, operating data and schedule of
Annual Energy Bill and energy consumption
pattern (Refer manual, log sheet, name plate,
Measurements :
Motor survey, Insulation, and Lighting
survey with portable instruments for
collection of more and accurate data.
Confirm and compare operating data with
design data.
Step 5
Step 7
Step 8
Conduct of detailed trials
/experiments for selected
energy guzzlers
Analysis of energy use
Identification and
development of Energy
Conservation (ENCON)
Cost benefit analysis
Reporting & Presentation to
the Top Management
- 24 hours power monitoring (MD, PF,
kWh etc.).
- Load variations trends in pumps, fan
compressors etc.
- Boiler/Efficiency trials for (4 8
- Furnace Efficiency trials
Equipments Performance
experiments etc
Energy and Material balance & energy
loss/waste analysis
Identification & Consolidation ENCON
Conceive, develop, and refine ideas
Review the previous ideas suggested by unit
Review the previous ideas suggested by
energy audit if any
Use brainstorming and value analysis
Contact vendors for new/efficient
Assess technical feasibility, economic
viability and prioritization of ENCON
options for implementation
Select the most promising projects
Prioritise by low, medium, long term
Documentation, Report Presentation to the top
Phase III Post Audit phase
Implementation and Follow-
Assist and Implement ENCON recommendation
measures and Monitor the performance
Action plan, Schedule for
Follow-up and periodic review
Identification of Energy
Conservation Opportunities
Energy generation
Energy distribution:
Energy usage by processes:
Fuel substitution:
Technical and Economic
Sample Worksheet for Economic Feasibility
Name of Energy Efficiency Measure
i. Investment
a. Equipments
b. Civil works
c. Instrumentati
d. Auxiliaries
2. Annual operating costs
Cost of capital
3. Annual savings
Thermal Energy
Electrical Energy
Raw material
Waste disposal
Net Savings /Year (Rs./year)
= (Annual savings-annual operating costs)
Payback period in months
= (Investment/net savings/year) x 12
Technology availability, space, skilled manpower, reliability,
service,Impact of measure on safety, quality, production or
process. Maintenance requirements and spares availability
Energy Audit Reporting Format
Understanding energy costs
Electricity (1 kWh) = 860 kcal/kWh (0.0036 GJ)
Heavy fuel oil (calorific value, GCV) =10.000 kcal/litre ( 0.0411 GJ/litre)
Coal (calorific value, GCV) =4000 kcal/kg ( 28 GJ/ton)
Typical summary of energy bill by a company
Conversion to common unit of energy
Type of energy
Original units
Unit cost
Monthly bill INR
cost US$
5,00,000 kWh
Rs. 5.00/KWh
Fuel oil
200 Kl
RS. 20,000/KL
1000 tons
RS.2,000/ ton
Benchmarking parameters for
Energy Performance
Gross production related
e.g. kWh/MT clinker or cement produced (cement plant)
e.g. kWh/MT, kCal/kg, paper produced (Paper plant)
e.g. kCal/kWh Power produced (Heat rate of a power plant)
e.g. Million kilocals/MT Urea or Ammonia (Fertilizer plant)
Equipment / utility related
e.g. kWh/ton of refrigeration (on Air conditioning plant)
e.g. % thermal efficiency of a boiler plant
e.g. kWh/NM3of compressed air generated
e.g. kWh /litre in a diesel power generation plant.
Energy Audit
Electrical Measuring Instruments:
These are instruments for measuring
major electrical parameters such as kVA,
kW, PF, Hertz, kvar, Amps and Volts. In
addition some of these instruments also
measure harmonics.
These instruments are applied on-line i.e
on running motors without any need to
stop the motor. Instant measurements
can be taken with hand-held meters,
while more advanced ones facilitates
cumulative readings with print outs at
specified intervals.
Combustion analyzer:
This instrument has in-built chemical
cells which measure various gases such
as CO2, CO, NOX, SOX etc
Fuel Efficiency Monitor:
This measures Oxygen and temperature
of the flue gas. Calorific values of
common fuels are fed into the
microprocessor which calculates the
combustion efficiency.
