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Chironji (Buchanania lanzan) Wonder Tree: Nutritional and Therapeutic Values

  • Banda University of Agriculture and Technology
  • Banda University of Agriculture and Technology, Banda
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2020) 9(2): 3033-3042
Review Article
Chironji (Buchanania lanzan) Wonder Tree: Nutritional
and Therapeutic Values
Neeraj1, Vinita Bisht2* and Shalini Purwar2
1Jharkhand Rai University, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India
2Banda University of Agriculture and Technology, Banda-210001 (U.P), India
*Corresponding author
Chironji (Buchanania lanzan Spreng.) is a member of the family Anacardiaceae
and it is originated in the Indian sub-continent, is an excellent multipurpose tree
species. Traditional indigenous knowledge reveals the immense value of almost all
parts of the plant i.e. roots, leaves, fruits, seeds and gum for various medicinal
uses. Chironji (Buchanania lanzan) is an important non-wood tree species found
in deciduous forests throughout the greater part of India. It is a multipurpose tree
and very important plant for rural and tribal economy. It is used as a fuel, fodder,
alternative host for Kusmi lac insect, and also used in cosmetic items and soaps.
Seeds/ kernel are nutritional, palatable and used as a substitute of almonds in
confectionery. It is widely used by Indian tribes for treating various diseases.
Three major chemical constituents of potent medicinal value, namely celidoniol,
vomicine, epinitol have been characterized from an organic extract of leaves. Such
extracts mainly exhibit antidiabetic, anti hyperlipidemic, antioxidant, anti-
inflammatory, wound healing, antidiarrheal, antivenom activity including a host of
other curative properties. Very recently, unique biomaterials and biofilms are
being extracted from seeds, which promise to become a major contributor in
pharmaceutical industry. At present, it is growing under forest condition as an
under exploited fruit and gives monitory reward to tribal community of the
country. The tree is natural wild growth in the tropical deciduous forests of
Northern, Western and Central India, mostly in the States of Chhattisgarh,
Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh and in Varanasi and Mirzapur districts and
Bundelkhand region of Uttar Pradesh. Chironji is a vulnerable medicinal plant, is
included in the Red Data Book published by International Union for Conservation
of Nature and Natural Resources. In this background, there is compelling need for
developing a suitable technology facilitating easy multiplication, regeneration and
conservation of the species, simultaneously imparting and disseminating proper
knowledge and education to the tribal population.
Ke ywo rds
Deciduous forests
tribal community
knowledge and
20 January 2020
Available Online:
10 February 2020
Article Info
International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences
ISSN: 2319-7706 Volume 9 Number 2 (2020)
Journal homepage:
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2020) 9(2): 3033-3042
Chironji or Charoli, (Buchanania lanzan
Spreng.), a member of the family
Anacardiaceae, originated in the Indian sub-
continent, is an excellent tree of agro forestry.
It assumes great significance due to its
multifarious uses and capacity to withstand
adverse climatic conditions. At present, it is
growing under forest condition as an under
exploited fruit and gives monitory reward to
tribal community of the country. It is a
medium size tree, up to 40-50 ft. height with a
straight trunk. Trees have the alternate
bearing nature as present in the mango. It
flowers in the month of January- February
and ripen in April-May.
Its bark is rough, dark grey or black, fissured
into prominent squares, 1.25 to 1.75 cm thick,
and is reddish inside. Flowering starts in the
month of November and its leaves are
coriaceous, broadly oblong with a rounded
base. It bears fruits, each containing a single
seed known as “chironji” and is quite popular
as an edible nut. It avoids waterlogged areas,
but occurs on yellow sandy loam soils. Tree
can be easily identified by its dark grey
crocodile bark with red blaze and is a good
species for afforestation in bare hill slopes.
Buchanania lanzan, being a vulnerable
medicinal plant, is included in the Red Data
Book published by International Union for
Conservation of Nature and Natural
Resources (IUCN) (Kritikar and Basu, 1935).
Seven species of Buchanania have been
reported in India of which two B. lanzan
(Syn. B. latifolia) and B. axillaries (Syn.
angustifolia) produce edible fruits. B.
lanceolata is an endangered species. It is
found in the ever green forests of Kerala. B.
platyneura is found in Andaman only. Other
species of the genus are B. lucida, B. glabra,
B.accuminata. It is reported that the fruits of
B. platyneura are also edible. The B. exillaris
are reported to be dwarf in size and produces
excellent quality of kernel. (Chauhan et al.,
2012) . Among these species Buchanania
lanzan Spreng is most important and widely
distributed species in India. This species was
first described by Mr. Hamilton, a forester in
1798 in Burma and the genus Buchanania
was named after him. It was originated in the
Indian sub continent, and is found in India,
Burma, Nepal and few other countries
(Chauhan et al, 2012). Buchanania lanzan
Spreng commonly known as “Cuddaph
almond”, “Char”, “Chironji” or Pyar is a
valuable tree species found in mixed dry
deciduous forest throughout the grater part of
India excluding eastern Himalayan forests and
arid regions of north India. The species is
native to India.
