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The psychological impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on college students in China

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Abstract

A COVID-19 epidemic has been spreading in China and other parts of the world since December 2019. The epidemic has brought not only the risk of death from infection but also unbearable psychological pressure. We sampled college students from Changzhi medical college by using cluster sampling. They responded to a questionnaire packet that included the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) and those inquiring the participants’ basic information. We received 7,143 responses. Results indicated that 0.9% of the respondents were experiencing severe anxiety, 2.7% moderate anxiety, and 21.3% mild anxiety. Moreover, living in urban areas (OR = .810, 95% CI = .709 - .925), family income stability (OR = .726, 95% CI = .645 - .817) and living with parents (OR = .752, 95% CI = .596 - .950) were protective factors against anxiety. Moreover, having relatives or acquaintances infected with COVID-19 was a risk factor for increasing the anxiety of college students (OR = 3.007, 95% CI = 2.377 - 3.804). Results of correlation analysis indicated that economic effects, and effects on daily life, as well as delays in academic activities, were positively associated with anxiety symptoms (P < .001). However, social support was negatively correlated with the level of anxiety (P < .001). It is suggested that the mental health of college students should be monitored during epidemics.

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... High levels of anxiety regarding participants' social life, academic achievements, and future job career emerged as a major risk factor in the study [22]. These findings are in line with other ones obtained across countries during the pandemic: in China, 25% of the university students showed symptoms of anxiety [23]; in the United States, findings obtained from college students highlighted increased anxiety in 38.5% of the participants, stress in 71%, and depression in 38.5% [24]; in Spain, students attending courses in Humanities, Social Work, and Law experienced moderate to severe anxiety [25]. ...
... These findings can be related to the peculiar situation in Italy, the first and most affected country in Europe during the first COVID-19 outbreak. In order to contain the contagion spread, the government imposed restrictions and a prolonged lockdown, during which people could not leave their homes except for basic needs; the 71 days of total lockdown taking place in Spring 2020 [23] and the closure of schools and universities for a longer period than in other countries [34,35] may have further contributed to the distress of Italian students. ...
... Researchers have also investigated the positive dimensions of students' experience during the pandemic, such as perceived institutional and family support, teachers' empathy, and economic resources [23,36]. To date, only one Italian study has investigated the protective role of resilience on university students' adjustment to the pandemic, finding a negative relationship of resilience with perceived stress, study fatigue, and difficulties in learning and interpersonal relationships [17]. ...
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A vast amount of literature has highlighted that restrictions imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic, such as lockdowns and the resulting interruption of face-to-face academic activities, strongly disrupted students' daily routine and undermined their well-being. Through a mixed method approach, this study was aimed at investigating the association between students' experience of the health emergency and their resilience levels during the first pandemic outbreak. Between April and May 2020, 421 Italian university students attending Health Sciences, Humanities, and Political Sciences courses completed the Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA), provided narratives about the emergency by answering an open-ended question, and filled out a demographic questionnaire. Results showed that narratives about community/society issues were by far the most recurrent ones across disciplinary areas, while a significantly higher percentage of students from Humanities focused on study/university. Health Sciences students were more likely to provide narratives concerning social commitment, and they reported significantly higher resilience levels than Humanities students. A higher percentage of students with moderate resilience focused their narratives on the study/university domain, compared to students with high resilience. Findings suggest the importance of supporting students' resilience to counterbalance their academic concerns in both times of crisis and ordinary times.
... Mental health problems and the occurrence of anxiety and affective emotional problems were also found in the student population of Slovakia [11]. A special problem was created among medical students who, due to the pandemic, could not have practical classes and contact with patients [12] and thus self-reported increased levels of anxiety and stress [6]. Their level of anxiety was even higher compared to the general population [13]. ...
... The results of this study showed that anxiety in our students was present in 90.9%, which indicates the high vulnerability of Serbian students to pandemic conditions. A study conducted among Chinese medical students [12] showed that 25% of students had problems with anxiety due to the virus pandemic and its consequences on everyday life and education. Anxiety was also a reaction of US students to the pandemic and its uncertainties, such as financial problems, unemployment, social isolation, concerns related to study conditions, and the organization of distance learning [23]. ...
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Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is currently one of the biggest public health threats for people's mental health. A particularly endangered group were students, who became highly affected by measures of social distance due to their active lifestyle. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to assess the level of self-reported stress, anxiety and depression of the student population in Serbia, in relation to demographic characteristics, living and studying conditions, students' activities during the epidemic, potential coronavirus infection and general, mental and physical health. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 580 undergraduate medical students from the University of Belgrade during the 2020/2021 school year. Mental health data were collected using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21). Both bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to examine the association between independent variables with the dependent variable mental health. Results: Women made up the majority of the sample with 80.3%. A total of 64.5%, 66.8% and 66.7% of students between the ages of 21 and 30 had severe depressive symptoms, severe degree of anxiety, and a severe degree of stress, respectively. Women almost twice as often (OR = 1.89) assessed their anxiety as severe and almost two and a half times more (OR = 2.39) perceived stress as severe compared to men. Students who lived with their families during studies two and a half times (OR = 2.57) more often assessed their stress as severe, compared to students who lived alone. Fifth- and sixth-year students were less likely to rate depression and anxiety as serious than the first-year students. Conclusions: Medical students reported their health as severely impaired in terms of depression, anxiety and stress reactions. The results indicate the need to launch a mental health program in the form of counseling and emotional support to students affected by the pandemic.
... Anxiety was a common kind of negative emotion generated when faced with unpleasant events or a challenge that was too difficult to deal with (15). After COVID-19, the ratio increased up to 24.9% (16). Depression produced severe persistent sadness, unhappiness, mood swings, behavior, and mental disorders (17). ...
... The work stressor of college students under the COVID-College students had lots of unique stressors during the COVID-19 pandemic, and many of them were future oriented; concerns about campus closures, delays in degree completion, and, as the economy continued to decline, worry about future job prospects (16,86). According to this study, work stressor was the important stressor and had a great impact on mental health, in line with the previous studies (19)(20)(21). ...
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COVID-19 caused harmful mental consequences to the public, and mental health problems were very common among college students during the outbreak of COVID-19. Academic stressors were the main stress for college students, and social support, social well-being, and self-identity were widely known as protective factors for mental health. Therefore, the study aimed to investigate the influence of academic stressors on mental health and the mediating effect of social support, social well-being, and self-identity among college students during the outbreak of COVID-19. With 900 college students as subjects, using the college students' academic stressors questionnaire, social support questionnaire, social well-being scale, self-identity scale, and depression anxiety stress scales (DASS-21), the results showed that: ( 1 ) academic stressors had a significantly negative correlation with social support, social well-being, and self-identity while having a significantly positive correlation with mental health; ( 2 ) academic stressors could positively predict mental health; ( 3 ) this effect was mediated by social support, social well-being, and self-identity; ( 4 ) work stressor was an important stressor during COVID-19, and had the same role as academic stressors in the structural equation model. The results of this study suggested that adjusting the academic stressors or work stressors of college students and enhancing social support could improve social well-being and self-identity, and might effectively protect their mental health under the COVID-19 pandemic environment.
... A survey by Cao et al. (2020), which includes 7143 participants of college students, found around 25% of students are suffering from severe anxiety due to online learning stress. Also, findings suggest that students, as well as the general population, may be experiencing psychological effects from the outbreak of Covid-19, such as anxiety, fear, and worry, among others. ...
... As cited by Cao et al. (2020) found that 0.9% of college students experienced severe anxiety during COVID-19, while around 24% experienced mild to moderate levels, which presents a low level of anxiety compared to previous literature on college students in general. Table 5 shows the difference in the scores of the respondents when they are grouped according to their demographic profile. ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic had a significant impact on students' mental health. Monitoring and managing the students' wellbeing during a crisis such as this pandemic is a priority. In this study, the researchers' main objective is to determine the relationship between perceived stress and the mental health of selected college online students in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 307 college online students served as the respondents to this research, where two instruments were used: (a) Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), which measured Perceived Stress; and (b) Mental Health Inventory-18 (MHI), which assessed the respondents' Mental Health. The researchers utilized statistical methods such as frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, one-way analysis of variance, and Pearson r correlation to analyze the data. It was also found out that perceived stress and mental health have a significant negative relationship, implying that the higher the students’ perceived stress, the lower their mental health and vice-versa. Moreover, the respondents have low anxiety levels and moderate degrees for depression, behavioral control, and positive affect, respectively. Furthermore, the study revealed that a higher percentage of stress has a lesser influence on one’s positive affect than anxiety, depression, and behavioral control. Therefore, it suggests that high behavioral control is an important factor in students' healthy mental state in this time of the pandemic. Finally, the gathered information may also serve as a basis for developing students’ wellness programs.
... In a study involving university students in Germany indicated that 38% of the students experienced low or very low wellbeing (Dadaczynski et al., 2021). Recent studies have reported heightened posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety and insomnia among university students (Tang et al., 2020;Cao et al., 2020;Islam et al., 2020;Al Omari et al., 2020). 80.7% of the students were suffering from depression in Turkey (Bulut et al., 2021). ...
... 80.7% of the students were suffering from depression in Turkey (Bulut et al., 2021). Living in an urban area, with low parental income, living without parent was found to be associated with anxiety (Cao et al., 2020). Tang and colleagues (2020) found that feeling extreme fear, short sleep durations, being in their graduating year and living in severely afflicted areas as risk factors for PTSD and depression. ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic has adversely affected the mental health of various populations. It is thought that international students are more affected by this situation among university students who are prone to mental disorders. For this reason, the aim of the current study was to investigate depression, anxiety, stress, loneliness and perceived social support among international students in North Cyprus during the COVID-19 pandemic. Depression, anxiety, stress, loneliness and perceived social support scores were compared between international students who stayed in Cyprus during the quarantine period and students who returned to their home countries and also the factors predicting depression, anxiety and stress scores among international students staying in Cyprus during the quarantine period were examined. The sample of the study included 262 students who were recruited using convenience sampling. A socio-demographic form, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-Short Form, Revised University of California Los Angeles Loneliness Scale and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support Scale were used for data collection. The results revealed that during the lockdown the students mostly worried about their health, their families' health and their academic performance. International students who stayed in Cyprus during the lockdown had higher depression and lower perceived family support scores than the international students who travelled back to their home countries and were there during the lockdown. The result of hierarchical linear regression indicated that length of stay in Cyprus, perceived support of significant other and stress were predictors which explained 73% of variance in depression scores. Gender, monthly income and stress were significant predictors of anxiety which explained 63% of variance and grade, significant other support, depression and anxiety were predictors of stress which explained 78% of the variance. The current study result highlight that universities and states should consider social support and protective mental health programs for international students. Öz: COVID-19 salgını, çeşitli popülasyonların ruh sağlığını olumsuz yönde etkiledi. Ruhsal rahatsızlıklara yatkın olan üniversite öğrencileri arasında uluslararası öğrencilerin bu durumdan daha fazla etkilendiği düşünülmüştür. Bundan dolayı bu çalışmanın amacı, COVID-19 pandemisi sırasında Kuzey Kıbrıs'taki uluslararası öğrenciler arasında depresyon, kaygı, stres yalnızlığı ve algılanan sosyal desteği incelemektir. Depresyon, kaygı, stres, yalnızlık ve algılanan sosyal destek puanları karantina dönemi Kıbrıs'ta kalan uluslararası öğrenciler ile memleketlerine dönen öğrenciler karşılaştırılmıştır ve ayrıca karantina dönemi Kıbrıs'ta kalan uluslararası öğrenciler arasında depresyon, kaygı ve stres puanlarını yordayan faktörler incelenmiştir. Araştırmanın örneklemini kolayda örnekleme ile seçilen 262 öğrenci oluşturmuştur. Veri toplamada sosyodemografik form, Depresyon Anksiyete Stres Ölçeği-Kısa Form, Revize California Los Angeles Üniversitesi Yalnızlık Ölçeği ve Çok Boyutlu Algılanan Sosyal Destek Ölçeği kullanılmıştır. Sonuçlar, karantina sırasında öğrencilerin en çok kendi sağlıkları, ailelerinin sağlığı ve akademik performans konusunda endişelendiğini ortaya koydu. Karantina sırasında Kıbrıs'ta kalan uluslararası öğrenciler, kendi ülkelerine geri dönen ve karantina sırasında orada bulunan uluslararası öğrencilere göre daha yüksek depresyon ve daha düşük algılanan aile desteği puanına sahipti. Hiyerarşik lineer regresyon sonucu, Kıbrıs'ta kalış süresinin, önemli birinin algılanan desteğinin ve stresin, depresyon puanındaki varyansın %73'ünü açıklayan yordayıcılar olduğunu göstermiştir. Cinsiyet, aylık gelir ve stres, varyansın %63'ünü açıklayan kaygının önemli yordayıcılarıydı, önemli birinin algılanan desteğinin, depresyon ve kaygı, varyansın %78'ini açıklayan stresin yordayıcılarıydı. Mevcut çalışmanın bulguları, üniversitelerin ve devletlerin uluslararası öğrenciler için sosyal destek ve koruyucu ruh sağlığı programlarını dikkate alması gerektiğini vurgulamaktadır.
