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Changes in the sports economy -Consequences for SMEs from the sports and health sector

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In this article the Competence Section of Sports Business (KSW) for Sports Economics & Sports Management of the German Competence Centre SMEs and Entrepreneurship (KCE) is concerned with the critical situation of SMEs in the German and Chinese fitness, health and sports industry based upon their research studies. The two substantial factors ‘spiral of market flexibility’ and ‘real virtuality’ jointly responsible for the changes in sports economics are presented. Furthermore one aspect of the consequential core-cause is introduced under the term of ‘vacant sports management’. The article concludes with an outlook on the factors threatening the existences of most Chinese and German SMEs as the lack of universities’ degree programmes in the sectors of sports business(sports economics and sports management) and the absent intensification of scientific research. Reference: Pauling, Kai. (2016). Changes in the sports economy - Consequences for SMEs from the sports and health sector. In: New Trails for SMEs in Germany and China - Co-operations. Opportunities. Challenges. Perspectives. FOM Schriftenreihe. Deutsch-chinesischer Wirtschaftsdialog, Nr. 4., S. 117-133, Essen, ISBN 3-89275-081-5. Link: https://www.sporting-expert.com/pdf/Pauling-Changes-in-the-sports-economy-EN.pdf References: Pauling, Kai. (2015). Das Ende vom Discount - Teil 2, Hohe Qualität versus günstiger Preis. In: Fitness Tribune, Nr. 157, S. 50-52. Pauling, Kai. (2015). Das Ende vom Discount - Teil 1, Qualität und individueller Service versus Preis und Masse. In: Fitness Tribune,Nr. 156, S. 16-18. China Sports Business (2011): https://chinasportsbiz.com/2011/07/01/huge-potential-of-fitness-market-in-china. Accessed 2014-03-13. Liu, B. (2008). Zeitgenössische deutsche und chinesische Sportpädagogik im Vergleich: Ausgewählte Beispiele. Dissertation thesis, Deutsche Sporthochschule Köln. Stemper, T. (1994). Effekte des gerätgestützten Fitnesstrainings. Hamburg: SSVVerlag. Pauling, Kai. (2016). STEPDO - Handbuch zur Step Aerobic. 2. vollst. überarb. Aufl. - Release follows. Pauling, Kai. (2004). Die dritte Revolution: Zukunftsmarkt Personaltraining. In: Shape up Trainer's only, Jg. 2, Nr. 1, S. 2-3. Stelzel-Morawietz, P. (2014). Bigger Data. In: PC-Welt (4/2014), 8. München: IDG Tech Media. Die Zeit, 2016: http://www.welt.de/wirtschaft/webwelt/article153244642/Antelope-Fitnessanzug-setzt-Jogger-unter-Strom.html. Accessed 2016-03-21. Pauling, Kai & Vatanparast, Mir. (2016). Folgen des demografischen Wandels. In: bodyLIFE, Nr. 7, S. 38-42.
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New Trails for SMEs in Germany and China:
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FOM Schriftenreihe Deutsch-chinesischer Wirtschaftsdialog
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New Trails for SMEs in Germany and China:
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Deutsch-chinesischer Wirtschaftsdialog, Nr. 4
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Changes in the sports econom y Consequences for SMEs
Part 3 Sustainability and health
H Changes in the sports economy Consequences for SMEs
in the sports and health sector
Kai Pauling
Author:
Dr. rer. nat. Kai Pauling
Full Address:
Dr. rer. nat. Kai Pauling
FOM Hochschule für Ökonomie & Management Hamburg
Schäferkampsallee 16
D-20357 Hamburg
E-Mail: kai.pauling@fom-net.de
Changes in the sports econom y Consequences for SMEs
118
Content
Abstract ................................................................................................... 119
1 Introduction ....................................................................................... 120
2 Industry revenues .............................................................................. 121
3 Chain stores replace in dividual family businesses ................................ 122
4 The way in which people train changes ............................................... 124
5 Staffing needs for qualified professionals in the management
in the future ....................................................................................... 128
6 Conclusion ........................................................................................ 129
References............................................................................................... 130
List of tables
Table 1: Industry revenues worldwide ................................................... 131
List of figure s
Figure 1: Industry revenues in China ...................................................... 132
Figure 2: Industry revenues in G ermany................................................. 133
Changes in the sports econom y Consequences for SMEs
119
Abstract
In this article the Competence Section of Sports Business (KSW) for Sports Eco-
nomics & Sports Management of the German Competence Centre SMEs and
Entrepreneurship (KCE) is concerned with the critical situation of SMEs in the
German and Chinese fitness, health and sports industry based upon their re-
search studies. The two substantial factors ‘spiral of market flexibility and ‘real
virtuality jointly responsible for the changes in sports economics are presented.