Socio-economic importance
Chironji is a source of income for tribal
people of Chhattisgarh and other states It is
backbone of their economy. A considerable
reduction in the population of Chironji in the
forest and non-forest areas has been recorded
(Singh et al., 2002) and facing a severe threat
of extinction. Due to this, Chironji is
categorized under the 195 red listed medicinal
plant species of Indian origin, that requires
conservation measures as reported by
Foundation of Revitalization of Local Health
Tradition (FRLHT), Environmental
Information System (ENVIS) - Centre on
Medicinal Plants, Bangalore, Govt. of India.
Fresh fruit are eaten raw having pleasant,
sweetish, sub-acid flavor and consumed by
local people and also sold in the village
market. Chironji is mainly regarded for its
costly, high-priced kernels. These kernels has
almond like flavor, eaten raw or roasted form,
used as cooking spice and dry fruit in sweets,
kheer, meaty korma in India. All parts of this
plant root, leaves, gum, bark and fruits have
various medicinal applications. Chironji seeds
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2020) 9(2): 3033-3042
are rich in nutrients and medicinal properties.
Chironji is an active source of phenolics,
natural antioxidants, fatty acids and minerals.
Its seed oil is used to treat skin diseases,
remove spots and blemishes from the face.
Ethanolic and methanolic extract of Chironji
roots has shown good anti-diarrheal activity
and significant wound healing activity,
respectively (Khatoon et al., 2015).
Soil and climate
Chirounji is very hardy plant and thrives well
on rocky and gravelly red soils. Through it is
very hardy tree but plants do not survive
under waterlogged conditions. Well drain
deep loam soil is ideal. It prefers tropical and
subtropical climate and can withstand drought
admirably. Chhattisgarh State is rich in forest
wealth and 44.2 per cent of its geographical
area is covered with forest (Anon., 2015).
Conservation methods adapted for
As far as conservation of genetic diversity of
Chironji is concerned, both in-situ and ex- situ
approaches should be used. In the present
scenario, most appropriate strategy for
Chironji germplasm conservation is to adopt
immediate ex-situ conservation (i.e. field
genebank and cryobanking) complemented
with in-situ conservation (In-situ on-farm
conservation and in protected areas such as
National Parks) for this species. Ex-situ field
genebanks are presently being established at
horticulture research institutes of Indian
Council of Agricultural Research at Godhra,
Gujarat and Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh for
conservation and developing advance
propagation methods. Collected germplasm
has been cryostored as base collection
representing sizable diversity in the form of
127 accessions in the National Cryogene bank
at NBPGR, New Delhi for posterity and
future utilization (Malik et al., 2012).
In-vitro propagation
Sharma et al., (2005) developed a protocol for
somatic embryogenesis and plantlet
regeneration of Chironji (Buchanania lanzan)
by immature zygotic embryos cultured on
Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium
supplemented with various combinations of
2,4 dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D), 6-
benzyladenine (BA) and/or 1-naphthalene
acetic acid (NAA). The highest frequency
(60%) of somatic embryo induction was
obtained in cultures grown on MS medium
fortified with 4.53 μM 2,4-D, 5.32 μM NAA
and 4.48 μM BA. The medium supplemented
with 15 μM abscisic acid (ABA) was most
effective for maturation and germination of
somatic embryos. Shende and Rai (2005)
claimed to develop a tissue culture technique
for the rapid clonal multiplication of Chironji.
They reported multiple shoot initiation in
decoated seeds cultured on MS medium
enriched with various concentrations of
auxins and cytokinins alone or in
combination. Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium
supplemented with 22.2 μM of BAP and 5.37
μM of NAA promoted formation of the
maximum number of shoots.
Furthermore, MS medium containing 23.3 μM
kinetin induced profuse rooting of the
initiated shoots. Niratker (2016) studied in-
vitro multiple shoot induction from shoot tips
and nodal segments explants of Chironji in
half strength MS medium supplemented with
1 mg/l BAP and 0.5 mg/l IAA with an
average number of 3-4 shoots per explants.
The most commonly used tissue explants are
the meristematic ends of the plants such as
the stem tip, auxiliary bud tip, and root tip.
These tissues have high rates of cell division
and either concentrate or produce the required
growth-regulating substances including
auxins and cytokinins (Akin Idowu et
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Vegetative propagation
Vegetative propagation methods like chip
budding and softwood grafting (Singh and
Singh, 2014) are also standardized and
reported in Chironji. But these are less
effective due to loss availability of rootstocks
and dependency on seasonal conditions.
Moreover, propagation through root cutting is
a very slow process (Singh et al., 2002).
Srivastava (1996) reported that the tree is
propagated from seeds which remain enclosed
inside a hard shell. To get better germination,
the shell of the fruit should be cracked
carefully, he added. He further reported that
fresh seeds give better germination and by
using such seeds he observed 70 %
germination. Choubey et al., (1997) reported
that best germination observed with 1 per cent
HgCl treatment in chironji.
Vegetative propagation through soft wood
grafting and chip budding was successful but
rarely tried as no demand of plants has been
generated in want of commercial cultivation,
they reported. Shukla et al., (1999) reported
that 48-hour seed soaking in ordinary water
gave as high as 71 per cent seed germination.
On the other hand, mechanical breaking of
stony endocarp resulted in 83 percent
germination. However, they mentioned that
mechanical breaking is time consuming and
posse’s high risk of damage to embryo. They
also reported that seed can be stored in air
tight containers up to one year.