... These included the demographic variables such as age, gender, education, income and Indigenous status. Age in years was divided into three groups (18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25)(26)(27)(28)(29)(30)(31)(32)(33)(34)(35)(36)(37)(38)(39)(40)(41)(42)(43)(44)(45)(46)(47)(48)(49)(50)(51)(52)(53)(54), 55 +). The following gender categories were defined (female, male, other/prefer not to say). ...
... These results would suggest that living in rural areas may have provided a buffer against a worsening of health due to the pandemic. Although it is challenging to compare geographic regional differences across countries, these observations appear to be at odds with reports that depression and/or anxiety were lower among urban (in comparison to rural) inhabitants during the pandemic among medical health workers 32 and college students in China 33 . ...
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The Canadian Perspectives on Environmental Noise Survey (CPENS), conducted between April 12th, 2021 and May 25th, 2021 coincided with the third wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Canadians 18 years of age and older (n = 6647) reported the degree to which the pandemic affected their physical health, mental health, stress, annoyance toward environmental and indoor noise, and overall well-being. Depending on the outcome evaluated, between 18 and 67% of respondents reported the measure as “somewhat” or “much worse” due to the pandemic. Stress was most affected, followed by mental health, overall well-being, physical health, annoyance toward environmental noise and annoyance toward indoor noise. Logistic regression models indicated that province, geographic region (rural/remote, suburban, urban), age, gender, poor physical/mental health, heart disease, a history of high sleep disturbance (in general) or diagnosed sleep disorders, anxiety/depression, working/schooling from home, and being retired significantly impacted the odds of reporting a worsening by the pandemic to varying degrees and directions, depending on the outcome. Indigenous status was unrelated to any of the modelled outcomes. Future research could address some of the noted study limitations and provide the data to determine if the observations on the reported measures of health are temporary, or long-lasting.
... De esta forma, durante la pandemia por COVID-19, los problemas socioemocionales de la cultura organizacional han aumentado, por lo que es importante realizar investigaciones para evaluar sus alteraciones emocionales (Roy et al, 2020). Al respecto, estos trastornos por COVID-19 de los miembros de una organización (Chraif y Anitei, 2013), se manifiestan en miedo, ansiedad excesiva, preocupación obsesiva y angustia, entre otras alteraciones (Wenjun et al, 2020). crear una cultura que responda a los nuevos desafíos del ambiente (Howard-Grenville, 2020). ...
... Dado lo anterior, es necesario que las organizaciones identifiquen e implementen los métodos que permitan atender los nuevos contextos socioemocionales de los trabajadores, un hecho que está marcando un cambio en la cultura organizacional (Wenjun et al, 2020;Pike, 2020). ...
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Sin duda alguna, la pandemia por COVID-19 ha venido a sacudirnos y movernos del statu quo en que nos encontrábamos, alterando nuestros estilos de vida y provocando una infinidad de cambios para poder sobrevivir y adaptarnos a la nueva realidad. Como sabemos, la COVID-19 es una enfermedad causada por el virus SARS-CoV-2 que se originó en la ciudad de Wuhan, China, en diciembre de 2019. Tres meses después, el 11 de marzo de 2020 fue declarada pandemia por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), lo que obligó al Gobierno de México a implementar acciones para combatir la emergencia sanitaria, la Secretaría de Salud emitió el 24 de marzo, el “Acuerdo por el que se establecen las medidas preventivas que se deberán implementar para la mitigación y control de los riesgos para la salud que implica la enfermedad por el virus SARS-CoV2”; entre ellas se encontraban limitar la asistencia de personas mayores de 65 años y con enfermedades graves a los centros de trabajo, así como suspender temporalmente las actividades que involucraran la concentración y desplazamiento de personas. Entre las estrategias más importantes implementadas para controlar los contagios del virus están la reducción y control de la movilidad internacional, regional y local de las personas, el control de la actividad económica a través de la contracción temporal de las actividades identificadas como no esenciales, el resguardo sanitario de los habitantes, así como la observancia de las medidas de sana distancia y las prácticas de higiene, principalmente. En suma, la epidemia global del coronavirus tuvo importantes efectos negativos en la salud, la economía y los avances sociales de la última década en el mundo.Por su parte, las empresas también resintieron esta crisis sanitaria en su situación económica a través de la restricción de actividades, ruptura en la cadena de valor, pérdida de clientes, caída en las ventas, problemas con los costos fijos y/o variables, limitaciones para conseguir insumos, recursos financieros, incapacidades por empleados infectados, etc. Además de haber implementado medidas sanitarias, tuvieron que implementar el home office, el ajuste en horarios de trabajo y atención, así como el uso de tecnologías para enfrentar la comercialización y distribución, entre otras. Todas estas modificaciones han tenido un gran impacto en la cultura de las organizaciones, la cual sin duda ha sufrido importantes transformaciones.
... The problem statement of the study is based on the previous studies. Firstly, college students in China reported significant adverse effects on the students' psychological well-being and high levels of anxiety (Cao et al., 2020;Wang et al., 2020). To date, the majority of the research has been conducted in China and Western countries, mainly among the general population, healthcare workers, and medical students. ...
... As the research objectives are to assess the pretest and the post-test effects of group counseling sessions on perceived stress among undergraduate students during the COVID-19 pandemic. As in view of the previous study, college students in China reported significant adverse effects on students' psychological well-being and high levels of anxiety (Cao et al., 2020;Wang et al., 2020;Bao et al., 2020). To date, the majority of the research has been conducted in China and Western countries, mainly among the general population, healthcare workers, and medical students. ...
Article
This study was aimed to assess the pre-test and post-test effects of group counseling sessions on perceived stress among undergraduate students during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study was inspired by the fact of the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on students' well-being during the pandemic. A true experiment design pretest posttest control group was employed in this study. Through purposive sampling, a total of 30 counseling students from a local university has been selected as representative of the sample population. Perceived-Stress Scale has been measured at pre and posttest. The results showed there are differences between the pre-test and post-test results after the experiment has been conducted by the researcher. This study provided valuable information about the appropriate intervention that can be used in order to cope with the group counseling session on perceived stress among undergraduate students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, students should be introduced early to the university counselling services so that they can learn about the knowledge and techniques of coping with stress issues
... In addition to the relatively high mortality rate, several studies have already established that COVID-19 had a substantial psychological impact on mental health. For example, large-scale surveys have already found that at the height of the pandemic approximately 20% of respondents in China experienced symptoms anxiety or depression [1,2] and prevalence of mental distress increased from 18.9% to 27.3% in the UK population [3]. This negative impact on mental health is perhaps not surprising considering the severity of the virus and the disruption to daily life as many countries enforced national restrictions during the height of the pandemic [4]. ...
... As the data from the experimental manipulation is reported elsewhere, a number of measures were recorded but will not be reported here. 1 Ethical approval was granted by the University of Aberdeen School of Medicine, Medical Sciences and Nutrition (CERB/2019/12/1831). ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic required people to navigate lockdowns and unfamiliar restrictions for the first time. It is known that situations characterised by uncontrollability and novelty heighten the physiological response to stress. The data presented here was collected as part of an experimental stress study and offered an opportunity to compare cortisol levels upon arrival to the lab before and after the first UK lockdown, when students had to navigate novel health and safety restrictions on campus. Participants (n = 152) were students who took part in an experiment designed to measure salivary cortisol levels as a response to a stress task. All provided a baseline cortisol sample after arriving to the lab but before the experimental task. Pre-lockdown participants (n = 72) were familiar with the campus rules whereas post-lockdown participants (n = 80) had to adhere to novel restrictions, including health questionnaires, PPE and social distancing. The post-lockdown sample had significantly higher levels of baseline cortisol, cortisol output (AUCg) and cortisol response (AUCi) than the pre-lockdown group. This effect remained significant even after controlling for sample characteristics. These findings suggest that navigating new restrictions may lead to heightened levels of anticipatory stress even if there is no difference in recent general mental health before and after the lockdown.
... A total of 21.3% of students reported experiencing mild anxiety, 2.7% moderate anxiety, and 0.9% experienced severe anxiety. This anxiety is closely correlated with changes in daily activities experienced and delayed or disrupted academic processes [4]. The online learning model requires students to regulate their motivation to study independently in front of the computer [5]. ...
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A transition in learning model implementation occurred in higher education during the COVID-19 pandemic. Online learning answers the needs of long-distance learning. However, not all higher education institutions are thoroughly prepared for online learning. Therefore, this study aimed to understand the online learning experience at higher education institutions from the perspectives of multigenerational teaching staff. This study utilized mixed-method research through a quantitative and qualitative study. A total of 93 participants; male (n=40) and female (n=57) teaching staff filled out a research questionnaire consisting of closed and open questions about online learning. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and qualitative thematic analysis. The results indicated positive and negative contributions of the online learning process that affect the effectiveness of online learning according to multigenerational teaching staff perspectives. These findings contribute to the global discussion about the online learning process in higher education and recommend the usage of online learning for teaching staff across generations, complemented with an effective instructional design that would help provide a rigorous learning environment.