A hand bellow pump draws the flue gas
sample into the solution inside the fyrite.
A chemical reaction changes the liquid
volume revealing the amount of gas.
Percentage Oxygen or CO2 can be read
from the scale.
Contact thermometer:
Contact thermometer:
These are thermocouples which measures
for example flue gas, hot air, hot water
temperatures by insertion of probe into
the stream.
For surface temperature a leaf type probe
is used with the same instrument.
Infrared Pyrometer:
This is a non-contact type measurement
which when directed at a heat source
directly gives the temperature read out.
Can be useful for measuring hot jobs in
furnaces, surface temperatures etc.
Pitot Tube and manometer:
Air velocity in ducts can be measured
using a pitot tube and inclined manometer
for further calculation of flows.
Ultrasonic flow meter:
This a non contact flow measuring device
using Doppler effect principle. There is a
transmitter and receiver which are
positioned on opposite sides of the pipe.
The meter directly gives the flow. Water
and other fluid flows can be easily
measured with this meter.
Energy Audit
Energy Audit
Speed Measurements:
In any audit exercise speed measurements
are critical as thay may change with
frequency, belt slip and loading.
A simple tachometer is a contact type
instrument which can be used where
direct access is possible.
More sophisticated and safer ones are
non contact instruments such as
Leak Detectors:
Ultrasonic instruments are available
which can be used to detect leaks of
compressed air and other gases which are
normally not possible with human
Lux meters:
Illumination levels are measured with a
lux meter. It consists of a photo cell
which senses the light output, converts to
electrical impulses which are calibrated
as lux.
Thank You
for your kind attention
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Sciences, Vol. 49, Issue 2, pp. 155-169 , September 2018, ISSN: 2289-7879
57. Nurjehan Ezzatul Ahmad, Maizirwan Mel, Nazaruddin Sinaga. Design of
Liquefaction Process of Biogas Using Aspen HYSYS Simulation, pp. 10-15, Journal
of Advanced Research in Biofuel and Bioenergy, Vol. 2 No.1, September 2018.
58. Nugroho, A., Sinaga, N., Haryanto, I. Performance of a Compression Ignition
Engine Four Strokes Four Cylinders on Dual Fuel (Diesel-LPG), Proceeding, The
17th International Conference on Ion Sources, Vol. 2014, 2018, 21 September
2018, AIP Publishing.
59. Nazaruddin Sinaga, P. Paryanto, Susilo A. Widyanto, R. Rusnaldy, Alexander
Hetzner, and Jorg Franke. An Analysis of the Effect of Gravitational Load on the
Energy Consumption of Industrial Robots, 6th CIRP Global Web Conference,
Procedia CIRP 78 (2018), pp. 8 12, September 2018.
60. Syaiful, Sinaga, N., Wulandari, R., Bae, M.W. Effect of Perforated Concave
Delta Winglet Vortex Generators on Heat Transfer Augmentation of Fluid Flow
Inside a Rectangular Channel: An Experimental Study. International Mechanical
and Industrial Engineering Conference 2018 (IMIEC 2018), MATEC Web of
Conferences Vol.204 , 2018 , 21-Sep-18 , EDP Sciences 12 , ISSN: 2261-236X
61. Muchammad, M., Sinaga, N., Yunianto, B., Noorkarim, M.F.,
Tauviqirrahman, M. Optimization of Texture of The Multiple Textured
Lubricated Contact with Slip, International Conference on Computation in Science
and Engineering, Journal of Physics: Conf. Series 1090-012022, 5 November 2018,
IOP Publishing, Online ISSN: 1742-6596 Print ISSN: 1742-6588.
62. Nazaruddin Sinaga, B. Yunianto, Syaiful, W.H. Mitra Kusuma. Effect of
Addition of 1,2 Propylene Glycol Composition on Power and Torque of an EFI
Passenger Car Fueled with Methanol-Gasoline M15, Proceeding of International
Conference on Advance of Mechanical Engineering Research and Application
(ICOMERA 2018), Malang, October 2018.