Ethnomedicinal importance
The tribal people often consume and sale the
highly nutritious seeds to sustain and also to
earn their livelihood. The seeds possess 3.0%
moisture and are rich in lipid/fat (59.0%),
protein (19.0-21.6%), starch/carbohydrate
(12.1%), fibre (3.8%), minerals such as
calcium (279.0 mg), phosphorus (528.0 mg),
iron (8.5 mg) and vitamins such as thiamine
(0.69 mg), ascorbic acid/vitamin C (5.0 mg),
riboflavin (0.53 mg), niacin (1.50 mg) and
also contain 34-47% fatty oil. The seeds are
also used as expectorant and tonic. The oil
extracted from kernels is applied on skin
diseases and also used to remove spots and
blemishes from the face. The root is used as
expectorant, in biliousness and also for curing
blood diseases. The juice of the leaves is
digestive, expectorant, aphrodisiac, and
purgative. The gum after mixing with goat
milk is used as an analgesic (singh., et al.,
2002). Seed collection should be done from
2nd to 3rd week of May for quality seed
collection with respect to fruit weight, kernel
weight, germination percent, and chemical
content i.e. oil, protein and sugar contents.
Destructive harvesting could be checked by
educating forest tribal population about
collection of ripe fruits at proper time i.e.
from 2nd to 3rd week of May without
damaging the trees by organized collection
(Choubey, 1997).
Phytochemical profile
This plant like many other forest plants is
storehouse of important unknown phyto-
medicines. Till now sporadic reports have
been published that reveals that specially leaf,
bark, and seed are the major source of various
important metabolites of great pharmaceutical
value. Of late, researchers are focusing their
attention on various forest plants including
Chironji. The leaves are reported to contain
tannins, triterpenoids, saponins, flavonoids,
kaempferol-7-o’glucosides, quercetin-3-
rahmnoglucoside, quercetin, gallic acid,
kaemferol, and reducing sugars, including a
new glycoside, and myricetin-3’-rhmnoside-
3-galactoside (Nasim et al., 1992; Mehta et
al.,2010). The bark contains tannins,
alkaloids, and saponins. The seed and seed oil
contains fibres, carbohydrates, mineral, fats,
vitamin B1, B2, B3, C, calcium, chlorine
copper, iron, magnesium, phosphorus,,
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2020) 9(2): 3033-3042
potassium, sodium, sulfur, fatty oil, β-amyrin
(Khare., 2007) . The fatty acid composition of
B. lanzan seed oil, determined by urea
complex formation and gas liquid
chromatography is found to contain
following: Myristic, 0.6%; palmitic, 33.4%;
stearic, 6.3%; oleic, 53.7%; and linoleic,
6.0%. Triglyceride compositions of the native
seed oil and its randomised product are
calculated from the fatty acid compositions of
the triglycerides and of the corresponding 2-
monoglycerides produced by pancreatic lipase
The oil is composed of 3.2%, 35.8%, 45.5%,
and 15.5% tri-saturated, monounsaturated di-
saturated, di-unsaturated mono-saturated and
tri-unsaturated glycerides, respectively. The
special characteristic of the B. lanzan seed oil
is its content of 22.7%, 31.0%, and 11.3%
dipalmitoolein, dioleopalmitin, and triolein.
Three major chemical constituents isolated
from the methanolic extract of leaves,
characterized based on chemical tests and
spectral analysis such as infrared, H nuclear
magnetic resonance, mass spectroscopy were
epinitol, vomicine, and celidoniol (Mehta et
al., 2011).
Celidoniol Vomicine Epinitol
Medicinal and curative properties
B. lanzan is a widely used plant with a history
of traditional medicinal use for the treatment
of various diseases. It is used in the form of
decoction to treat intrinsic haemorrhage,
diarrhoea with blood and as tonic. Grown up
child who has left the breast milk should be
given sweet bolus prepared of B. lanzan
kernels, madhuka (Glycyrrhiza glabra)
honey, parched paddy and sugar candy.
Kernels made into a powder and used with
milk as aphrodisiac and in case of fever and
burning sensation.
Powder of the bark mixed with honey is
useful in blood dysentery. This plant has a
long history of folk use in tribal societies
across tropical regions of the world. At
present, in this era of herbal science, in depth
research is being carried out in every such
plants to discover pharmaceutically active
novel magic drugs. In this review, we tried to
project a comprehensive account of the global
effort already undertaken to explore the
phytomedicinal wealth of B. lanzan.
Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities
Inflammation is considered as a primary
physiologic defence mechanism that helps
body to protect itself against infection, burn,
toxic chemicals, allergens, or other noxious
stimuli. The in vivo anti-inflammatory activity
is evaluated in rats by using carrageenan-
induced paw edema, as an acute model and
formaldehyde induced arthritis as a chronic
model. The methanolic extract of B. lanzan
kernel (200 mg/kg body wt) significantly
decreased paw volume, after oral
administration of the extract (Duragkar and
Bhusari., 2010). The methanolic extract of the
leaves of B.lanzan at different doses used
showed good anti-inflammatory activity,
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2020) 9(2): 3033-3042
which has been done significantly, by the
formation of oedema induced by carrageenan.
These results are also comparable to aspirin,
the reference drugs used in this study. It
indicates the efficacy of the methanolic
extract as a therapeutic agent in acute as well
as chronic inflammatory conditions (Mehta et
al., 2011).