... psychological and emotional stress among the academics and the students (Sahu, 2020;and Cao et al., 2020). In ensuring an uninterrupted discharge of academic duties by the teachers to the students and covering the syllabus as structured in the academic curriculum, online learning stands a good replacement to traditional learning method for timely dissemination of information to students on a regular basis. ...
... Contemporaneously, students were exposed to other life stressors related to the pandemic, such as grief due to the loss of loved ones, fear about COVID-19 infection for themselves and their family, financial insecurity and uncertainty about their futures (Araújo et al., 2020;Cao et al., 2020;Lyons et al., 2020;Mertens et al., 2020;Mortazavi et al., 2020;O'Byrne et al., 2021). Moreover, the transition to online learning exacerbated social isolation (Akers et al., 2020;Meo et al., 2020;Rose, 2020;Usher et al., 2020), which may have increased anxiety and depression (Brooks et al., 2020;Hossain et al., 2020;Wang et al., 2017). ...
Article
Background: This study aimed to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in terms of the prevalence of anxiety, depression and stress symptoms in Italian medical students and to identify the associated factors. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was administered to second-sixth year medical students of the University of Torino, collecting data on the students' sociodemographics, COVID-19 exposure, anxiety, depression and stress symptoms. Three hierarchical regressions adjusted for age, gender and year of study were executed. Results: The sample size was 1359. The prevalence of anxiety, depression symptoms, moderate perceived stress and severe perceived stress was 47.8%, 52.1%, 56.2% and 28.4%, respectively. The factors associated with mental health symptoms were: being a woman, a family history of psychiatric disorders, living off-site, competitive/hostile climates and unsatisfying friendships among classmates, poor relationships with cohabitants, negative judgment of medical school choice, fear of COVID-19 infection, feelings of loneliness, distressing existential reflections, and a worsening psychological condition related to the pandemic. Being in the fourth or sixth year constituted a protective factor for depression symptoms. Conclusions: Mental health in medical students was associated with both COVID-independent and COVID-related factors. Accessibility to effective interventions must be increased to counteract these changes.
... Therefore, it is interesting to explore how tax students respond to distance learning during the Covid-19 pandemic, which is indicated by their anxiety and satisfaction levels. Many studies have shown that the Covid-19 pandemic affects students' stress level and mental well-being at all colleges worldwide (Burns et al., 2020;Cao et al., 2020;Dhar et al., 2020;Prasath et al., 2021;Visser & Law-van, 2021). According to Coutu (2002), learning anxiety arises from a fear of doing something new out of fear that it will be too difficult, that students would seem foolish in the endeavour, or that they will be forced to abandon old routines that have worked in the past. ...
... Social norms due to the pandemic's severe effects and the potential threat of disease (Cao et al., 2020;Lai et al., 2020;Sarfraz et al., 2020). The anxiety, stress, and panic attacks of people due to have created two etiologies. ...
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This study aims to investigate the influence of psychological biases on the investment decision of Chinese individual investors after the pandemic of COVID-19 with a moderating role of information availability. A cross-sectional method with a quantitative research approach was employed to investigate the hypothesized relationships among variables. The snowball sampling technique was applied to collect the data through a survey questionnaire from individual investors investing in the Chinese stock market. Smart-PLS statistical software was used to analyze the data and for the estimation of hypotheses. Results indicated that overconfidence, representative bias, and anchoring bias have a significant and positive influence on investment decisions during the post-Covid-19 pandemic; however, the availability bias has insignificant and negative effects on the investment decision during the post-COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, findings indicated that information availability has a significant moderating role in the relationship of psychological biases with the investment decision during the post-COVID-19 pandemic. This study contributes to the body of knowledge regarding behavior finance, psychological biases, and investment decision in emerging stock markets. The findings of the present study improve the understanding that how investors’ psychology affects their investment decisions.
... During the COVID-19 pandemic, online learning had a detrimental effect on students' mental health and wellbeing, with increases in rates of depression and anxiety, and decreased satisfaction with their educational experience. These negative impacts were shown to have more significant effects on students with less disposable income, those who identify as women, non-binary or LGBTQ + , students of colour and those who also act as caregivers [70][71][72][73][74][75]. As many students were under remarkable pressures during the survey period, results presented here may not be true or applicable to other online learning environments. ...
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Introduction The approaches to learning students adopt when learning anatomy online could yield important lessons for educators. Dissection room teaching can encourage students to adopt a deep approach to learning anatomy. It was therefore hypothesized that the proportion of students adopting a deep approach to learning would be lower in a population learning anatomy online. This research aims to investigate the experiences of students learning anatomy online during the COVID-19 pandemic and the approaches to learning they adopted. Methods A survey was distributed to medical students at 7 universities across the UK and Ireland. The survey included two previously validated questionnaires: Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students and Anatomy Learning Experience Questionnaire. Results The analysis included 224 unique student responses. Students’ approach to learning mirrored reports from previous studies conducted during face-to-face tuition with 44.3% adopting deep, 40.7% strategic, 11.4% surface, and 3.6% combined learning approaches. The university (p = 0.019) and changes to formative (p = 0.016) and summative (p = 0.009) assessments significantly impacted approach to learning. Students reported that online resources were effective but highlighted the need for clearer guidance on how to find and use them successfully. Conclusion It is important to highlight that students value in-person opportunities to learn from human cadaveric material and hence dissection room sessions should remain at the forefront of anatomical education. It is recommended that future online and/or blended provisions of anatomy teaching include varied resources that maximize engagement with media featuring cadaveric specimens.
... Conversely, this profile may explain the relatively limited rise in psychological distress at the group level. Indeed, more than 85% of our sample were Belgian students with the ability to return home, which may have mitigated the negative effects of the confinement (Cao et al., 2020). Still, differences between subgroups remain rather limited. ...
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University students are at elevated risk for psychological distress, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this study was to warmly contact our students and investigate the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the subjective wellbeing (SWB) and levels of psychological symptoms (such as depressive and anxious feelings) of university students in Belgium. All bachelor and master students of the Vrije Universiteit Brussels ( N = 15,475) were invited for a brief structured telephone interview in March, 2021. In total, 7,154 students were assessed by a structured interview, based on the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6) and the Anamnestic Comparative Self-Assessment (ACSA). Compared to a representative sample, students considered their life during the pandemic as less satisfying compared to their life before the pandemic. Overall, all students have suffered from COVID-19 and the measures taken to contain the pandemic. Twenty percent of our sample of 7,154 VUB students scored above the K6 cutoff, indicating a heightened risk for having a diagnosable mental illness severe enough to cause functional limitations and to require treatment. This study highlights the need for psychological support for all students, during the COVID-19 pandemic.
... Beyond the health concern of an individual for oneself and family members, the COVID-19 posed challenges arising from the loss of income due to job loss or reduced business income, anticipated loss in future income due to lack of economic growth (Sands, 2019). The economic impacts, and effects on daily life are associated with anxiety (Cao et al., 2020;Kar et al., 2021). The negative impact on firm performance in general and small firms in particular has also been documented (Shen et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Background: Information seeking occurs to reinforce existing information, to solve problems, construct meaning, and as a response to alienation. The continual information uncertainty related to COVID-19 pandemic impacted life, livelihood and triggered worry. Information seeking from multiple sources became necessary to allay anxiety and verify authenticity. This research investigated the various sources of information, and its influence on their level of worry.
... Such conditions can disrupt one's progress or threaten the prospect of starting a career (Andrades et al., 2021). Prior studies have found that the pandemic has led some students to evaluate abandoning their studies (Lovón & Cisneros, 2020), generated delays in the fulfillment of their tasks (Cao et al., 2020), and pushed them to a sedentary lifestyle (Savage et al., 2020). Given these changes and their consequences for daily living, stress as well as depressive and anxiety symptoms have risen in higher education students (Mechili et al., 2021;Odriozola-González et al., 2020). ...
Article
Objective: The COVID-19 pandemic has required important changes in the lifestyles and quality of life of higher education students, generating emotional distress. This study sought to evaluate a predictive model of emotional distress and positive mental health through measures of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and posttraumatic growth (PTG) in Chilean higher education students during the pandemic. Method: To this end, 502 students (67.8% female), aged 18-44 years, were surveyed at two time points during the pandemic, separated by 6 months. Potential predictors included emotional regulation strategies, perceived social support, sociodemographic characteristics, factors related to the pandemic, and students' experiences related to online classes. Results: Findings indicated that PTSS levels were generally stable across the two time points, but PTG levels increased. In addition, emotional regulation strategies (suppression, cognitive reappraisal), perceived social support, and female gender predicted both PTSS and PTG 6 months later; students' number of hours of screen time for school also influenced PTG. Conclusions: Findings enhance understanding of the processes contributing to PTSS and PTG in higher education students. The need to improve quality of life and mental health in higher education students, including individual- and institutional-level strategies, is discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... Related to the enhanced overall level of stress that has been experienced by university students during COVID-19, research reported increased financial and psychological stress in Australian medical students compared to pre-pandemic data (7). Other research in many countries has shown that students experienced anxiety due to COVID-19, including worries about economic difficulties, academic delays, and effects of COVID-19 on daily life (8)(9)(10). During the pandemic, the prevalence for depressive symptoms among medical students varied between 31 and 38%, as recent systematic reviews reported (11,12). ...
Article
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The COVID 19 pandemic has led to substantial disruptions in the lives of students in higher education. Partial or full closures of institutions for face-to-face teaching or consultations over a long-lasting period of time in many countries have had significant consequences on the psychosocial health and wellbeing of many students. This perspectives article summarizes the implications on mental, social, and behavioral aspects of students' wellbeing. Moreover, the need for health promoting und supportive services, programmes, structures, and policies is outlined with recommendations for institutional actions on the level of teaching practice, counseling services, and health monitoring, and with the call to re-affirm the wider policy-oriented approach of the Health Promoting University.
... Students stranded in their home countries are forced to study online. The stress caused by the epidemic and the sudden change of learning style from offline to online had a significant impact on students' mental health (Cao et al., 2020). More than three-quarter students considered that online learning is not a positive experience (Min, 2021). ...
Article
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Focusing on the domain of self-compassion, this study explored the promotion mechanism of online learning behavioral engagement (OLBE) of international students in China under COVID-19. Positive emotion and self-improvement motivation were selected as mediators. Participants were 606 international students from 8 countries who were studying online in their own countries due to the international travel restriction of COVID-19. Results showed positive emotion and self-improvement motivation completely mediated self-compassionate mindfulness (SCM) and OLBE of international students. Positive emotion and self-improvement partially mediated SCM and OLBE of international students respectively. Students with higher SCM engage with online learning more in that they possess more positive emotion and self-improvement motivation. This study suggested that SCM may facilitate OLBE via positive emotion and effective self-improvement motivation.
... Various studies have demonstrated that during the COVID-19 pandemic, mental health problems such as fear, anxiety and depression were common among the general public. A cross-sectional multi-country comparison study demonstrated that substantial variations exist in anxiety and depression symptoms across countries during the COVID-19 lockdown, with personal COVID-19 exposure being a significant risk factor (27). College students who received a large amount of negative information about COVID-19 may be at a greater risk of psychological maladjustment (28)(29)(30). Medical students in China face severe depression and anxiety because of their difficult circumstances, such as the long length of schooling, academic pressure, and the stress of clinical practice (31,32). Therefore, it is of great importance to pay special attention to the psychological status of medical students and to take appropriate interventions to improve their mental health. ...