Furthermore one aspect of the consequential core-cause is introduced under the
term of ‘vacant sports management’. The article concludes with an outlook on the
factors threatening the existences of most Chinese and German SMEs as the
lack of universities’ degree programmes in the sectors of sports business (sports
economics and sports management) and the absent intensification of scientific
research.
Changes in the sports econom y Consequences for SMEs
120
1 Introduction
The fitness, health and sports industry is besides constant growth characterized
by excellent future prospects although this does not apply to all enterprises. While
large chains and group of companies held by investors show disproportionately
high growth rates, SMEs operate under enormous competitive constraints endan-
gering their future performance.
Promises of resolutions to this problem are well dealt commodities in times of
insecurities. Every year business consultancies specialized on this industry push
dozens of self-made trend concepts on the market, promising cure for injured
SMEs. But instead of enabling fundamental restructuring for an economic turna-
round these trend concepts shape up as mere licensing for marketing campaigns
the lack of fundamental scientific research identifying actual causes, evaluati ng
approaches and converting these findings into new sustainable restructuring con-
cepts for affected SMEs is necessary. This exactly is addressed by the research
and counselling of the Expertise Section of Sports Business (KSW) for Sports
Economics & Sports Management of the German Competence Centre SMEs and
Entrepreneurship (KCE).
The KSW examines two substantial factors jointly responsible for the changes in
sports business applicable for Germany and China. First belongs to the sector of
sports economics and refers to the rapid growth of chains and enterprises. This
can be combined under the caption ‘spiral of market flexibility. The second factor
is intrinsically concerned with changes in sporting activities due to new technolo-
gies and the connection to virtual reality and is recapped under the term ‘real
virtuality’. Furtherly combining both factors results to the core-cause concerning
the sector of sports management and above all the education of sports managers
which can be described as ‘vacant sports management’. The situation of the core-
cause resulting from both factors is additionally hindered by the demographic
change’s enormous influence.
Below the substantial factors spiral of market flexibility’ and ‘real virtuality’ as
well as the resulting core-asset ‘vacant sports management’ are to be introduced
after enabling an insight to the German and Chinese industry by giving certain
economic data.
Changes in the sports econom y Consequences for SMEs
121
2 Industry revenue s
2015 Europe repeatedly presented itself as the economically strongest region in
the fitness and health industry. By contrast with every other region China still
holds the most rapid growth rates. While the German fitness and health industry
grew about 74% from 2004 to 2014, the Chinese counterpart managed to grow
about 84% in only half the time from 2009 to 2014. In comparison of the time
span between 2014 and 2015 the Chinese growth rate was five times as high as
the Germans’.
The significant difference between China and Europe is that China includes pro-
duction incomes for machines and attachments in their economic results, while
the income in Europe, especially from Germany, almost exclusively derives from
the service sector.
Changes in the sports econom y Consequences for SMEs
122
3 Chain stores replace individual family businesses
Regarding the fitness industry in Germany and the most important market figures
as number of enterprises, number of members and sales volume a trend be-
comes apparent.