63. Nazaruddin Sinaga, Mohammad Tauiviqirrahman, Arif Rahman Hakim, E.
Yohana. Effect of Texture Depth on the Hydrodynamic Performance of Lubricated
Contact Considering Cavitation, Proceeding of International Conference on
Advance of Mechanical Engineering Research and Application (ICOMERA 2018),
Malang, October 2018.
64. Syaiful, N. Sinaga, B. Yunianto, M.S.K.T. Suryo. Comparison of Thermal-
Hydraulic Performances of Perforated Concave Delta Winglet Vortex Generators
Mounted on Heated Plate: Experimental Study and Flow Visualization, Proceeding
of International Conference on Advance of Mechanical Engineering Research and
Application (ICOMERA 2018), Malang, October 2018.
65. Nazaruddin Sinaga, K. Hatta, N. E. Ahmad, M. Mel. Effect of Rushton Impeller
Speed on Biogas Production in Anaerobic Digestion of Continuous Stirred
Bioreactor, Journal of Advanced Research in Biofuel and Bioenergy, Vol. 3 (1),
December 2019, pp. 9-18.
66. Nazaruddin Sinaga, Syaiful, B. Yunianto, M. Rifal. Experimental and
Computational Study on Heat Transfer of a 150 KW Air Cooled Eddy Current
Dynamometer, Proc. The 2019 Conference on Fundamental and Applied Science
for Advanced Technology (Confast 2019), Yogyakarta, Januari 21, 2019.
67. Nazaruddin Sinaga. CFD Simulation of the Width and Angle of the Rotor Blade
on the Air Flow Rate of a 350 kW Air-Cooled Eddy Current Dynamometer, Proc.
The 2019 Conference on Fundamental and Applied Science for Advanced
Technology (Confast 2019), Yogyakarta, Januari 21, 2019.
68. Ahmad Faoji, Syaiful Laila, Nazaruddin Sinaga. Consumption and Smoke
Emission of Direct Injection Diesel Engine Fueled by Diesel and Jatropha Oil
Blends with Cold EGR System, Proc. The 2019 Conference on Fundamental and
Applied Science for Advanced Technology (Confast 2019), Yogyakarta, Januari
21, 2019.
69. Johan Firmansyah, Syaiful Laila, Nazaruddin Sinaga. Effect of Water Content
in Methanol on the Performance and Smoke Emissions of Direct Injection Diesel
Engines Fueled by Diesel Fuel and Jatropha Oil Blends with EGR System, Proc.
The 2019 Conference on Fundamental and Applied Science for Advanced
Technology (Confast 2019), Yogyakarta, Januari 21, 2019.
70. Syaiful, Anggie Restue, Saputra, Nazaruddin Sinaga. 2-D Modeling of
Interaction between Free-Stream Turbulence and Trailing Edge Vortex, Proc. The
2019 Conference on Fundamental and Applied Science for Advanced Technology
(Confast 2019), Yogyakarta, Januari 21, 2019.
71. Anggie Restue, Saputra, Syaiful, and Nazaruddin Sinaga. 2-D Modeling of
Interaction between Free-Stream Turbulence and Trailing Edge Vortex, Proc. The
2019 Conference on Fundamental and Applied Science for Advanced Technology
(Confast 2019), Yogyakarta, January 21, 2019.
72. Sinaga, Nazaruddin, M. Mel, D.A Purba, Syaiful, and Paridawati.
Comparative Study of the Performance and Economic Value of a Small Engine
Fueled with B20 and B20-LPG as an Effort to Reduce the Operating Cost of
Diesel Engines in Remote Areas, Joint Conference of 6th Annual Conference on
Industrial and System Engineering (6th International Conference of Risk
Management as an Interdisciplinary Approach (1st ICRMIA) 2019 on April 23-
24, 2019 in Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia.