Article
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Background The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has presented a major challenge to the health, economic, and social sectors of the entire world. This study aimed to investigate the mental health and academic performance of medical postgraduates during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. Methods A cross-sectional online survey was conducted from March 20 to April 20, 2022 at the Zhejiang University School of Medicine in China. The questionnaire consisted of three parts: general information, mental health and academic performance. Mental health outcomes were assessed according to the Generalized Anxiety Scale (GAD-7) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 Scale (PHQ-9). Results A total of 153 valid questionnaires were obtained. Of the medical postgraduates in this study, (1) 41.8% had no anxiety symptoms. In addition, 51.0% had mild anxiety symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. None of the participants had a severe anxiety or depression disorder; (2) Females experienced significantly more symptoms in mental health measure scores than the males ( P < 0.01); (3) 78.4% believed that the COVID-19 pandemic had varying degrees of impact on their academics. Doctoral postgraduates showed greater academic stress, and they were more worried about not meeting graduation standards than the master's postgraduates ( P < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the surgical postgraduates and internal postgraduates in either mental health or academic performance. Conclusions Our study found that the COVID-19 pandemic has had a mild impact on the mental health and academic performance of medical postgraduates in China. Females experienced significantly more symptoms on mental health measure scores than the males. Doctoral postgraduates showed greater academic stress than the master's postgraduates. There is uncertainty regarding how long this COVID-19 situation will persist and increasing recognition that there may be periods of recurrence in the future. We need more active curricular innovation and transformation to maintain and improve medical postgraduates' mental health and academic performance.
... This is also in line with the findings of Cao et al., who stated that young adults, including students, experienced more emotional distress due to school closures, cancelation of social events, lower study efficiency with remote online courses, and postponements of exams. The adults, on the other hand, being in the role of caregivers, faced a different kind of toll [29]. ...
... Among the students participating in this study, the rate of those who show moderate or higher anxiety symptoms was 24.6%. During the Covid-19 pandemic, the frequency of anxiety symptoms was 38.1% among medical faculty students in Iran [22] ; among university students in China, it was 24.9% to 26.3% [23,31] ; among university students in Poland, it was 65% (mild and over) [32] ; in nursing students in Israel, it was 42.8% [33] ; and 42.9% in Bangladesh. [25] Before the pandemic, in studies conducted on Medical Faculty students, rates of anxiety symptoms were 49.8% [26] and 45%. ...
Article
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Background: The physical activity of university students is restricted during the pandemic, changes in education and training, and uncertainties during the pandemic caused their social lives to change completely. Aim: This study aims to determine the relationship between the depression, anxiety, and stress, and positivity attitudes of university students during the Covid-19 (coronavirus disease-2019) outbreak and their attitudes and behaviors toward the pandemic. Subjects and methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted online among university students, n = 2153 from April 30, 2020 to May 10, 2020. Data were collected with the Positivity Scale and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale. Results: The proportion of those with moderate and above depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in the study group, respectively, were 40.6%, 24.6%, and 22.5%. The risk ratio of these symptoms is higher among those with lower positive attitudes (OR [odds ratio] = 0.804, 0.897, 0.895, respectively), being women (OR = 1.446, 1.666, 1.471), who are concerned with the transmission of the Covid-19 (OR = 1.144, 1.374, 1.201), who believe their intra-family relations (OR = 1.886, 1.728, 2.083) and education (OR = 1.680, 1.682, 2.132) are negatively affected, and those who are more worried about life after the pandemic. Conclusion: Compared with the pre-pandemic period, the frequency of university students showing symptoms of depression increased, and there was no significant change in anxiety and stress levels.
... COVID-19 has disrupted virtually every aspect of people's daily routines, caused socio-economic hardship, and increased anxiety and stress. Recent studies have reported high levels of anxiety, PTSS and generalized anxiety disorder in the individuals due to COVID-19 outbreak (Cao et al., 2020;Liu, Zhang, et al., 2020;Salari et al., 2020). In this context, anxiety levels were higher in survivors than NCs in this study. ...
Article
The COVID-19 survivors suffer from severe psychosocial challenges related to the current pandemic. In this context, it was aimed to evaluate the coronavirus anxiety, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and also determine the quality of life (QOL), and coping styles with stress in survivors by comparing them with non-COVID controls (NCs). This study was conducted from April 15 to October 15, 2021, as a cross-sectional study design. The study included 339 survivors who were confirmed with COVID-19 through clinical tests in the last 3 months and 321 NCs who had not been infected with COVID-19. Besides sociodemographic and clinical data, a set of valid and reliable assessment tools were used to measure outcomes of coronavirus anxiety, coping styles, post-traumatic stress, generalized anxiety, and quality of life. The total scores of IES-R, GAD-7, and CAS were significantly higher in survivors than in the NCs. These results revealed that survivors manifested higher levels of coronavirus anxiety, generalized anxiety, and post-traumatic stress symptoms (p < 0.05). In survivors, the rates of GAD and coronavirus anxiety were found to be 59.3% and 25.7%, respectively. Additionally, the majority of survivors (89.4%) reported the severity of anxiety as moderate to severe, and also almost two-thirds of them reported the psychological impact of the pandemic as moderate to severe. Furthermore, survivors were found to have a lower quality of life. The findings of this study indicate that survivors experienced higher levels of coronavirus anxiety, generalized anxiety, and post-traumatic stress, and had lower QOL. In addition, it was determined that survivors haven't been using active styles adequately in coping with stress. Thus, psychological intervention studies should be conducted and public mental health strategies should be developed. Providing psychosocial support and psychological guidance will contribute to mental health well-being, and improve the QOL and coping strategies.
... Cao conducted a similar study with Chinese medicine students and showed that 25 % had some level of anxiety. This was not associated with age, but with living in urban areas, living with their parents, and having a stable family income (all these were protective factors during the lockdown) (20). For this reason, a situational analysis should be conducted for each population according to the current context, since there could be considerable variations due to social, economic, and even cultural factors. ...
Article
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INTRODUCCIÓN: la pandemia vivida obligó a cambios sociales que pudieron influir en la salud mental. El objetivo fue determinar la prevalencia y asociaciones de ansiedad, depresión y estrés en estudiantes universitarios peruanos durante la pandemia por COVID-19. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal analítico y multicéntrico, en 2572 estudiantes universitarios de 16 ciudades de Perú. Los diagnósticos de depresión, ansiedad y estrés se obtuvieron con la escala DASS-21 (alfa estrés: 0.85; alfa ansiedad: 0.84 y alfa depresión: 0.87). A estos se los cruzó con importantes variables socioeducativas. RESULTADOS: la ansiedad fue la patología más frecuente (4 % de forma extrema severa, 3 % de forma severa y 10 % de forma moderada); el estrés y la depresión no tienen asociación con la carrera profesional (p > 0.330 y p > 0.440, respectivamente); en cambio, la ansiedad fue menor en los estudiantes de carreras de salud (p = 0.011). Las mujeres tuvieron más estrés (p = 0.040) y ansiedad (p = 0.017). A mayor edad, hubo menos estrés (p = 0.002), depresión (p = 0.006) y ansiedad (p = 0.044). Los de tercer año tuvieron más depresión en comparación con los de primer año (p = 0.011). CONCLUSIONES: existen importantes prevalencias y asociaciones de las tres patologías evaluadas, lo que debe ser monitorizado según como están actualmente. Esto por las posibles futuras manifestaciones de crisis de pánico, estrés postraumático, entre otras.
... However, there are many more studies (Quacquarelli Symonds, 2020) that confirm numerous problems and limitations of online teaching in pandemic conditions (finance, Internet availability or instability of the Internet connection, digital (i)literacy, heterogeneity of learning styles, methodical (un)preparedness of teachers for online teaching, students' burden with tasks and projects, lack of feedback, weak communication and interaction, weak motivation and passivity of students (Cao et al., 2020) etc.). ...
Conference Paper
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Security is a function of the development of society, and observed from the aspect of modern international relations, it is one of the most important, because every day the conditions for preserving human existence become more complex, and thus the fear of uncertainty and uninterrupted functioning of the constituents of society increases. Depending on the severity of the consequences for the values of the society, certain dangers to the security of the constituents of the society can be determined as a challenge, risk or threat. The paper presents a conceptual and categorical distinction between security challenges, risks and threats. The aim of this paper is to determine the list of challenges, risks and threats to the security of the Republic of Serbia, as well as to define the most dominant ones. The list has been made based on the results of the research. Due to the length of the paper, only a brief overview of the methodology and results of the research is given.
... Nesse contexto, a escala Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) é um dos instrumentos mais utilizados para o rastreamento do TAG no mundo (Ahn et al., 2019, Alghadir et al., 2020Lee & Kim, 2019;Pagán-Torres et al., 2020). Estudos realizados no Brasil (Moreno et al., 2016;Silva et al., 2018), em Porto Rico (Pagán-Torres et al., 2020); nos Estados Unidos (Mossman et al., 2017), na China (Cao et al., 2020;Garabiles et al., 2019), na Coreia do Sul (Lee & Kim, 2019), na Arábia Saudita (Alghadir et al., 2020), Gana (Adjorlolo, 2019), na África do Sul (Henn & Morgan, 2019), em Portugal (Bartolo et al., 2017), na Alemanha (Hinz et al., 2016), na Finlândia (Tiirikainen et al., 2019) e em outros países da Europa (Teymoori et al., 2020), por exemplo, a utilizaram como instrumento de avaliação do TAG nas mais diversas populações. Tal fato corrobora a extensiva utilização da GAD-7 em diferentes contextos mundiais. ...
Article
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Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar evidências validade para a escala Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) em adolescentes brasileiros, bem como validade concorrente para esta escala e apresentar a distribuição social do Transtorno de Ansiedade Generalizada (TAG). Participaram 302 adolescentes, com idades entre 15 e 19 anos, de ambos os sexos. Aplicou-se o questionário sociodemográfico, a GAD-7, a Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) e o Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Os resultados da Análise Fatorial Exploratória (AFE) atestaram a unidimensionalidade da GAD-7 e indicaram consistência interna satisfatória. As evidências de validade concorrente apresentaram associações estatisticamente significativas e positivas entre a GAD-7 e as escalas PHQ-9 e HADS-A. Quanto à distribuição social, aproximadamente metade da amostra apresentou a ocorrência de sintomatologia positiva para TAG, sendo mais comum para o sexo feminino e em adolescentes mais jovens. Esses dados sugerem que a GAD-7 apresenta adequadas propriedades psicométricas para rastreamento de ansiedade em adolescentes.
... Some of these studies have been done in consideration of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) [4,5]. Studies have shown that the speed of the pandemic's spread, home isolation, contact with suspected infected individuals, the pain of bereavement, the stress of unemployment, and the uncertainty of the future can all cause people to feel miserable and make them more prone to PTSD [4,6]. PTSD is characterized by persistent and intrusive memories of traumatic events, high vigilance, avoidance of trauma-related cues, and negative changes in thinking and emotions [7]. ...