Between 2014 and 2015, the number of enterprises increased by about +3.8 %
to 8332. In contrast, the number of chain companies increased about +11.8 % to
3513 enterprises. The number of members in the entire industry rose about
+4.2 % to 9.46 million, while chain companies generated a growth of +14.2 % to
4.82 million. The industry increased about +2.7 % to 4.83 billion in sales vol-
umes, on the contrary the chain companies could generate a growth from
+14,2 % to 1.93 billion €. The fifth biggest players on the market (McFit, Fitness
First, clever fit, Kieser Training, Injoy) reclusively pocketed 13.3 % of the total
market’s sales volume with 744 million €.
This enormous growth of chains and company groups (C&C) compared to SMEs
also shows an enormous shift of the market. Growth rates of enterprises in oppo-
sition to the entire industry lead to the conclusion their growth is borne at the
expense of SMEs. This assumption is supported by slightly increasing sales vol-
ume data of the entire sports, fitness and health industry primarily elicited by fran-
chise economics. According to the statement of the German Franchise Union in
the year 2014 already 9 percent fell upon these sectors amounting to about 6.6
billion Euro. According to the Union of Employers of German Fitness and Health
Centres the fitness industry (without the sports and health industry) achieved
about 4.7 billion Euro in sales volumes in the year 2014. While […] sales volumes
in fitness studios from 2004 to 2014 increased from former 2.7 billion about 74%,
franchise economics increased their volume of sales about 162% over the same
period. The number of owner-operated studios significantly dropped during the
last ten years and will continuingly decrease about at least 10%. (Pauling
2015,2): 52, translation by the author).
This already leads to ‘banks and capital providers investing in fitness-franchis e-
systems, but not in small fitness-enterprises. This quasi blocks the way to credits
for independent founders of new businesses. Existing older single-centres also
barely obtain credits for necessary investments, accelerating their recession.’
(ibid.).
The centre of insolvency and restructuring of the University Mannheim provided
one of the most extensive surveys concerning the question of insolvency causes
and was conducted on behalf of Euler Hermes. This survey mentions ‘funding
Changes in the sports econom y Consequences for SMEs
123
gaps’ with 76 percent as the second most important cause. If the lack of credits
as cause of these ‘funding gaps’ frames restructuring and adaption to the com-
petition as impossible, the descent to insolvency is inevitable.
According to the last analysis of the industry by Creditreform in 2013, 37.5% per-
cent of German studios show a return on assets of less than two percent. The
situation in China is even more precarious: Only 20 percent of all sports facilities
in China are profitable (China Sports Business 2011).
The growth of C&C and denying SMEs required credits for their turnaround is not
the crisis’ cause but only one of its symptoms. One of the causal factors is the
enormous flexibility of C&C. Their ability to adapt to annually changing trends in
the market or even introducing own impulses faces the SMEsinability to suffi-
ciently observing the market to prematurely recognize shifts. This inability lays in
the lack of expert knowledge and the management of human resources, which
will be furtherly characterized in the point of ‘vacant sports management’. While
C&C can afford trained and specialized sports managers, in the SMEs mostly few
all-rounders are overstrained with simple day-to-day routines. A similar manage-
ment problem is detectable in China also as asserted by Deloit t’s: ‘Most gyms are
having problems in management strategies and operation.’ (China Sports Busi-
ness 2011).
The C&Cs’ competitive advantage of enormous resources can easily push SMEs
especially in terms of expert knowledge and human resources management. The
C&Cs’ sales volume subsequently increases with every small extinguished family
business in the overtaken sectors of the markets and every further expansion of
not yet accessed areas. It is a spiral forming around their outstanding flexibility in
competition.
The best example of this ‘spiral of market flexibility’ is Europe’s biggest fitness
enterprise McFit that founded the franchise chain High5 in 2015. With this con-
cept McFit quickly and creatively responded to the New Year’s trend ‘functional
training’. The competitive price of below 10 Euro per month and membership sub-
stantiates the enormous competitive strength. This price cannot be accomplished
by the smallest one-man-SME which is the reason for criticizing High5 or rather
McFit. Despite this critic one must admit ‘that the concept of High5 correlates the
spirit of current times.(Pauling 2015,1): 18, translation by the author).