Antioxidant activity
Antioxidants help to deal with oxidative stress
which is caused by free radical damage. In
vitro antioxidant activity is performed on
metanolic extract of B. lanzan kernel by 1, 1-
diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and
reducing power method. Quantitative
estimation of total polyphenolic content of the
extract is estimated by Folin-Ciocalteu
method. The extract exhibits significant
antioxidant activity. The in vitro antioxidant
activity of phenolic compounds in the
methanol and acetone extract of B. lanzan
root is established. Both extract shows good
degree of electron donation capacity in terms
of relative reductive efficiency (RRE), but
methanolic extract shows more RRE (0.79)
value as compared to acetone extract (0.60)
due to more content of phenolics. In cyclic
voltammetry measurement lower oxidation
potential of methanol extract shows higher
antioxidant efficacy. In DPPH system, the
strongest radical scavenging activity was
exhibited by the methanolic extract (EC50 =
0.24±0.02) (Pareta et al., 2011).
Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic
disease caused by an absolute or relative lack
of insulin and or reduced insulin activity.
Hyperlipidemic condition is metabolic
complication of both clinical and
experimental diabetes (Gandhi., 2001). Low
density lipoprotein in diabetic patients leads
to abnormal metabolism and is associated
with increase in very low density lipoprotein
(VLDL) secretion and impaired VLDL
catabolism. Ultimately, this leads to
atherosclerotic plaque formation (Kameshra
et al., 2001). Those with blood glucose levels
>190±8 mg/dl are administered the
methanolic leaf extract of B. lanzan (100 or
200 mg/kg, body weight) or positive control
for 21 days. Blood glucose and lipid profile
are evaluated.
Adaptogenic activity
Adaptogens cause an adaptive reaction to a
disease and are useful in many unrelated
illness and appear to produce a state of non-
specific increased resistance during stress
resulting in stress protection (Alexender and
Wickman 2010). The methanolic extract of B.
lanzan leaves are evaluated for adaptogenic
activity using the swim endurance model in
all groups under normal and stressed
conditions. Urinary vanillyl mandelic acid
(VMA) and ascorbic acid are selected as non-
invasive biomarkers to evaluate the antistress
activity. The 24 hrs urinary excretion of VMA
and ascorbic acid are determined by
spectrophotometric methods. Daily
administration of the extract at doses of 10,
20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/kg body weight prior to
induction of stress inhibited stress-induced
urinary biochemical changes in a dose-
dependent manner without altering the levels
in normal control groups. The methanolic
extract exhibited significant anti-stress
activity (Mehta et al., 2011).
Wound healing activity
The ethanolic extract of B. lanzan fruits was
used in Albino rats for wound healing activity
and used to study the effect in dexamethasone
suppressed wound healing. Three wound
models viz., incision, excision and dead space
wounds were used in this study. The
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parameters studied are breaking strength in
case of incision wounds, epithelialization and
wound contraction in case of excision wound
and granulation tissue dry weight, breaking
strength and hydroxyproline content in case
of dead space wound.
The dexamethasone treated group showed a
significant (p<0.001) reduction in the wound
breaking strength when compared to control
group in incision type of wound model. Co-
administration of B. lanzan with
dexamethasone significantly (p<0.001)
increased the breaking strength of
dexamethasone treated group. In-vivo wound
healing supporting study mediated by
carrageenan induced paw edema as anti-
inflammatory activity. Herbal gel was
formulated incorporating one of the active
ethyl acetate sub-fractions in two
concentrations (1% and 5%). Gel was
evaluated for its spreadability, pH, color,
consistency and appearance. The 5% gel
exhibited significant increase in percentage of
wound contraction as well as growth in tensile
strength with 177 g (p<0.05) and 181.2 g
(p<0.01), respectively (Mehta et al., 2014).
Memory booster
Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive
neurodegenerative brain disorder that occurs
gradually and results in memory loss, unusual
behavior, personality changes, and ultimately
death (Reddy., 1997). Biochemical
abnormalities such as reduction of
acetyltransferase, acetylcholine biosynthases
and increase in acetyl cholinesterase (AChE),
and metabolism are strongly associated the
degree of cognitive impairment (Ellen.,
1997). Petroleum ether extract of seeds of
B.lanzan (PEB) (500 mg/kg, oral) is studied
for its neuro-psychopharmacological effect in
experimental rats.
Activity of seeds extract on memory
acquisition and retention is studied using
elevated plus maze and step down apparatus
models, and AChE enzyme level at discreet
parts of brain is also estimated.
Administration of PEB (500 mg/kg) to
positive control and treated groups showed
significant reduction in transfer latency in
elevated plus maze, increase in step down
latency in step down apparatus models and
reduction of acetylcholine esterase enzyme
activity in different regions of the brain as
compared with the other groups (Neelkanth.,
Antivenom activity
B. lanzan includes in the list of the plants
which have anti-snake venom activity. Fruit
and bark extract of B. lanzan is used for the
treatment of snake bite in Chhattisgarh region
(Minu et al., 2012). The ethanolic extract of
B. lanzan bark was studied against toxicity
induced by Naja kaouthia snake venom by
various in vivo and in vitro studies. The
extract was evaluated for neutralization of
lethality, myotoxocity, phospholipase A2
activity and human red blood cell lysis
produced by N. kaouthia snake venom. The
extract at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg
significantly neutralized the lethality
produced at different concentration of snake
Myotoxicity also decreased up to a significant
level characterized by decline in creatine
phosphokinase level. In vitro models for
assessing hemolytic activity were found to be
significantly decreased in the presence of the
extract. Both direct and indirect hemolytic
study was performed at various concentration
of extract. More than 50% of hemolysis was
significantly neutralized by the extract.