Article
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Background: The outbreak of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and its rapid spread may have led to individuals developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychological distress. Under this context, teachers merit more attention as a group with high levels of work stress. The purpose of this study was to verify the relationship between PTSD and psychological distress and to explore sleep problems as a possible mediator in the relationship between PTSD and psychological distress, as well as the moderator of internet gaming disorders (IGD) in the relationship between sleep problems and psychological distress. Methods: A total of 11,014 Chinese primary and middle school teachers participated in this study. The survey was conducted online between 25 May and 30 June 2020. Results: PTSD was shown to have both a direct and indirect effect on teachers’ psychological distress. The indirect effect was mediated by sleep problems. IGD played a moderating role between sleep problems and psychological distress. Conclusions: During the COVID-19 pandemic, PTSD has been shown to have had a serious impact on the psychological stress of teachers, which was mediated by sleep problems. In addition, IGD raised the harm brought from sleep problems on teachers’ mental health.
... [23] Even college students are also anxious because of COVID-19. [24] More seriously, some even had suicidal thoughts. [21] The pandemic has also resulted in other various mental health concerns, mainly negative psychological, psychiatric, and psychosocial symptoms. ...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic has brought about multi-faceted effects, including deleterious physical and mental health concerns. Fear of COVID-19 appears to result in varying mental and psychological symptoms among those in contact to patients with the disease. The study aimed to test the psychometric properties of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19s) in accurately measuring fear brought by the pandemic. One-hundred nineteen (119) hospital staff who were nurses currently working in private and/or public hospitals in Pampanga, who has had previous and/or current contact with COVID-19 patients, and are in optimal mental health state, were purposefully selected to participate in this study. Methodological research was employed to statistically test the psychometric properties of FCV-19s using exploratory factor analysis to test factor structure; Cronbach’s alpha to test internal reliability; and Pearson r with the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21) to test concurrent validity. Statistical tests of the FCV-19s showed a single-factor structure, a Cronbach’s alpha score of 0.884, and a moderate correlation with DASS-21 (0.428). The present study was able to confirm the unidimensional construct, reliability, and concurrent validity of FCV-19s. Results contribute to the body of knowledge in terms of the accurate assessment of fear brought by the COVID-19.
... In this regard, early reports of studies carried out in countries initially affected by COVID agree on several negative psychological effects. As the pandemic spread to the west, different international [2] and local reports [3] have confirmed the impact of the pandemic on mental health, mainly anxiety and depression [4][5][6], but also feelings of loneliness [7], sleep disturbances [8], eating disorders [9], and substance abuse [10] among others. In Chile, where this research was carried out, a study performed on a representative sample of 13,648 Chilean people informed that 21.4% of the sample reported moderate or severe symptoms of anxiety and/or depression [3], and subsequent empirical studies have confirmed these results [11,12]. ...
Article
The coronavirus disease has exposed the population to psychosocial threats that could increase mental health problems. This research analyzed the relationships between emotional states (negative [−EWB] and positive [+EWB] experienced well-being), personal resources (resilient coping [RC]), dispositional resources (control beliefs about stress [BAS]), and social resources (so-cial support [SS]), and anxiety and depressive symptoms in a sample of the Chilean population (n = 592), who answered an online questionnaire. Multiple and moderated multiple regression analyses were carried out. Depressive symptoms showed a positive relationship with −EWB (β = 0.805; p < 0.001) and negative relationship with +EWB (β = −0.312; p < 0.001), RC (β = −0.089; p < 0.01), BAS (β = −0.183; p < 0.001) and SS (β = −0.082; p < 0.001). Anxiety symptoms showed a positive relationship with-EWB (β = 0.568; p < 0.001), and a negative relationship with +EWB (β = −0.101; p < 0.03) and BAS (β = −0.092; p < 0.001). BAS moderated the relationship between experienced well-being and depression symptoms, and RC moderated the relationship between experienced well-being with both depression and anxiety symptoms. Findings confirm the buffering effect of personal and dispositional resources when facing a sanitary and social crisis. Moreover, they help to understand the role of internal psychological processes during a crisis and how to cope with life-threatening events.
... The health and psychological pressures caused by the pandemic brought uncertainty and challenged students' mental health in terms of heightened stress, anxiety and depressive thoughts, as shown in studies across the world: China (Cao et al., 2020;Wang & Zhao, 2020), India (Debbarma & Durai, 2021), the US (Gazmararian et al., 2021;Son et al., 2020) and Europe (Wirkner et al., 2021). Students' mental health and stress are negatively associated with student engagement (Steele & Fullagar, 2009), levels of concentration and productivity (Vinkers et al., 2020) and create additional cognitive load (Ratcliff et al., 2021;Sweller, 1988) that hinders learning. ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic has brought a massive shift to remote education, as college students rely on technology to attend class and interact with instructors and peers, while possibly facing technical and situational difficulties at home. Considering the unprecedented situation, the purpose of the present study was to explore student engagement in a small private, American college in Greece during the COVID-19 pandemic, where classes were transitioned mid-semester to synchronous online. It was hypothesized that student engagement would be negatively correlated with both technical difficulties and home distractions. Moreover, we investigated whether computer self-efficacy would mediate the former relationship. The survey sample consisted of 78 undergraduate students, recruited online. Participants completed scales on online student engagement, technical difficulties, home distractions and computer self-efficacy, as well as two exploratory open-ended questions on their attitudes towards online classes. Student engagement was negatively correlated with both technical difficulties and home distractions, while computer self-efficacy mediated the relationship between student engagement and technical difficulties. Students reported that what they enjoyed most in e-classes were the exact aspects that interfered with their learning and engagement. The most commonly reported concern in online courses was impaired concentration and technical issues, while flexibility, time efficiency and home comfort were the aspects that students enjoyed most. The study aims to shed light on engagement in remote learning, as online classes may eventually become an integral component of higher education after the return to a so-called new normality. Suggestions to improve student engagement based on the findings are provided.
... These were not only a direct consequence of the pandemic but also largely driven by the effects of prolonged social isolation. Although necessary to limit the spread of the epidemic, social isolation resulted in increased sedentary lifestyle [2] and other COVID-19-related stressors including fears of infection, frustration and boredom, and lack of in-person contacts [10,11]. Italy was one of the most affected countries during the outbreak, initially accounting for over 223,000 infected individuals and more than 31,000 deaths [12]. ...
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Background This study aims to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of the RinasciMENTE program, an Internet-based self-help intervention based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) principles and techniques in supporting individuals experiencing psychological impairments during the COVID-19 pandemic. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) design with random allocation at the level of individual will be conducted to compare the impact of the RinasciMENTE program with a waiting list control in improving the psychological functioning of the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods A minimum sample of 128 participants experiencing mild/subthreshold levels of psychological symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic will be recruited. After the initial screening, participants will be randomly assigned to either the experimental group or the control condition. The program will last 2 months, during which participants will receive 8 weekly CBT treatment modules. The impact of the RinasciMENTE program on selected primary and secondary psychological outcomes will be tested at the end of the intervention (2 months) and 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Discussion We expect people to show an increased level of psychological functioning and to acquire the skills and self-confidence necessary to deal with the psychological consequences of the COVID-19 outbreak and its related social isolation during and following the pandemic. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT0497903 Registered on 28 May 2021
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COVID-19 is not only a medical science issue, but it is also a critical issue for other experts such as social scientists, economists, technologists, psychiatrists, statisticians, sociologists, policymakers, politicians, and administrators, among others. Therefore, it is important to make collective efforts to deal with this pandemic. Interdisciplinary research is one of the best ways to achieve this. Interdisciplinary research is capable of bridging traditional divides between disciplines and also combines research excellence with relevant impact. Interdisciplinary research should be treated as policy research. The quality of the interdisciplinary research structure not only provides new ideas and areas of research, but also flexibility and expanded possibilities for traditional disciplines. This manuscript will likely inspire researchers and policymakers to further their interdisciplinary research on the coronavirus pandemic. In the present book, authors from diverse backgrounds have expressed their views on this specific problem. They have contributed their ideas on how the pandemic has affected every aspect of human life, including education, economics, social life, finance, information technology, etc.
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Risk is a multidimensional concept, i.e. a term, and as such it is often mistranslated, and thus misunderstood and misinterpreted in practice. The paper gives an etymological review of the concept risk. A number of academic and administrative definitions of the concept (term) risk have been analyzed. Due to the limited size of the paper, the methodology of definition analysis is not presented, but only the results of the analysis used as a basis for one approach to conceptual definition of risk in the context of uncertainty of the outcome of an event with the expected negative consequences, i.e. the conceptual definition of risk determined by the probability and consequences of an event.
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic has globally affected almost every aspect of people's lives, especially, their physical and mental well-being. The degree of its impact, however, is different from place-to-place and person-to-person. Although there is a growing literature on the variable impact of the pandemic on the quality of sleep, loneliness, and mood across different populations (e.g., students, health-workers), little is known about how COVID-19-specific anxiety affects the loneliness feeling and sleep quality among students and employees, specifically, in a low-resource region like Bangladesh. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of COVID-related anxiety on the feeling of loneliness and sleep quality of students and professionals in Bangladesh. Additionally, we were interested in comparing the level of COVID-specific anxiety, loneliness, and quality of sleep between these two groups. In total, 211 Bangladeshi students and professionals participated in an online survey in August 2021 when the restriction was still in place. Measures of COVID-19 anxiety, loneliness, and sleep quality scales were used. Regression analysis indicated that overall loneliness and poor sleep quality were strongly predicted by COVID-specific anxiety regardless of being a student or professional. Almost half of the study population (48.3 %) felt severe loneliness and 70.01 % were bad sleepers. Mann-Whitney U test revealed that professionals felt more emotionally lonely, had a higher level of COVID-19-specific anxiety, and had poorer sleep quality than students. A better support structure should be implemented to help the population, particularly, the professionals to lessen their COVID-19-related anxiety and loneliness, and promote better sleep for alleviating stress and improved well-being.
Article
This study aimed to evaluate the influence of COVID-19 on the mental health of Chinese medical students at 1-year of follow-up. From 2 February 2020 to 23 February 2021, we conducted three waves of research online (T1 = during outbreak, T2 = controlling period, T3 = 1 year after outbreak). The survey collected demographic data and several self reporting questionnaires to measure the depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms. A total of 4002 participants complete the whole research phases. The study major, grade level and gender were the main factors related to psychological distress caused by the COVID-19 crisis. Importantly, medical knowledge has a protective effect on medical students' psychological distress during the COVID-19 period.