Changes in the sports econom y Consequences for SMEs
124
4 The way in which people train change s
The ancient Chinese sport includes three disciplines: Military Sports (horseback
riding, archery, wushu, etc.), Yang Sheng (health care) and popular games (e.g.
Cuju.). [...] Cuju was an ancient sport similar to football, which was played in
China and Korea and Japan. Cuju emerged since the time of the combatants
States about 2,500 years ago.’ (Liu 2008: 40, emphasis added and translation by
the author).
People always got exercise and sports have always been organized, systema-
tized and commercialized. Historical sports form the basis, i.e. generation 0.
A brief overview on how exercising in the fitness industry evolved:
The classic equipment-based gym is fitness of the generation 1.0 and
was started with the first fitness studio of Hippolyte Triat 1847 in Paris.
Special and new about this generation of equipment-based exercising’
was the idea: of single movements on automatic lanes. ‘Equipment -
based exercising is a form of fitness and/or health-safety training, which
is completed on machines that are designed mainly for workout devices
which are mainly designed for developing strength.’ (Stemper 1994: 12,
translation by the author).
In the generation 2.0 ‘group fitness / aerobics’ the step of group move-
ments in free space followed. ‘In Aerobics a form of rhythmic gymnastics
is performed to music.(Pauling 2016: 34, translation by the author).
The expansion of generation 2.0 followed. ‘The second revolution oc-
curred after the conversion to service fitness. Previously the product Fit-
ness was for sale. [...] Today we only speak of service in the following
and not about a product.’ (Pauling 2004: 2, emphasis added and transla-
tion by the author).
Through generation 3.0 and personal training sports became even more
individual. The idea: One single client is trained personally by one coach.
‘Personal Training is a form of workout support. One single client is
trained personally, directly and individually by a qualified trainer accord-
ing to the current principles and findings of sports science, sports medi-
cine, sports teaching.’ (Pauling 2004: 2, revision and translation by the
author). Personal Training is not linked to a specific kind of sports but can
be used as support for every sportive workout. In a broader sense Per-
Changes in the sports econom y Consequences for SMEs
125
sonal Training is a general concept, a way of life and a health manage-
ment system. The client shall find to a balanced lifestyle forming a unit
with his spirit, diet, exercise and relaxation.
In the Generation 4.0, fitness came via to-homes, via web or as an app
on smartphones and tablets. The idea was to make fitness digital and
mobile. In 2004 already the Nokia cell phone 5140 transmitted the train-
ing data of a heart rate monitor via SMS worldwide. In 1995 a radio sys-
tem from Polar already sent the pulse data of students to a display sys-
tem in the aerobics studio. In 2013, in the category ‘health’ an estimated
5 billion apps have been downloaded. The magazine PC-World asked
with reference to the Consumer Electronics Show (CES) in Las Vegas:
"Will 2014 be a digital historical turning point?" (Stelzel-Morawietz 2014:
8, translation by the author). "Many manufacturers presented so-called
wearables, these are bracelets and fitness activity sensors with network
connectivity." (ibid.). The Handelsblatt published a prognosis under the
title ‘Wearables: the next billion market? Sales trend for wearables in Eu-
rope that forecasts sales turnovers of 5.59 billion in 2016, 7.22 billion in
2017 and 9.03 billion in 2018.
With modern video game consoles generation 5.0 was launched. The
Eye Toy Camera (idea from 1999) was introduced in 2003, Eye Toy Ki-
netic for the PS2 in 2005 and Kinect for the Xbox followed in 2010. Spe-
cial for this step of evolution was the ability of computers to detect mo-
tions.
Following points of developments on which has been researched since years
or on which currently is researched are listed. We are talking about visions
that have not yet been realized in the possible extent.