Results showed significant neutralization of
toxicity produced by N. kaouthia snake
venom (Hedge et al., 2014).
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2020) 9(2): 3033-3042
Value addition in chironji
Although the kernel has more economic value,
the fruits of chironji also have potential to be
processed into several value added products.
The fruit of chironji is juicy and sweet in
taste. Although the juice recovery is quite less
due to large seed size, the fruit can be used for
preparation of various value added products
like squash, ready to serve (R.T.S.) drinks and
nectar after juice extraction. Fruits can also be
dried locally under sun or in cabinet drier
under controlled conditions and can be
preserved in the form of fruit powder.
Moreover, fermented beverage i.e., wine can
also be prepared from the pulp of the fruits.
Chironji Nuts
Although chironji nuts and kernels have been
used extensively but there is no machinery for
processing of chironji nuts. The shelling of
chironji nuts is usually done manually and
sometimes by locally made machines. This
traditional process involves soaking the seeds
in water for 24 hours, skin removal by hand
rubbing followed by drying. Dried nut is
broken by rubbing between a pair of stone
slab or hammer followed by separation of
kernel from the hull (Kumar et al., 2012). The
chironji nuts are then packed either in glass
jars or polyethylene bags. Chironji nuts are
used in preparation of many sweet
preparations such as halwa, kheer, laddu, paak
etc. They are also used as dry fruit in
preparation of sweets.
Chironji Oil
Chironji kernel contains about 52% oil
(Kumar et al., 2012). The kernel is used for
extraction of chironji oil. This extracted oil is
used mostly in cosmetic manufacturing and
substitute for olive and almond oils (Siddiqui
et al., 2014). Sometimes this oil is also used
by native people as edible oil.
Table.1 Proximate and mineral analysis of seeds of Buchanania lanzan (g/100g)
S. No.
Proximal value (%)
Khatoon et al., 2015
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2020) 9(2): 3033-3042
Table.2 Compound study in different solvent present in Buchanania lanzan
Compound Detected
Petroleum ether
Oleic Acid
Tetradecanoic Acid
9-Octadecenoic Acid
Tetradecanoic acid
n-Hexadecanoic acid
Oleic Acid
Octadec-9-enoic acid
Pentadecanoic acid, 14-methyl-, methyl ester
Eicosanoic acid
Phenol, 2-(1-phenylethyl)
Oleic acid, 3-hydroxypropyl ester
n-Hexadecanoic acid
Phenol, 2, 4-bi's (1,1-dimetyletyl)
Tetradecanoic Acid
2,6-Octadienal, 3,7-dimethyi
Octadecanoic acid
Octadecanoic acid, 2,3-dihydroxypropyl
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How to cite this article:
Neeraj, Vinita Bisht, Shalini Purwar. 2020. Chironji (Buchanania lanzan) Wonder Tree:
Nutritional and Therapeutic Values. Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci. 9(02): 3033-3042.
... Yes [137] Yes [137,169] B 1 , B 2 , C [170] P, Ca, Fe [139] Polyphenolics [170,171] Yes [81,141,142] Highly perishable (fruit) very low perishability (kernel) [172] Raw, processed [139] Custard apple Annona squamosa L. ...
... Yes [137] Yes [137,169] B 1 , B 2 , C [170] P, Ca, Fe [139] Polyphenolics [170,171] Yes [81,141,142] Highly perishable (fruit) very low perishability (kernel) [172] Raw, processed [139] Custard apple Annona squamosa L. ...
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Nowadays, there is a large demand for nutrient-dense fruits to promote nutritional and metabolic human health. The production of commercial fruit crops is becoming progressively input dependent to cope with the losses caused by biotic and abiotic stresses. A wide variety of un-derutilized crops, which are neither commercially cultivated nor traded on a large scale, are mainly grown, commercialized and consumed locally. These underutilized fruits have many advantages in terms of ease to grow, hardiness and resilience to climate changes compared to the major commercially grown crops. In addition, they are exceptionally rich in important phytochemicals and have medicinal value. Hence, their consumption may help to meet the nutritional needs of rural populations, such as those living in fragile arid and semi-arid regions around the world. In addition , local people are well aware of the nutritional and medicinal properties of these crops. Therefore , emphasis must be given to the rigorous study of the conservation and the nutritional characterization of these crops so that the future food basket may be widened for enhancing its functional and nutritional values. In this review, we described the ethnobotany, medicinal and nutritional values, biodiversity conservation and utilization strategies of 19 climate-resilient important, un-derutilized fruit crops of arid and semi-arid regions (Indian jujube,
... It is high in protein, fat, and dietary ber, and is also high in calories. It is also a good source of phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, and iron (Neeraj et al., 2020). Chironji is high in calories as well as high in protein and dietary ber, so it will satisfy hunger and keep one away from overeating. ...