73. Sinaga, Nazaruddin, B. Yunianto, D.A Purba, Syaiful and A. Nugroho.
Design and Manufacture of a Low-Cost Data Acquisition Based Measurement
System for Dual Fuel Engine Researches, Joint Conference of 6th Annual
Conference on Industrial and System Engineering (6th International Conference
of Risk Management as an Interdisciplinary Approach (1st ICRMIA) 2019 on
April 23-24, 2019 in Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia.
74. Y Prayogi, Syaiful, and N Sinaga. Performance and Exhaust Gas Emission of
Gasoline Engine Fueled by Gasoline, Acetone and Wet Methanol Blends,
International Conference on Technology and Vocational Teacher (ICTVT-2018),
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 535 (2019) 012013
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
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This research studied the use of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) using feed-forward back-propagation model to optimize and predict the performance of a motorcycle fuel injection systems of gasoline. The parameters such as speed, throttle position, ignition timing and injection timing is used as the input parameters. While the parameters of fuel consumption and engine torque is used as the output layer. Lavenberg-Marquardt model type with train function tanh sigmoid and 25 neurons number is used to generate the target value and the desired output. Variation of ignition timing as optimization variable in a wide range of speed and throttle position is used in experimental tests. ANN is used to investigate the prediction of performance motorcycle engines and compared with the test results. Results showed that the operation of ANN in predicting engine performance is very good. From the test results obtained a smooth contour MAP compared to the initial state. The prediction result and performance test show a good correlation in small error value of training and test that is regression with range 0.98-0.99, mean relative error with range 0.1315-0.4281% and the root mean square error with range 0.2422-0.9754%. This study shows that the feed-forward back propagation on ANN model can be used to predict accurately the performance of a motorcycle engine injection system.
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The role of data acquisition based measurement system in the researches is essential since it delivers many advantages compared to the manual arrangement. Nevertheless, its cost is comparatively high, then it becomes an obstacle, particularly for researchers in producing nations. The purpose of the study was to obtain a low-cost data acquisition system which has good performance when used in the research of dual-fuel engines. The study included a selection of variables, components and sensors, programming, and calibration. The Arduino based data acquisition system was chosen, which was relatively cheap and easy programming. The sensors/transducers consisted of three K-type thermocouples, three load cells, one proximity sensor, and one DHT-11 sensor. Programming of data acquisition systems was facilitated by using Arduino IDE software. The display and data recording were done in Microsoft Excel software, with the help of PLX-DAQ software. In this study, a low-cost data acquisition based measurement system had been successfully developed, which had low uncertainty, low hysteresis, and excellent repeatability. It is concluded that the system is very suitable to be used in dual fuel engine researches to measure engine speed, fuel discharge, gas fraction, torque, power, brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency.
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The formation of biogas in an anaerobic digester is a complex fermentation process of organic compounds involving microorganisms. The biogas production can be enhanced by using a mixer, which depends on its rotational speed. This study investigated the effect of mixer rotational speed on biogas production in an anaerobic continuous stirred bioreactor with a computational approach. The purpose of this study is to find the optimum speed of the mixer that produces the highest biogas production. The finite volume method is used to simulate the synthropic digestion process experienced by volatile fatty acids in a three-phase form. The mixer used is from the Rushton impeller type, which rotates with speed variations of 50, 70, 100, 150, 200, and 300 rpm. The process takes place at temperature of 37 o C in a bioreactor with a diameter of 125 mm and high of 165 mm, with a substrate volume of 2000 ml. Chemical reactions and thermohydraulic formulations were carried out using the species transport, multiphase Eulerian model, and k- RNG turbulence model. It was found that the mixer speed had a significant effect on the rate of biogas production, which at a speed of 200 rpm gives the highest production rate of methane and carbon dioxide but the lowest hydrogen. It is concluded that there is an optimum rotational speed in the stirring process, which gives maximum biogas production.