Fitness 6th generation: Already almost a decade ago in 2005, the per-
sonal trainer, sports scientist and business coach Kai Pauling began
working in secret with a major European telecommunications company
on Fitness Sport 6.0. In the near future the vision´s implementation will
be technically and especially financially possible, comprising the global
virtual network of fitness content providers and home/mobile exercisers.
In addition kinetic and physiological data will be collected interactively. A
personal real-time training supervision by a personal trainer via live
stream can be realized.
Changes in the sports econom y Consequences for SMEs
126
Fitness 7th generation: Autosensitive training (Successor of EMS train-
ing). Autosensitive: New technical term crate by the author for a train-
ing/workout. The training stimulus (e.g. for a muscle) is created fully au-
tomatic. It is not necessary that a stimulus of the body or its nerves has
been created before. Essential characteristics are no self-motion, no ex-
ercise equipment, self-learning training control and it can take place an-
ywhere at anytime. A step in the evolution of generation 7.0 is the devel -
opment of Antelope. ‘The Antelope fitness suit sets joggers under power.
Weights or headwind simulate and thoroughly massage: The Antelope
fitness suit is to bring the body of amateur athletes with more than 100
electrodes in top form quickly. The prototype in the test. […] The only
problem is the price - just under 1300 Euros are already large amounts
of cash.’ (Die Zeit 2016, translation by the author).
Fitness 8th generation presents a combination of stationary training in a
gym and a parallel virtual online training (device supported cloud train-
ing). A first step in this generations evolution are amongst others treadmill
controles by Google Glasses or 3D training equipment by tecnobody.
Target is the establishment of hybrid devices with the characteristics of
reactive resistance control, motion detection and global/local interactive
networking/control. The Hybrid devices are interfaces between a person
working out and its virtual avatar who interactively coaches and is net-
work controlled while being integrated to the cloud, e.g. social media or
computer games. The generation 8.0 lets virtual reality become real vir-
tuality. Another small step towards this direction was recently made by
the premiere of fitness machine ‘Icaros’.
It is obvious that the industry will go through fundamental changes in the foresee-
able future. There might still be classic fitness studios with workout involving ex-
ercise equipment and aerobic -courses but today already the growth of so called
‘special interest’ studios is exceedingly strong. They offer newest inventions and
ideas mostly in form of micro studios that cannot be implemented equally fast
even by C&C because these innovation are in most cases very personal, i.e. a
person of enormous expert knowledge is required. These entrepreneurs can be
hope and example for all SMEs, while they will barely be any future prospects for
the mass of old SMEs without restructuring with regards to the new generations’
technical and athletic abilities.
Changes in the sports econom y Consequences for SMEs
127
Besides fitness studios as service providers, manufacturers of equipment must
equally adapt to the new ways of exercising and incorporate this for the develop-
ment of new equipment.
Changes in the sports econom y Consequences for SMEs
128
5 Staffing needs for qualified professionals in the management in the fu-
ture
Two associations are linked under the term of vacant sports management’. First
in the sense of ‘vacant’ as there are no sports managers, and second in the as-
sumption that those available are mentally vacant’ without any new expert
knowledge or professional competence.
At this point, the first connection of meanings is to be explained. The KSW re-
cently published a prognosis forecasting a deficit of work forces of estimated
170.000 sports academics and 100.000 fitness specialists in Germany by the
year 2030 (c.p. Pauling & Vatanparast 2016). Responsible for this are the demo-
graphic change as well as the average annual growth of the industry until 2030
of 3.6% to 20 million members, i.e. there is a penetration rate (share of fitness
members to inhabitants) of 25%. In this situation at least 500.000 qualified work-
ers (currently 266.000) will be needed. After analyses of expected graduates fig-
ures and rates of employment in the industry only 50.000 sports academics and
40.000 fitness specialists add up.
There a several small private universities having already disc overed this tremen-
dous potential and massively extending the offered degree programmes in the
sector of sports management. Especially demanded are dual bachelor pro-
grammes so the number of enterprises in the fitness industry engaging in co-
operations with universities decreased by 23% from 3.000 in 2014 to 3.700 to
2015. The number of students of these programmes rose by 26% from 5.000 in
2014 to 6.300 in 2015. Compared to the count of required graduates in the future,
current numbers of students are no longer sufficient.