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The research aimed to develop a new product using underutilized seeds; hence an energy bar was developed using Chironji ( Buchanania lanzan ) seeds. Chironji seeds, oats, puffed rice, dates, condensed milk, jaggery, butter, raisins, and almonds were combined to make the energy bars. Chironji seeds and Condensed Milk were added as major ingredients for the production of energy bars. Date paste was added to increase flavor and also as a binding agent. Butter and jaggery were added as preservatives and sweetener. The finished bars were preserved for nutritional and sensory analysis. Chironji seeds and condensed milk were used in varied proportions and a total of five samples were prepared. As per the analysis, Moisture content (8.00 ± 2.00% to 12.00 ± 2.00%), Ash content (1.33 ± 1.16% to 3.33 ± 1.16%), Fat content (24.00 ± 2.00% to 27.33 ± 1.16%), Protein content (10.57 ± 0.12% to 12.93 ± 0.58%), TSS (7.33 ± 0.58º to 8.00 ± 1.00º), and pH (5.26 ± 0.01 to 5.36 ± 0.01) were the physicochemical properties measured in all of the prepared energy bar samples. The L* value (51.23 ± 0.25 to 74.17 ± 0.21), a* value (7.90 ± 0.20 to 21.23 ± 0.25), and b* value (27.27 ± 0.25 to 52.27 ± 0.25) of the bar samples were determined using the CIE lab. Energy bars were rated on the 9-point hedonic scale for sensory evaluation and the attributes of color (7.67 ± 0.58 to 8.67 ± 0.58), texture (8.33 ± 0.58 to 9.00 ± 0.00), taste (7.67 ± 0.58 to 9.00 ± 0.00), aroma (8.00 ± 0.00 to 8.33 ± 0.58), and overall acceptability (8.17 ± 0.14 to 8.83 ± 0.14) were measured.
... Out of seven species the fruits of Buchanania lanzan an Buchananuua axillaries of angustifolia are eadible. (Siddiqui et al 2014, Neeraj et al 2020 .Since a long time all the parts of the plants has been used as traditional medicine as expectorant, blood diseases, aphrodisiac, purgative, blood purifier and cures digestive disorders and wound healing, fever. laxative etc (Rajput etal 2018). ...
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The current investigation was focused on the collection, isolation, purification and acute toxicity study of Saj (Terminalia elliptica) gum, Chironji (Buchanania lanzan) gum and Siris (Albizia labback) gum. Each gums were collected from the bark of the tree, isolated and evaluated for various parameters. The results showed the total ash content 3.23± 0.61 %, 3.54± 0.69 % and 4.53 ± 0.02 %, loss on drying 10.31 ±0.7%, 6.8± 0.50% and 8.41 ± 0.31%, viscosity (4% w/v aqueous solution) 42±0.95cps , 38 ±.61 cps and 77 ± 0.23 cps , Swelling index 91.00± 1.69 %, 89.42± 1.93 % and 128.94± 2.02 %, hausner’s ratio 1.23± 0.06, 1.18± 0.05 and 1.12± 0.03, compressibility index 19.04± 1.01 %, 15.73± 0.96 % and 12.86± 0.94 %, angle of repose 23.37±0.03 0 , 16.04±0.150 and 13.37±0.21 0 and pH 4.23 to 5.58 , 4.20 to 5.05 and 4.89 to 5.29 respectively for Saj gum, Chironji gum and Siris gum. Various qualitative photochemical tests confirmed the presence of carbohydrates and protein while absents of alkaloids, tannin, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids and steroids in all these gums.
... Chironji (Buchanania lanzan) belongs to Anacardiaceae family also known as char, achar originated from sub-continental part of India. It is a naturally grown, wild tree available in tropical deciduous part of India, commonly found in northern, western and central India they are extended to cities of Madhya Pradesh, Varanasi, Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand [3] Chironji seeds has enormous potential and are functional source of phenol, minerals, antioxidants and fatty acids [4]. Chrionji seeds has nutty flavor and commonly used as substitute of almonds. ...
Energy bars have immense health potential and can be used as an alternative to meet the energy requirement; they are quick, convenient and easy go to food product compact with nutrients. Energy bars can be formulated with diverse ingredient that can add additional health benefits such as antioxidant, anti-flammantory and medicinal properties with high nutritional value. The objective of present study was to develop energy bar from underutilized Chironji seeds, and to analyze its nutritional and shelf life properties. Novel energy bar was formulated with chrionji, rolled oats, husked channa, roasted crushed peanuts, jaggery, raisin, popped rice and dates (binding agent). Proximate analysis of energy bar was determined as moisture (7.83%), ash (1.92%), protein (9.51%), fat (13.12%), carbohydrate (67.62%), total energy (430.08kcal), calcium (28mg/100gm), and potassium (22mg/100gm), sodium (26mg/100gm), iron (24mg/100gm). The shelf life analysis of energy bar was conducted on the basis of microbial testing, energy bar was kept at room temperature and cultured after 15 days and then after 30 days of formulation, total bacterial and mold colonies were estimated, thus the study concluded that the energy bar was highly nutritious and safe to consume within 15 days after production if kept at room temperature. Keywords: Energy bar, Chironji, Development, Nutritional Analysis, Shelf life Analysis
... Powder of kernel with milk is used as aphrodisiac. Powder of bark mixed with honey is useful in blood dysentery (Neeraj et al. 2020). The gum extracted from the stem bark, root and dried leaves in powdered form mixed with buttermilk is used for treating diarrhoea. ...