Article
Amaç: Bu çalışmada, preklinik dönem tıp öğrencilerinin COVİD-19 Pandemisine karşı psikolojik tepkilerinin ve öğrencilerin uzaktan eğitimle ilgili görüşlerinin araştırılması amaçlanmıştır. Metod: Gönüllü 722 öğrenci ile kesitsel bir çalışma yapıldı. Veriler 20-27 Aralık 2020 tarihleri arasında, çevrimiçi bir anket yolu ile toplandı. Veri toplama aracı olarak sosyodemografik bilgiler ve uzaktan eğitimle ilgili görüşlere yönelik bir soru formu ile Revize Olayların Etkisi Ölçeği ve Uykusuzluk Şiddeti ölçekleri kullanıldı. Bulgular: Katılımcıların yaş ortalaması 20.7±1.6 ve 393’ü (54.4%) kadındı. Öğrencilerin 699’u (96.8%) eğitimleri ile ilgili olarak kaygılanmakta, 181’i (25.1%) travma sonrası stress, 171’i (23.6%) uykusuzluk yaşamaktaydı. Travma sonrası stres olasılığı kadınlarda erkeklere göre (OR=1.489, 95% CI=1.02-2.16; p=0.038), COVİD-19’a yakalanan akrabası olanlarda olmayanlara göre (OR=1.489, 95% CI=1.02-2.16; p=0.038), yakınlarına COVİD-19 bulaşma korkusu fazla olanlarda az olan veya olmayanlara göre (OR=0.523, 95% CI=0.339-0.807; p=0.003), COVİD-19 ile ilgili haberleri sosyal medyadan takip edenlerde diğer kaynaklardan takip edenlere göre (OR=0.662, 95% CI=0.461-0.951; p
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Mobility constraints imposed during the COVID-19 pandemic have influenced the perception of isolation by the youth in a varied way. The paper, analysing the works of art school students referring to the “Stay at home” slogan, proves that the state of isolation may be associated not only with loneliness or exclusion (which seem to correspond with common social beliefs) but also with escaping into virtual world, often perceived as more attractive by the students than the real one.KeywordsCoronavirusSchoolGeographyArtPicture
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic affected the mental health and social behavior of people around the world. Due to epidemiological restrictions, the period of forced isolation contributed to the feeling of loneliness. The aim of the research is to identify factors and conditions associated to the feeling of loneliness in the era of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: The survey was conducted among 262 people from the north-eastern Polish area, using an online survey. The diagnostic survey method was used, using the De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Measurement Scale, the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), the WHOQoL-Bref questionnaire. Results: A statistically significant relationship was observed between the feeling of loneliness and areas of quality of life, especially psychological and social, generalized self-efficacy and marital status and way of living (p < 0.05). Higher levels of stress, social distancing, restrictions at work, health status were significantly correlated with an increase in loneliness. Remote work was associated with a lower assessment of the quality of life in the psychological field (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Higher levels of loneliness were significantly more likely to affect people living alone and not in a relationship. Higher levels of loneliness were significantly associated with lower quality of life in the social and psychological domains, lower levels of self-efficacy, and remote work.
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Bu çalışma, Türkiye'de Covid-19 salgını süresince özel sektör ve kamu sektörü çalışanları arasındaki ekonomik, sağlık, rutin değişikliği ve izolasyon kaygı (anksiyete) düzeylerini karşılaştırmayı amaçlamaktadır. Ekonomik kaygının özel sektör çalışanları üzerinde kamu çalışanlarına göre daha fazla etkisi olurken, sağlık kaygısının kamu sektörü çalışanları üzerinde daha baskın etkileri olacağı varsayımında bulunduk. Spielberger Durumluk Sürekli Kaygı Envanteri'nden (STAI) uyarlanan ve katılımcılara çevrimiçi olarak gönderilen anket sonuçlarına göre, özel sektör çalışanlarının ortalamada kamu sektörü çalışanlarına göre daha yüksek düzeyde ekonomik kaygı yaşadıkları ve iki grup arasında anlamlı bir fark bulunduğu görülmüştür (p=.000). Sağlık anksiyetesi açısından sektörler arasında anlamlı bir fark bulunamazken, her iki sektörde de diğer tüm kaygı düzeyleri arasında rutin değişikliği anksiyetesinin ortalamada daha yüksek olduğu görülmüştür. Tek yönlü ANOVA testi sonuçlarına göre, asgari geçim koşullarında yaşayan, yani düşük gelir grubundaki çalışanların, yüksek gelir grubuna göre çok daha yoğun ekonomik kaygı düzeylerine sahip olduğu, yüksek gelir grubu çalışanlarının ise içinde bulundukları rutin değişiklikleri sebebiyle psikolojik baskı altında bulundukları görülmüştür. Son olarak sonuçlar, özel sektör çalışanlarının, kamu sektörü çalışanlarına kıyasla kısa çalışma ödeneği almaktan duydukları endişenin daha yüksek olduğunu göstermiştir (p=.000).
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India is in the second position in terms of population and the third-worst-affected country in the world in the total number of confirmed COVID-19 cases. COVID-19 was marked by low case fatality rates and strong recovery rates in India, as well as an increase in public-private partnerships in the health sector. Technological advancements have aided in the containment of this epidemic. The virus's growth rate was halted by an early lockdown policy, however, super events are increasing infection rates due to the breakdown of COVID protocol behavior. This COVID-19 pandemic is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It contributes to worldwide healthcare issues and overstretched healthcare resources. As people recovering from this disease, it is of utmost importance to establish knowledge of healthcare issues surrounding them. COVID-19 is a multi-organ disease and there are reports of permanent and prolonged effects of this disease. So it is very important to understand COVID-19, the post-COVID effect and the status of the administration and individuals dealing with this situation. The present chapter discusses the knowledge regarding COVID-19, and various post-COVID-19 symptoms reported all over the world, especially in India in terms of professional status, financial status, mental status and status of the government and people dealing with this pandemic situation. Key Words: COVID-19, Post-COVID effect, Pandemic, India, management
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This study aimed to examine the extent to which various socio-demographic variables (age, gender, working as a health professional, employment status, coronavirus infection, financial status, living situation) and positive and negative emotions predict perceived stress during the lockdown in COVID-19 as well as to investigate the first post-lockdown activities people wanted to engage in. We surveyed 663 adults from Turkey, with the majority being female [N=452, 68.2%; median age=27 (ranged between 18- 71)]. Participants completed an online survey consisting of the perceived stress scale (PSS), positive and negative affect scale (PANAS) and demographic information questionnaire. Additionally, they responded to an open-ended question asking participants to determine which activity they would like to engage in first when the lockdown ends. Descriptive, hierarchical regression and content analysis were utilized. Findings showed that age, gender, unemployment and coronavirus infection in the first model; the positive and negative affect added in the second step significantly predicted stress. Younger, women, unemployed and participants with coronavirus infected had higher stress than older, men, employed, and the ones who were not infected or have doubt about coronavirus infection. Positive affect negatively and negative affect positively predicted perceived stress. The model accounted for 44% of perceived stress during the lockdown. Regardless of age group and gender, meeting friends/lovers, enjoying being outside, traveling/having a holiday and enjoying nature were the main activities listed that participants wanted to engage in following the lockdown. Araştırmanın amacı, COVID-19 pandemisinde uygulanan ‘evdekal’ (sokağa çıkma yasakları/kısıtlamaları) sürecinde çeşitli demografik değişkenlerin (yaş, cinsiyet, çalışma durumu, sağlık sektöründe çalışma, koronavirüse yakalanma, ekonomik durum, yaşama biçimi) ve olumlu-olumsuz duyguların algılanan stresi ne ölçüde yordadığını ve bireylerin ‘evdekal’ uygulamasının bitiminde yapmak istedikleri ilk etkinlikleri incelemektir. Araştırmaya, çoğunluğu kadın olan [N=452, %68.2; yaşları 18 ile 71 arasında değişen (ortanca yaş=27)] 663 yetişkin katılmıştır. Katılımcılar Algılanan Stres Ölçeği, Pozitif ve Negatif Duygu Ölçeği ve kişisel bilgi formunu çevrimiçi doldurmuşlardır. Ayrıca katılımcılara ‘evdekal’ uygulaması bittiğinde yapmak istedikleri ilk etkinliği belirlemek üzere açık uçlu bir soru yöneltilmiştir. Veri analizinde betimsel, Hiyerarşik Regresyon ve içerik analizi kullanılmıştır. Hiyerarşik regresyon analizinde birinci modelde yaş, cinsiyet, bir işte çalışmama ve koronavirüse yakalanma; ikinci modelde olumlu ve olumsuz duygular, algılanan stresi anlamlı şekilde yordamıştır. Gençler, kadınlar, bir işte çalışmayanlar ve koronavirüse yakalanmış kişilerin, daha yaşlı, erkek, bir işte çalışan ve koronavirüse yakalanmayan ya da yakalandığından şüphe duyanlara göre algıladıkları stres daha yüksektir. Olumlu duygular algılanan stresi negatif, olumsuz duygular pozitif yönde yordamaktadır. Model algılanan stresin % 44’ünü açıklamaktadır. Katılımcıların ‘evdekal’ uygulaması bittiğinde ilk olarak hangi etkinliği yapmak istediklerin, yaş gruplarına ve cinsiyete bakılmaksızın, sırasıyla en fazla arkadaşlarıyla/sevdikleriyle buluşmak, dışarda gezmek/dolaşmak, seyahat etmek/tatil yapmak ve doğa ile buluşmak olduğu görülmektedir.
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The aftermath of the lockdown caused by the current pandemic generates many challenges and opportunities for the professionals as well as for organizations. Several organizations forced the people to work on-site whereas many of the organizations have been allowing work from home. However, both ways of working are challenging and cause psychological distress. The present work analyses the psychological distress among professionals residing in India during the COVID-19 pandemic. The work considers both the scenarios of working professionals: professionals working from home and professionals working onsite. The work introduces a novel hybrid machine learning approach called GBETRR. GBETRR combines two approaches, namely gradient-boosting classifier and extra-trees regressor repressor. The present work also uses a hybrid parameter optimization algorithm. Multiple performance metrics are used to evaluate the performance evaluation. Results revealed that the professionals with work from home are more stressed as compared to the professionals working onsite.
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La pandemia por COVID-19 es un evento adverso y factor de riesgo para la salud integral de los adolescentes y jóvenes, asociado a trastornos de estrés, ansiedad y depresión, sin embargo, la perspectiva ecológica plantea que la percepción del evento o situación juega un papel central en la adaptación y salud mental. Por otra parte, la detección de factores de riesgo-protección es la base de una intervención efectiva. El objetivo de este estudio fue construir una medida multidimensional válida y confiable para explorar la percepción subjetiva y las respuestas psicológicas de los adolescentes y jóvenes ante la pandemia por COVID-19. Se realizó un estudio instrumental en el que participaron 727 adolescentes de 13 a 24 años (M= 18.36; DE= 2.9) de la Ciudad de México. Se elaboró la Encuesta de Percepción Juvenil del COVID-19 (EPJ COVID-19) que fue aplicada en línea. Un análisis factorial por componentes principales (n= 410) arrojó una solución de ocho factores: Miedo y preocupaciones, Indicadores de estrés, Presiones escolares, Conductas preventivas, Cambios de rutinas, Dinámica familiar, Relajación y esparcimiento, y Socialización virtual (VE = 59.07%). Un análisis factorial confirmatorio con el método de máxima verosimilitud (n= 317) corroboró un modelo de ocho factores mostrando índices aceptables de ajuste, el cual también presentó una buena consistencia interna (α total= .863). Los resultados sugieren que la EPJ COVID-19 es una medida válida y confiable que puede ser usada para valorar de manera integral la percepción y respuestas de los adolescentes y jóvenes ante la pandemia para diseñar intervenciones basadas en evidencia.