The Chinese situation is more alarming. Although China is enormously bigger,
the number of exercising citizens increased to 382 million in 2014 and the gov-
ernments expects the sports industry to earn 71.9 billion Euros (524 billion CNY)
in the next ten years, the industry has still 10.000 less qualified workers available
than smaller Germany while the number of sports managers having run through
university is vanishingly low. Adding on offers of degree programmes of sports
management in China only slowly progresses and desperately needed dual bach-
elor programmes after the German formula of success are sought in vain though
compared to the German prognosis China will lack millions of qualified workers
due to demographic changes and shifts in the markets by the year 2030. But
some universities have realized the potential and have taken up discussions in
favour of a German-Chinese degree programme for sports management.
Changes in the sports econom y Consequences for SMEs
129
6 Conclusion
In the KSW’s view there is barely any hope for fundamental improvement of the
German and Chinese SMEs situation, without universities offering new degree
programmes in the field of sports business, i.e. sports economics and sports man-
agement, and without intensification of scientific research concerning this. C&C
will control the market to such a large extent, the economic downfall of SMEs will
continue without checks.
Changes in the sports econom y Consequences for SMEs
130
References
Pauling, Kai. (2015). Das Ende vom Discount - Teil 2, Hohe Qualität versus
günstiger Preis. In: Fitness Tribune, Nr. 157, S. 50-52.
Pauling, Kai. (2015). Das Ende vom Discount - Teil 1, Qualität und individueller
Service versus Preis und Masse. In: Fitness Tribune,Nr. 156, S. 16-18.
China Sports Business (2011): https://chinasportsbiz.com/2011/07/01/huge-po-
tential-of-fitness-market-in-china. Accessed 2014-03-13.
Liu, B. (2008). Zeitgenössische deutsche und chinesische Sportpädagogik im
Vergleich: Ausgewählte Beispiele. Dissertation thesis, Deutsche Sporthoch-
schule Köln.
Stemper, T. (1994). Effekte des gerätgestützten Fitnesstrainings. Hamburg: SSV-
Verlag.
Pauling, Kai. (2016). STEPDO - Handbuch zur Step Aerobic. 2. vollst. überarb.
Aufl. - Release follows.
Pauling, Kai. (2004). Die dritte Revolution: Zukunftsmarkt Personaltraining. In:
Shape up Trainer's only, Jg. 2, Nr. 1, S. 2-3.
Stelzel-Morawietz, P. (2014). Bigger Data. In: PC-Welt (4/2014), 8. München:
IDG Tech Media.
Die Zeit, 2016: http://www.welt.de/wirtschaft/webwelt/article153244642/Ante-
lope-Fitnessanzug-setzt-Jogger-unter-Strom.html. Accessed 2016-03-21.
Pauling, Kai & Vatanparast, Mir. (2016). Folgen des demografischen Wandels. In:
bodyLIFE, Nr. 7, S. 38-42.
Changes in the sports econom y Consequences for SMEs
131
Table 1: Industry revenues worldwide
€ Bn
¥ (亿)
Global %
Europe 欧洲
23.7
1732
31.6%
USA 美国
21.4
1564
28.5%
China 中国
17.9
1308
23.9%
Others 其他
12
870
16.0%
Total
75
5474
Changes in the sports econom y Consequences for SMEs
132
Figure 1: Industry revenues in China
2015
Industry revenues
4.8 Bn
(350 亿¥)
Number of
health club facilities
8332
Health club
memberships
9.46 M (946 )
Penetration rate
(% of total population)
11.6%
2014
+2.7%
+3.8%
+4.2%
+3.6%
Changes in the sports econom y Consequences for SMEs
133
Figure 2: Industry revenues in Germany
2015
行业收入
17.9 Bn
(1308 亿¥)
健身俱乐部设施的数󲼀
3650
康俱乐部会员资格
3.5 M (350 )
普及率
占总人口的百分比
0.25%
2014
+17%
+5%
?