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Nutraceutical is a popular term in food biology and pharmacology due to dual values (Food & medicine). The recent health problems being attention towards the screening of natural nutraceutical from the nature. Buchanania cochinchinensis is a tree species native to India and fruits are used as a food and medicines. Therefore, this tree is suitable for detail studies to do value addition & sustainable utilization from wild to keep nature healthy. The present study revealed that it is a tree having food, ethnomedicinal, pharmacological, ecological and socio-cultural values. The present chapter highlights the importance of wild nutraceutical.
... The seed kernels are commercially important and could be sold in local market which has high nutritive value with rich source of fat, protein and minerals (Dwivedi et al, 2012. Rajpoot et al. 2018and Neeraj et al. (2020 reported that Chironji kernels possess 3.0% moisture and are rich in lipid/fat (59.0%), protein (19.0-21.6%), starch/carbohydrate (12.1%), fibre (3.8%), minerals like calcium (279.0 mg), phosphorus (528.0 mg), iron (8.5 mg) and vitamins like thiamine (0.69 mg), ascorbic acid/vitamin C (5.0mg), riboflavin (0.53 mg), niacin (1.50 mg) and also contain 34-47% fatty oil which is used as a substitute for olive and almond oils. ...
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Buchanania lanzan Spreng (Chironj) is an important multipurpose tree species found in Central India. It is very well known for its kernels and medicinal properties. Due to some natural and anthropogenic factors this species is under high threat and have been categorized as threatened species. Domestication of this species on farmer’s field is one of the best way to reduce its depletion. Besides its high prospects and potential in income and employment generation, it is not yet adopted by farmers on their farm lands. To reduce the gap between demand and supply, Chironji species needs to be included in the agroforestry system especially in the Central India. Species shows positive interaction with most of the crops, which reflects that it can be taken up under agroforestry system. Farmers can get very good income and livelihood security from Chironji based agroforestry. Where, it can be planted at a spacing of 10-12 x 10-12 meter. Different oil seeds, pulses and some cereal crops can be successfully grown in between the tree rows. It is generally propagated through seed. Hard seed coat create hindrance in its germination. Pre-treatment of seed by mechanically breaking the seed coat with a light hammer is very helpful for ensuring better germination. By adopting good cultural practices, a farmer can get better yield of Chironji after 10-12 year of planting. Therefore, keepings in view of its fast rate of depletion, present species needs to be kept in the list of priority species and it should be promoted for mass scale plantation in farmers’ field under agroforestry system because it has very good prospect and potential for livelihood security in Central India.
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India is among the top biodiversity hotspot regions of the world. It is a land of great variety of natural vegetation with almost 46,000 species of plants as described by Botanical survey of India. Many plant species are known for their therapeutic properties due to their active phytoconstituents such as terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, saponins and tannins etc. The hilly state Uttarakhand, which lies on the southern slope of the Himalaya, is well known for its rich variety of medicinal plants. Local and tribal communities of Uttarakhand still use medicinal plants to cure various diseases and alignments. The study of Himalayan flora is always a topic of keen interest for researchers for a long time and several studies have already been conducted across different areas of the Himalayan region. In this review, 56 ethnomedicinal plant species belonging to various tree families have been reported from Nandhaur valley region of Nainital district, Uttarakhand and to our knowledge, such studies have not been conducted in this region. The main aim of the present study to evaluate the phytochemical constituents and the ethnobotanical importance of different parts of these 56 tree species that have been reported along with their botanical and vernacular names. This will not only help to share the traditional knowledge of these medicinal plant species for new generation but also upmost important for protecting cultural, traditional and biodiversity conservation.
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Buchanania lanzan Spreng (Chironji), is a member of the family Anacardiaceae. It exhibits an extensive therapeutic profile which has proven to be a socioeconomic boon to the tribal community. Plant parts such as leaves, seeds, bark, and kernels have been shown to retain a variety of metabolites with great potential. Presently, B. lanzan is grouped as non-nationalized minor forest produce and widely distributed in the forest regions. Indiscriminate and improper harvesting, climate change, large-scale urbanization and developmental activities, lead to a very severe threat of its existence. It has been classified as a red-listed medicinal plant species of Indian origin, necessitating a comprehensive conservation strategy, as reported by many organisations. The major problem in the reforestation or domestication of this species is the low percentage of seed germination due to hard seed coats, recalcitrant in nature, and fungal contamination associated with the storage of seeds. Vegetative propagation has also not proved successful in this species so far. Thus to augment its sustainable production and conservation, proper research support is an urgent requirement for addressing the problems and further multiplication in the forest area. Also, need to promote awareness among various stakeholders regarding the conservation of this valuable species.
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Adaptogens were initially defined as substances that enhance the “state of nonspecific resistance” in stress, a physiological condition that is linked with various disorders of the neuroendocrine-immune system. Studies on animals and isolated neuronal cells have revealed that adaptogens exhibit neuroprotective, anti-fatigue, antidepressive, anxiolytic, nootropic and CNS stimulating activity. In addition, a number of clinical trials demonstrate that adaptogens exert an anti-fatigue effect that increases mental work capacity against a background of stress and fatigue, particularly in tolerance to mental exhaustion and enhanced attention. Indeed, recent pharmacological studies of a number of adaptogens have provided a rationale for these effects also at the molecular level. It was discovered that the stress—protective activity of adaptogens was associated with regulation of homeostasis via several mechanisms of action, which was linked with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the regulation of key mediators of stress response, such as molecular chaperons (e.g., HSP70), stress-activated c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase 1 (JNK1), Forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factor DAF-16, cortisol and nitric oxide.