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The COVID-19 pandemic, which has been affecting the world for about two years, is causing unprecedented global effects in the history. The COVID-19 pandemic process has brought the concept of "new normal" to the agenda in the world and has led to radical changes in all areas of life. With the concept of new normal, measures have been taken in the social, economic, political and health fields worldwide. Since the first days of the pandemic in order to prevent the spread of infection, measures such as compulsory quarantine, restriction, physical distance rules and social isolation have been included in the life. Among these measures are the termination of face-to-face education and the rapid transition to the distance education system. This rapid transformation of the education system required both educators and students to adapt to the new life situations that brought by the pandemic process and to be included in the system in a short time. It is inevitable that this transformation will affect university students spiritually. The prolongation of the duration of these measures, uncertainty and the limitation of freedom cause psychological symptoms such as anxiety, depressive mood, difficulty in attention and focus, sleep and eating disorders due to stress and anxiety in the students. In this review article, it is aimed to reveal the current information about the psychological effects of the pandemic, the psychological effects of university students who are a vulnerable group, and to examine possible solution proposals with the light of current literature.
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COVID-19 has come with a bang and has got settled disrupting life and economy the world over. Organizations in the sector are trying to adjust to this new normal in their own unique ways for the past two years. Surviving in these new times, coming up with new business models, remaining in business, switching over to new businesses that have gained importance all of a sudden are on extreme priority for all organizations. One of the issues which is not given much thought, attention and importance is the well-being and mental health of employees during these times of extreme uncertainty. This paper focusses on this overlooked but crucial aspect of COVID-19 pandemic. The paper is based on a peep into the well-being of employees, psychological reactions, coping and mitigation–strategies adopted by them.
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This study examined the relationship of perceived social support and its supposed mediating function in psychological distress to job satisfaction. Research was done through the utilization of K-10 Psychological Distress Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and Job Satisfaction Survey employed to 139 college faculty members of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines. Based on the findings, it was revealed that respondents were suffering from moderate psychological distress (mean=25.95, SD = 7.71). Also it was indicated that the overall mean of perceived social support of the respondents was 4.67 which signified that most college faculty members had moderate level of social support from their families, colleagues, and significant others. Among these, social support from colleagues got the highest mean which was 5.31 (SD=1.29), followed by significant others of 4.82 (SD=1.58) and lastly, the family with 3.90 (SD=1.32). In addition, results indicated that the overall mean of job satisfaction was 3.47 which mean that most of the faculty members were only moderately satisfied in their teaching job. Among the subdimensions, the highest were supervision (mean=4.00, SD=0.64), Co-workers (mean=3.98, SD=0.67), and Nature of work (mean=3.96, SD=0.56). However, the lowest scores were noted on: Pay (mean=3.23, SD=0.66), Fringe Benefits (mean=3.03, SD=0.51) and lastly, the operating conditions (mean=2.87, SD=0.56); while results showed that psychological distress was negatively correlated in terms of the subdimensions such as: fringe benefits (r =-1.77, p < .05) to teacher job satisfaction ; (r=-0.170, p=0.05), while contingent incentives have a large but weak negative link with psychological distress (r=-0.234, p=0.01). Other subdimensions were reported to insignificant. Lastly, results revealed that perceived social support did not mediate the relationship of psychological distress to job satisfaction. The indirect effect was tested using the Sobel test and was found to be insignificant (B = 0.78, SE = 0.01, p = 0.43). This research will serve as the foundation for a set of recommendations that will encourage and promote a safe work environment and several interventions that will ensure teaching employee satisfaction during the COVID-19 pandemic by implementing a wellness program.
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In December 2019, cases of unidentified pneumonia with a history of exposure in the Huanan Seafood Market were reported in Wuhan, Hubei Province. A novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, was identified to be accountable for this disease. Human-to-human transmission is confirmed, and this disease (named COVID-19 by World Health Organization (WHO)) spread rapidly around the country and the world. As of 18 February 2020, the number of confirmed cases had reached 75,199 with 2009 fatalities. The COVID-19 resulted in a much lower case-fatality rate (about 2.67%) among the confirmed cases, compared with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). Among the symptom composition of the 45 fatality cases collected from the released official reports, the top four are fever, cough, short of breath, and chest tightness/pain. The major comorbidities of the fatality cases include hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, cerebral infarction, and chronic bronchitis. The source of the virus and the pathogenesis of this disease are still unconfirmed. No specific therapeutic drug has been found. The Chinese Government has initiated a level-1 public health response to prevent the spread of the disease. Meanwhile, it is also crucial to speed up the development of vaccines and drugs for treatment, which will enable us to defeat COVID-19 as soon as possible.
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Only a month after the outbreak of pneumonia caused by 2019-nCoV, more than forty-thousand people were infected. This put enormous pressure on the Chinese government, medical healthcare provider, and the general public, but also made the international community deeply nervous. On the 25th day after the outbreak, the Chinese government implemented strict traffic restrictions on the area where the 2019-nCoV had originated-Hubei province, whose capital city is Wuhan. Ten days later, the rate of increase of cases in Hubei showed a significant difference (p = 0.0001) compared with the total rate of increase in other provinces of China. These preliminary data suggest the effectiveness of a traffic restriction policy for this pandemic thus far. At the same time, solid financial support and improved research ability, along with network communication technology, also greatly facilitated the application of epidemic prevention measures. These measures were motivated by the need to provide effective treatment of patients, and involved consultation with three major groups in policy formulation-public health experts, the government, and the general public. It was also aided by media and information technology, as well as international cooperation. This experience will provide China and other countries with valuable lessons for quickly coordinating and coping with future public health emergencies.
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Uncertainties over the Wuhan 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019‐nCoV), which has killed 1,017 people and sickened more than 43,100 as of Feb 11,1 has interrupted global trade and supply chains, depressed asset prices, and forced multinational businesses to make hard decisions with limited information. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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The basic reproduction number of an infectious agent is the average number of infections one case can generate over the course of the infectious period, in a naïve, uninfected population. It is well-known that the estimation of this number may vary due to several methodological issues, including different assumptions and choice of parameters, utilized models, used datasets and estimation period. With the spreading of the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infection, the reproduction number has been found to vary, reflecting the dynamics of transmission of the coronavirus outbreak as well as the case reporting rate. Due to significant variations in the control strategies, which have been changing over time, and thanks to the introduction of detection technologies that have been rapidly improved, enabling to shorten the time from infection/symptoms onset to diagnosis, leading to faster confirmation of the new coronavirus cases, our previous estimations on the transmission risk of the 2019-nCoV need to be revised. By using time-dependent contact and diagnose rates, we refit our previously proposed dynamics transmission model to the data available until January 29th, 2020 and re-estimated the effective daily reproduction ratio that better quantifies the evolution of the interventions. We estimated when the effective daily reproduction ratio has fallen below 1 and when the epidemics will peak. Our updated findings suggest that the best measure is persistent and strict self-isolation. The epidemics will continue to grow, and can peak soon with the peak time depending highly on the public health interventions practically implemented. Keywords: Novel coronavirus, Emerging and reemerging pathogens, Mathematical modeling, Basic reproduction number, Effective daily reproduction ratio
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The on-going Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak in China has become the world's leading health headline and is causing major panic and public concerns. On January 30, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared that the new coronavirus outbreak is a public health emergency of international concern.1 The virus has already had a direct impact on more than 10 million people in the city of Wuhan and has reached other parts of China as well, posing a health threat of unknown magnitude globally. As of February 8, 2020, WHO reported 34,886 confirmed cases of COVID-19 globally, with 34,589 of them occurring in China (including 6,101 severe cases and 723deaths). A total of 288 other confirmed cases (with 1 death) have been reported in 24 countries, including Japan, Australia, Germany, and United States
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Risk perception has a significant impact on decisions people make when facing a threat: a mismatch between actual hazard and perceived risk can lead to inappropriate behaviours and suboptimal compliance to recommended public health measures. The present study was conducted in the aftermath of a tuberculosis (TB) outbreak that occurred in 2019 in a primary school in Italy. The aim was to evaluate the impact of communication measures implemented by local health authorities (including face-to-face meetings between LHAs and the local population, weekly press announcements, implementation of a telephone hotline and of an information desk, and social media communication), on risk perception among parents of schoolchildren and school staff, and to identify factors related to a change in risk perception before and after the said activities. An anonymous questionnaire was administered to parents of schoolchildren (n = 846) and to school staff (n = 70). Participants were asked about the level of risk they had perceived at two distinct times: when they first became aware of the outbreak and following implementation of communication activities. A significant reduction of perceived risk was found in both groups (p < 0.001) following the communication activities. The largest reduction was found among participants who reported having appreciated the meetings with the LHA healthcare staff. Our findings suggest that keeping an open approach, explaining the actual threat to the population and adapting communication to different listening skills, are essential for health authorities to successfully manage a public health emergency.
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Background Anxiety can create serious disruption in the life and mind of youth who are affected. Youth living with anxiety suffer a wealth of physical and psychological challenges, yet little is known about how anxiety influences the sense of the self. The purpose of this research was to explore the experience of the self in a sample of Canadian youth living with anxiety. Materials and methods The qualitative research approach of hermeneutic phenomenology was used. The sample consisted of 58 Canadian youth with anxiety, 44 females and 14 males between the ages of 10 and 22. Youth took part in open-ended interviewing, ecomaps, and photovoice. Data analysis followed a staged process, informed by Max van Manen. All sources of data were included in the analysis to form thematic statements. Results Entering into the lifeworld of youth revealed that they suffered deeply. A fractured sense of self underlined their experience, setting up for a great deal of self-scrutiny and a lack of self-compassion. They experienced a profound sense of responsibility for others at the loss of being-there-for-oneself. Navigating their social sphere presented an additional challenge. However, youth were genuinely interested in self-discovery through awareness and reflection. Conclusions The phenomenological accounts by youth on living with anxiety reinforce the challenges they experienced within themselves that give rise to a great deal of inner turmoil. Care and support to youth with anxiety requires an understanding of the ways in which the self may be fractured by their experiences with anxiety. Providing young people with an opportunity to share with others who had similar lived experiences can serve to contribute to a sense of healing for youth, while also providing a safe space in which young people can let down their guard and openly acknowledge or share their experiences without fear of stigmatization.