?
... Als 2014 die erste FIBO in China stattfand, wurde das Land von einem der Autoren dieses Artikels, Dr. Kai Pauling, als der künftig größte Fitnessmarkt der Welt gehandelt (#1, Pauling, 2015). In der Zukunftsanalyse aus dem Jahr 2016 (#2, Pauling, 2016) prognostizierte er aufgrund der boomenden Märkte und des demografischen Wandels einen Mangel von über einer Million Fitnessfachkräfte für China gegenüber 170.000 fehlenden Fitness-Akademikern und 100.000 Fitnessfachkräften in Deutschland für das Jahr 2030 (#3, Pauling & Vatanparast, 2016 ...
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Der asiatisch-pazifische Fitnessmarkt ist nach Nordamerika und Europa der drittgrößte der Welt. Zu seinen wesentlichen Regionen zählen China (Hongkong, Taiwan), Japan, Australien, South Korea, India, New Zealand, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines, Malaysia und Vietnam. Nachdem im ersten Teil China betrachtet wurde, richtet dieser zweite Teil seinen Blick auf Vietnam. Quellenangabe: Pauling, Kai & Pauling, Sofie Xuyen. (2020). Der asiatische Fitnessmarkt, Teil 2: Vietnam. In: BODYMEDIA, Nr. 5, S. 88 - 93. Link: https://www.sporting-expert.com/pdf/Pauling-Vietnam-Fitnessmarkt.pdf
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Die kommende Wirtschaftskrise wird die gesamte deutsche Fitnessbranche sehr hart treffen. Die Spirale zum Sterben der klassischen inhabergeführten Studios, wie bereits 2016 beschrieben (vgl. Pauling, 2016, #3), wird sich erheblich schneller drehen. Auch viele große Ketten werden versuchen, zu überleben und im Preiskampf womöglich sich selbst und andere in den Strudel zur Zahlungsunfähigkeit ziehen. Alle Studioinhaber sollten sich daher dringend einen Überblick verschaffen, damit sie noch agieren können, bevor es zu spät ist und sie nicht einmal mehr reagieren können. Quellenangabe: Pauling, Kai. (2020). Wertvoll oder wertlos? Unternehmensbewertung in der Krise. In: bodyLIFE, Nr. 6, S. 60 - 62, ISSN: 1437-286X. Link: https://www.sporting-expert.com/pdf/Pauling-Unternehmensbewertung.pdf.
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Dieser Artikel wirft am Beispiel des EMS-Trainings einen prognostischen Blick in die Zukunft der Fitnessindustrie unter den Aspekten der Veränderung des Trainings, der Gerätetechnik, des Konsumentenverhaltens und dies vor dem Hintergrund allgemeiner betriebswirtschaftlicher und ökonomischer Regeln und der globalen Wirtschaftslage. Quellenangabe: Pauling, Kai & Pauling, Sofie Xuyen & Vatanparast, Mir. (2019). Autosensitives Training (AST) - Das Training der Zukunft. In: Fitness Tribune, Nr. 179, S. 38 - 39, ISSN: 1424-1609. Link: https://www.sporting-expert.com/pdf/Pauling-Autosensitives-Training.pdf
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Beim Begriff „eFitness“ denken viele möglicherweise zuerst an Fitnessangebote, die online übers Internet angeboten werden, oder an konsolengestützte Bewegungsspiele. Doch weder das eine noch das andere trifft den Kern. Was ist eFitness, was ist der Unterschied zum eSport, wo liegen die enormen ökonomischen Potenziale und wie ist der Stand der Entwicklung hin zur eigenen eFitness-Industrie? Quellenangabe: Pauling, Kai. (2020). eFitness-Boom - Die vierte Revolution der Fitnessindustrie. In: bodyLIFE, Nr. 5, S. 46 - 48, ISSN: 1437-286X. Link: https://www.sporting-expert.com/pdf/Pauling-eFitness-Boom.pdf.