Snakebite is a major health hazard that leads to high mortality rate especially in India. Since the last century, antivenom immunotherapy is the only specific treatment against snake venom envenomation. However, antiserum does not provide enough protection against venom induced hemorrhage, necrosis, nephrotoxicity and often develops hypersensitivity reactions. Chhattisgarh has a rich tradition of the usage of medicinal plants. Many Chhattisgarh medicinal plants are mentioned in literature, which are used to treat snakebite victims especially in the rural areas. However, only a few species have been scientifically investigated and still less had their active components isolated and characterized both structurally and functionally. This article presents a review of Chhattisgarh plants showing properties against snake venoms which were assayed in research laboratories, correlating them with ethnopharmacological studies.
Cognitive deficits have long been recognized as severe and consistent neurological disorders associated with numerous psychiatric and neurodegenerative states such as Alzheimer's disease. Many experimental models are currently available for the evaluation of agents that affect learning and memory processes. Mazes are the traditional tool in assessing cognitive performance in animals. Apart from passive-avoidance task for short-term memory and Morris water maze task for spatial learning, other paradigms such as radial arm maze and Y-maze consistently measure the working/reference memory and agents that affect these processes. The transfer latency on elevated plus-maze is another simple paradigm to reveal the nootropic and amnestic activity of centrally acting agents. The complex-mazes such as Stone T-maze are built by combining several simple maze segments to assess mixed spatial, working/reference and taxon learning skills in animals. The active-avoidance behaviour induced by a sequence of conditioned and unconditional stimuli is a classic model for the assessment of cognitive performance after brain lesions or pharmacological disruption of cognition. Drug-induced acquisition/retention deficits, brain lesion-induced task specific cognitive dysfunction and electroshock-induced general amnesia may provide a consistent battery of screening models for the development of agents that ameliorates the memory deficits in rodents. Several human psychometric and verbal learning skill tests are also available for the clinical assessment and confirmation of nootropic activity. These rapid developments in the field of animal models of learning and memory processes may hopefully lead to an improved understanding of the pathophysiology of cognitive disorders, and finally permit a rational designing of novel therapeutic strategies for distinct cognitive dysfunctions.
A new glycoside, myricetin 3′-rhamnoside-3-galactoside, has been isolated from leaves of Buchanania lanzan. Its structure was established from spectroscopic and chemical evidence.
The pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, adverse effects, drug interactions, and dosage and administration of donepezil are reviewed. Donepezil is a synthetic noncovalent reversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) for the treatment of mild to moderate dementia associated with Alzheimer's disease. In contrast to tacrine hydrochloride, the only comparable agent currently approved by FDA, donepezil exhibits a relatively high degree of selectivity for neuronal AChE as opposed to butyrylcholinesterase. It has a half-life of 60 hours in young adults and 104 hours in elderly patients. In clinical trials, donepezil has been associated with significant improvements in Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale and Clinical Interview-Based Impression of Change scores. The most common adverse effects associated with donepezil are nausea, diarrhea, anorexia, and vomiting, which are most likely to occur during dose initiation or adjustment. Hepatotoxicity, a dose-limiting adverse effect that sometimes requires discontinuation of tacrine, has not been reported with donepezil. Donepezil does not appear to interact with theophylline, cimetidine, warfarin, or digoxin. Ketoconazole and quinidine inhibit the metabolism of donepezil in vitro, but there is a lack of clinical data showing that these drugs decrease the clearance of donepezil. The initial recommended dosage is 5 mg daily before bedtime, with a dosage increase to 10 mg after four to six weeks according to the patient's response and tolerance. Donepezil appears to be preferable to tacrine as the initial agent for patients with mild to moderate dementia associated with Alzheimer's disease.
The effect of administration of different doses of Pterocarpus santalinus L. bark extracts in normal and diabetic rats, on blood glucose levels was evaluated in this study. Among the three fractions (aqueous, ethanol and hexane), ethanolic fraction at the dose of 0.25 g/kg body weight showed maximum antihyperglycemic activity. The same dose did not cause any hypoglycemic activity in normal rats. The results were compared with the diabetic rats treated with glibenclamide and the antihyperglycemic activity of ethanolic extract of PS bark at the dose of 0.25 g/kg b.w. was found to be more effective than that of glibenclamide.
Some aspects of germination studies in Buchanania lanzan Spreng. seeds
  • A Choubey
  • R Prasad
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Choubey A, Prasad R, Choubey OP, Pant NC et al., Some aspects of germination studies in Buchanania lanzan Spreng. seeds. J Tropical Forestry. 1997; 13(11):65-73.
Evaluation of antivenom activity of ethanolic extract of Buchanania lanzan bark against Naja kaouthia snake venom
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Hegde K, Naseeb KM, Syed A, Deepak TK. Kalangottil A. Evaluation of antivenom activity of ethanolic extract of Buchanania lanzan bark against Naja kaouthia snake venom. Unique J Pharm Biol Sci 2014;2(2):39-45.