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Increased motor vehicles have resulted in increased fuel consumption and emissions. Pramium fuel has an octane value of 88. Acetone 110 octane value and wet methanol 113 octane value. Mixing of premium acetone and wet methanol is expected to improve engine performance and reduce emissions. Research using gasoline engines with electronic fuel injection (EFI) systems. The results of the testing, there was a 12.62% increase in brake power. Brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) has increased by 4.35% compared to P100. The increase in BSFC was due to the calorific value of acetone and wet methanol which was lower than the premium. The resulting CO and HC emissions have decreased. The decrease in CO emissions reached 87.5%. The lowest level of HC produced reaches 46 ppm. Mixing acetone and wet methanol into the premium can improve engine performance. It can be seen from the increase in brake power produced. Exhaust emissions are produced better. CO and HC levels have decreased.
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The utilization and development of clean and renewable energy resources is very attractive because of the world sustainability and environmental pollution. Methanol, ethanol and their blends with gasoline are well known as important alternative fuels for vehicle engines. A serious problem encountered in using gasoline–alcohol blends as motor fuel at low temperatures is the separation of the mixture into two liquid phases, which is strongly influenced by the water content. An important multi-purpose chemical that has an extensive use as anti-freeze agent, 1,2-propylene glycol, is attracting interest in recent years as an additive for methanol- gasoline fuel. The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of composition of the 1,2-propylene glycol additive on engine power and torque of an EFI passenger car fueled with methanol-gasoline blend M15. Research was conducted in the laboratory on a 1.2 L small gasoline passenger car, equipped with electronic injection system, using a blend of 15% gasoline and 85% methanol, by varying the composition of additive of 3 ml/l, 4 ml/l, 5 ml/l, 6 ml/l, 7 ml/l, 8 ml/l, 9 ml/ l, and 10 ml/l. The measurement of power and torque was facilitated by using a simple engine dyno scanner on a dynamometer roll chassis. From the study it has found that the effect of variation of additive composition tend to decrease engine power, but the value of the torque has a little bit increased,compared to puregasoline engine. There was a best value of additive composition that showed high power and torque. According to the effect of additive composition on the power and torque it can be concluded that the best additive composition is 8 ml/l, which is 86.6 Nm on 2500 rpm, while the power remains constant in the value of 51.7 kW on 5800 rpm.
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Improvement of heat transfer in fin and tube heat exchangers for improving energy efficiency is required to be performed. In the present study, an enhancement in the rate of heat transfer is done by manipulating fin geometry on the fin and tube using longitudinal vortex generators. Perforated concave delta winglet is introduced as the latest longitudinal vortex generator that can improve heat transfer better than previous vortex one. Experimental study is conducted to investigate the thermal and hydraulic performance of perforated concave delta winglet vortex generators in a rectangular channel. From the results of the study, it is found that the heat transfer rate increases up to 78.9% of the baseline by using three pairs of concave delta winglet vortex generators with three holes. This value is 27.3% higher than using delta winglet vortex generator with three holes. However, this increase in heat transfer rate is also accompanied by an increase in pressure losses in the flow. Pressure drop increases up to five times from the baseline by installing three pairs of three-hole concave delta winglet vortex generators.
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Surface texturing on the lubricated bearing has proven to enhance the hydrodynamic performance. The present work explores the influence of texture parameter as well as the Reynolds number on the tribological performance using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) approach. The inclusion of the cavitation model in the analysis of lubrication performance is of particular interest. It is shown that the cavitation has a significant effect on the hydrodynamic pressure, and thus the cavitation model should be considered in the analysis. Moreover, in this study, the optimal relative texture depth is discussed in more detail regarding the cavitation effect.
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Studi eksperimental ini menguji sepeda motor empat langkah 125 cc dengan variasi bahan bakar yaitu premium, pertamax dan pertamax-plus. Pengujian dilakukan dengan menempatkan sepeda motor uji di atas dinamometer inersia chassis roller tunggal dengan variasi gigi transmisi untuk mendapatkan kinerja sepeda motor, yaitu besar torsi dan daya yang dihasilkan. Dari studi ini dihasilkan torsi maksimal didominasi bahan bakar premium di tiap gigi transmisi. Bahan bakar premium memberikan torsi maksimum rata-rata di empat gigi transmisi sebesar 5,21 % lebih besar dari torsi maksimum pertamax dan sebesar 5,25 % dari torsi maksimal pertamaxplus. Daya maksimum tertinggi gigi satu didapat dari premium 9,4 % diatas pertamax dan 4,5 % diatas pertamax-plus. Daya maksimum tertinggi di gigi dua, tiga dan empat dari pertamax-plus berturut-turut ratarata lebih besar 1,18 % atas premium dan lebih besar 4,16.% dari pertamax.