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In der letzten Ausgabe wurde die Frage aufgeworfen, ob das neue high5-Franchise-Konzept von MCFit negative Auswirkungen auf die Branche haben kann. Insbesondere die Preispolitik, das Personal- und Qualifizierungskonzept sowie die Verschiebung unternehmerischer Risiken wurden als mögliche kritische Punkte angeführt. Grundsätzlich stecken in diesem Diskurs zwei wesentliche Brennpunkte. Zum einen geht es um die Abwägung zwischen egoistischem unternehmerischen Eigennutzen gegenüber den Interessen der Branche und deren Kunden. Verkürzt dargestellt als Schere zwischen Kapitalist und Gesellschaft. Also schlussendlich eine Frage der Wirtschaftsethik. Zum anderen zeigt sich in diesem Diskurs aber auch ein Aspekt der Distributionspolitik. Dabei ist es nicht bloss die einfache Frage nach der Wahl des Betriebstyps, in dem der Absatz erfolgt, sondern vielmehr eine der Grundsatzentscheidungen bei der Wahl des Alleinstellungsmerkmals (USP). Umgangssprachlich gesprochen geht es um die beiden Fragen: Darf ein Discounter mit seinen billigen Preisen den Markt kaputt machen? Sollte als USP für den Vertrieb von Fitness- und Gesundheit ein günstiger Preis oder nur eine hohe Qualität dienen (dürfen)? Quellenangabe: Pauling, Kai. (2015). Das Ende vom Discount - Teil 2, Hohe Qualität versus günstiger Preis. In: Fitness Tribune, Nr. 157, S. 50-52, ISSN: 1424-1609 Link: https://www.sporting-expert.com/pdf/Pauling-Fitness-Discount-2.pdf
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’Die FIBO 2015 konnte jüngst mit neuen Rekordmeldungen von sich selber und aus der Branche aufwarten. Doch wo viel Licht ist, da gibt es bekanntlich auch jede Menge Schatten. Es gab kaum einen Hersteller auf der FIBO oder Bericht in der Presse, der nicht darauf verwies, dass sich die Fitness- und Gesundsheitsbranche statistisch gesehen weiter im Aufwind befindet. Doch trotz aller Tendenzen zur Abkehr vom puren Discount und von systematisierter Massenabfertigung, wie etwa die neuen Strategien von Lidl oder McDonald’s zeigen, startet MCFit ausgerechnet jetzt mit einem neuen Discount-Discount-Konzept. Doch wirft MCFit damit einen dunklen Schatten auf die Branche? Und wenn ja, welche Möglichkeiten gibt es, um nicht in diesen Schatten zu geraten? Im folgenden Artikel soll diesen Fragen näher nachgegangen und weitere Hintergründe beleuchtet werden. Quellenangabe: Pauling, Kai. (2015). Das Ende vom Discount - Teil 1, Qualität und individueller Service versus Preis und Masse. In: Fitness Tribune, Nr. 156, S. 16-18, ISSN: 1424-1609 Link: https://www.sporting-expert.com/pdf/Pauling-Fitness-Discount-1.pdf
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Personaltraining bezeichnet eine Trainingsbetreuungsform, bei der ein einzelner Klient von einem in der zu trainierenden Sportart fachlich qualifizierten Trainer persönlich, direkt und individuell nach den aktuellen sportwissenschaftlichen, sportmedizinischen, sportpädagogischen und sportartspezifischen Grundlagen und Erkenntnissen trainiert wird. Quellenangabe: Pauling, Kai. (2004). Die dritte Revolution: Zukunftsmarkt Personaltraining. In: shape up - Trainer's only, Jg. 2, Nr. 1, S. 2-3, ISSN: 0949-2380 Originallink: https://www.sporting-expert.com/pdf/Pauling-Zukunftsmarkt-Personaltraining.pdf
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