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Pemerintah saat ini telah mengambil kebijakan untuk mengganti penggunaan bahan bakar minyak menjadi bahan bakar gas. Untuk melakukan konversi ini diperlukan converter kit yang harganya relatif mahal, karena harus diimpor dari luar negeri. Pada tulisan ini disajikan hasil perancangan awal pressure regulator sederhana yang berfungsi untuk menurunkan tekanan dan mengatur aliran gas dari tangki gas LPG menuju saluran hisap mesin bensin 4 tak, dengan daya maksimum 10 Hp. Dalam perancangan ini tekanan masuk pressure regulator maximum 10 bar, dan tekanan keluar maksimum 1,1 bar. Komponen yang dirancang adalah rumah/casing pressure regulator, diafragma dan pegas, dengan kriteria sederhana, murah, materialnya mudah ditemui di pasaran dan mudah untuk diperbaiki. Dalam perancangan ini didapatkan hasil rancangan berupa geometri rumah/casing yang terbuat dari bahan alumunium, diafragma dari bahan karet khusus dan pegas dari bahan music wire dengan ukuran yang sesuai dengan kriteria perancangan. Melalui penelitian ini diperkirakan harga untuk sebuah unit pressure regulator adalah sekitar 750 ribu rupiah.
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Pemanfaatan energi angin di Indonesia terkendala oleh rendahnya kecepatan rata-rata angin di kabanyakan wilayah Indonesia. Oleh karena itu perlu diupayakan dan dikembangkan teknologi yang dapat digunakan untuk memanfaatkan energi angin yang berkecepatan rendah ini sehingga dapat diterapkan secara komersial. Salah satu upaya yang perlu dilakukan untuk mencapai tujuan ini adalah dengan memantapkan kemampuan dalam melakukan analisis dan perancangan turbin angin untuk berbagai parameter yang mempengaruhi karakteristik turbin angin. Dalam tulisan ini dikemukakan hasil-hasil perhitungan numerik 2 dan 3 dimensi dari suatu turbin angin yang terdapat di Laboratorium Efisiensi dan Konservasi Energi, Universitas Diponegoro. Tujuan utamanya adalah untuk mendapatkan model simulasi perhitungan yang nantinya dapat digunakan untuk menganalisis dan merancang turbin angin dengan berbagai variasi parameter, misalnya sudut pitch, sudut yaw, sudut tilt, sudut precone, diameter rotor, jenis airfoil, kecepatan angin, intensitas turbulensi, dan sebagainya. Simulasi dilakukan dengan menggunakan perangkat lunak ANSYS FLUENT dengan model turbulensi k standard dan Spalart-Allmaras, pada sebuah turbin angin sumbu horizontal 3 sudu berdiameter 120 cm menggunakan airfoil NACA 4415 dengan panjang chord terlebar 153 mm. Kecepatan angin divariasikan dari 2,5 m/s - 3,4 m/s dengan kecepatan rotor 355 rpm, dengan sudut serang dari 0 - 16 derajat serta sudut pitch 23 - 26 derajat. Kesimpulan utama yang dihasilkan dari studi ini adalah bahwa analisis aliran pada turbin angin dapat dilakukan dengan metoda numerik dengan hasil yang cukup baik. Kesimpulan lainnya adalah bahwa model turbulensi k standard memberikan hasil yang lebih baik dibandingkan dengan model turbulensi Spalart-Allmaras. Dari simulasi ini juga dihasilkan rancangan rotor turbin angin yang dapat bekerja pada kecepatan angin yang lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan turbin angin yang dimiliki saat ini.