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The GAD-7 is commonly used as a measure of general anxiety symptoms across various settings and populations. However, there has been disagreement regarding the factor structure of the GAD-7, and there is a need for larger studies investigating the psychometric properties of the measure. Patients undergoing treatment (N = 1201), both inpatient and outpatient patients, completed the GAD-7 at pre- and posttreatment. Measures of depression, well-being, and other anxiety measures were also completed, making it possible to investigate convergent and divergent validity. Internal consistency and convergent validity were excellent for the total sample, and there was acceptable variation related to treatment groups. We conducted an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) on a random sample (50%) of the patients at intake and then conducted a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to confirm the factor structure in the other part of the sample at intake. The EFA indicated a clear one-factor solution, but the one-factor solution with CFA provided a poor fit to the data. Correlating the residuals among items assessing somatic symptoms led to a good fit in a respecified CFA solution. The GAD-7 has excellent internal consistency, and the one-factor structure in a heterogeneous clinical population was supported. Keywords: GAD-7, anxiety, psychometric, assessment, comorbidity
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Introduction: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is one of the most common types of anxiety disorder in epilepsy population, comprising 21.9%, that would further impair patients' quality of life. Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) is the only screening tool for GAD that has been validated in patients with epilepsy (PWE). It is a self-reporting instrument that can be completed in less than three minutes; hence, its usage is appropriate in primary healthcare and neurology outpatient clinic. This study aimed to obtain a valid and reliable Indonesian version of GAD-7, assess its accuracy, and finally evaluate the prevalence of GAD in Indonesian PWE along with its contributing factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital, Jakarta. The GAD-7 was translated and adapted using World Health Organization (WHO) steps. Validity, reliability, test-retest reliability, and diagnostic accuracy were evaluated. Then, epilepsy outpatients were screened for GAD using the Indonesian version of GAD-7. Results: Internal validity and reliability for Indonesian version of GAD-7 were satisfactory with validity coefficient of 0.648 to 0.800 (p<0.01) and Cronbach's alpha value of 0.867. The best cutoff value to detect GAD in Indonesian PWE was >6 with the sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value of 100%, 84.4%, 100%, and 55.8%, respectively. ROC analysis showed the area under the curve of 0.98 (95% CI: 0.96-0.99). The total subjects screened with the validated Indonesian version of GAD-7 were 146, and 49% were screened as having GAD. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics had no statistically significant association with the presence of GAD. Conclusion: The Indonesian version of GAD-7 was a valuable screening tool to detect GAD in PWE. GAD was screened in a quite high proportion of PWE. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were not proven to play role in its development.
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Coronaviruses (CoVs) have formerly been regarded as relatively harmless respiratory pathogens to humans. However, two outbreaks of severe respiratory tract infection, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), as a result of zoonotic CoVs crossing the species barrier, caused high pathogenicity and mortality rates in human populations. This brought CoVs global attention and highlighted the importance of controlling infectious pathogens at international borders. In this review, we focus on our current understanding of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, as well as provides details on the pivotal structure and function of the spike proteins (S proteins) on the surface of each of these viruses. For building up more suitable animal models, we compare the current animal models recapitulating pathogenesis and summarize the potential role of host receptors contributing to diverse host affinity in various species. We outline the research still needed to fully elucidate the pathogenic mechanism of these viruses, to construct reproducible animal models, and ultimately develop countermeasures to conquer not only SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, but also these emerging coronaviral diseases.
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Aim: The aim of this review was to examine nonsimulation strategies to reduce undergraduate nursing student anxiety in the clinical setting. Background: The anxiety nursing students often experience during clinical rotations can affect their academic performance and interpersonal interactions. Method: An integrative review was undertaken following guidelines by Whittemore and Knafl. The search was limited to articles published from 1999 to 2018 to increase the likelihood that they included the generations of students currently most prevalent in nursing programs, millennials and generation Z. Results: Most researchers (17 studies) supported their interventions as somewhat effective in reducing nursing student anxiety in the clinical setting. A number of limitations of the research were identified. Conclusion: Various faculty-led and student-led interventions may reduce student anxiety in the clinical setting. Further rigorous research on this topic is needed to provide a strong evidence base for such interventions.
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Background: Gender distribution within the managing bodies of the Canadian health authorities has not been studied despite their integral role in the health care system. The purpose of this study is to quantify gender differences and to craft a geographic gender analysis of such distribution. Methods: Retrospective data collection of all Canadian health authorities at the provincial, territorial, regional, and first nations levels was conducted. The dependent variable was gender, and other covariates, where applicable, included province/territory, region, leadership position, education (PhD or Master's), honorary degree, and primary occupation. Any member within the executive managing body or board of directors of a Canadian health authority was included, unless their gender could not be determined, in which case they were excluded. Results: Quantitative analysis of the 67 health authorities revealed 1346 individuals with identifiable gender (710 women; 636 men). Thematic distribution showed no significant difference in the gender distribution by provinces/territories (chi square = 14.248; p = 0.28), by leadership position (chi square = 1.88; p = 0.75), by education (chi square = 1.85; p = 0.17), or by primary occupation (chi square = 1.53; p = 0.46). Conclusion: The overall number of females exceeded that of males and there were no gender disparities. Critical analysis of probable causes was discussed. Further studies should be conducted to examine the policies and programs within the Canadian health authorities that successfully tackle the retention, recruitment, and promotion of females.
Article
Objective: Investigate the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and race with self-reported fatigue, depression, and anxiety levels in multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: Cross-sectional review of the MS Partners Advancing Technology and Health Solutions (MS PATHS) database for adults with MS in the United States. We evaluated race and socioeconomic status (available markers: insurance, employment status, or level of education) as predictors of fatigue, depression, and anxiety sub-scores of the Neuro-QoL (Quality of life in neurological disorders), with particular interest between Caucasians/whites (CA) and African Americans/blacks (AA). Multivariate linear regression models included as covariates age, sex, disability status, smoking status, body mass index, and disease-modifying therapy. Results: 7,430 individuals were included; compared to CA, AA tended to be younger, more female-predominant, and had a higher level of disability. AA had completed slightly less education, had a higher level of Medicaid coverage or uninsured status, and had higher rates of unemployed or disabled status. In the univariate model, markers of lower SES, by whichever definition we used, correlated with worse affective symptoms. In the multivariate model stratified by race, CA showed similar trends. In contrast, in AA, only lower SES by employment status was correlated with worse affective symptoms. In both CA and AA, moderate and severe level of disability correlated with worse affective symptoms. Conclusion: SES and race may influence affective symptoms reported by individuals with MS. The reasons for the correlation are likely multifactorial. Longitudinal studies should strive to identify factors associated with risk of affective symptoms in MS that may be modifiable.
Article
Background: Effective treatment requires regular follow-up and monitoring of symptoms. We investigated sensitivity to change and minimal clinically important difference of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7). Methods: This study included all participants from a multisite trial of chronic depression. Baseline and follow-up (12 and 48 weeks) data were used to assess treatment response. Effect sizes (ES) and standardized response means (SRM) of pre- and post-GAD-7 mean changes were calculated for subgroups of patients, who did or did not improve according to ratings in the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD-24). Results: N = 261 patients were included in the analyses. In the subgroup of patients who improved according to HRSD-24, GAD-7 scores were significantly lower after 12 weeks (t = -6.31, df = 120, p < .001; ES = -0.51, SRM = -0.57), and 48 weeks of treatment (t = -12.68, df = 141, p < .001; ES = -1.0, SRM = -1.7), when compared to admission. In the group who worsened, GAD-7 scores were significantly higher after 12 weeks (t = 2.96, df = 41, p = .005; ES = 0.30, SRM = 0.46), and increased after 48 weeks (t = 1.99, df = 21, p = .059; ES = 0.37, SRM = 0.43), when compared to baseline. The unchanged group showed no significant difference between baseline and follow-up. MCID was estimated 4 points on the GAD-7 total score. Limitations: Confirmation of these findings and further investigation of the GAD-7 in populations and trials focusing on anxiety-specific treatment is highly recommended. Conclusions: Results show that the GAD-7 is sensitive to detect change in psychopathology over the course of treatment.
Article
Background The Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale (GAD-7) is commonly used by clinicians and researchers to screen for anxiety disorders and to monitor anxiety symptoms in primary care. However, findings regarding its factor structure are mixed, with most studies reporting a best-fitting for a one-factor structure, whereas others indicate a two-factor model. To be valid for comparisons, the GAD-7 should measure the same latent construct with the same structure across groups and over time. We aimed to examine the best-fit factor structure model of the GAD-7 among primary care patients and to evaluate its measurement invariance. Methods A total of 1255 patients completed the computerized version of GAD-7 and a subsample of 238 cases was assessed at the 3-month follow-up. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed and analyses of multiple-group invariance were also conducted to determine the extent to which the factor structure was comparable across various sociodemographic groups and over time. Results The results showed that both a one- and two-factor structure (representing somatic and cognitive-affective components) were invariant across sociodemographic groups and over time. The two-factor structure provided the best model fit. Limitations Results cannot be generalized to all primary care patients, as only patients whose general practitioners consider them to suffer emotional disorders were included. Conclusions Our study supports the reliability and validity of the one- and two-factor model of the GAD-7, both for screening purposes and for monitoring response to treatment.
Article
Dental education is a challenging experience that places significant demands on students’ intellectual, financial, and psychosocial well-being. Dental students who simultaneously experience physical illness, emotional upset, or interpersonal difficulty may be at greater risk of experiencing negative academic consequences. It is well documented that stress affects student learning, however, the impact of other health concerns on academic success is less understood. The purpose of this manuscript is to document the prevalence and perceived academic impact of 24 health concerns on the academic performance of a sample of 130 undergraduate dental students as measured by the National College Health Assessment (NCHA). Health concerns that were most prevalent among dental students were generally also perceived to be most detrimental to their learning. These included upper respiratory infections (cold, flu, sore throat), interpersonal concerns (concerns about a troubled friend or family member, and relationship difficulty), and mental health issues (depression/anxiety/seasonal affective disorder, and stress).
Article
Theory: Although medical students begin medical school with better mental health than their peers, during medical school students have a higher prevalence of psychological distress. Medical students often do not seek help for mental health concerns. The use of approach coping strategies and social support has been shown in other populations to be related to mental health resiliency. Hypotheses: The rates of depression and burnout in this medical student population are expected to be high, with the majority not seeking help for their psychological distress in accordance with studies of medical students across the nation. Perceptions of stigma are hypothesized to be a potential source of this lack of care-seeking behavior. Approach coping strategies and social support are speculated to have an inverse relationship with the prevalence of depression and burnout in the medical student population. Method: Validated measures of depression and burnout along with items pertaining to diagnosis and treatment of mental health issues, specific coping strategies used during stressful times, and perceptions of social support were used in a cross-sectional study of students at the University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences (UND SMHS). Results: The overall survey response rate was 64%. Seventeen percent had moderate to severe depression, and 49% had burnout. Of depressed respondents, 81% were undiagnosed. When asked why depression develops, 23% responded that it was due to an inability to cope. A significantly greater risk of depression was associated with inadequate support from family and friends (p = .002), fellow medical students (p = .01), and the UND SMHS (p = .003). Greater use of approach-oriented coping strategies than avoidant-oriented strategies was associated with significantly decreased risk of burnout (p = .02) and was inversely correlated with depression (rs = -0.27, n = 153, p = .001). Conclusions: This study outlines associations among approach-oriented coping strategies, social support, and resiliency to mental health issues among medical students. This study also supports the existing literature that stigma regarding mental health issues is present in the medical community. Further multi-institutional, longitudinal research to delineate whether interventions that promote approach coping style and utilization of social support lead to decreased rates of mental health issues is necessary. The development of these interventions will need to be a multifaceted approach that includes promotion of care-taking behaviors but also focuses on institutional cultural change in order to empower students to participate in these resiliency strategies.
Article
The present study was conducted on a large sample of Chinese medical students to test the moderating effect of resilience between negative life events and mental health problems, and investigate the factors that affect the mental health problems of the students. The Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List, Eysenck Adult Personality Questionnaire-Revised, Social Support Rating Scale, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, and Symptom Check List were adopted for a survey with 1,998 Chinese medical students as respondents. Mental health problems had a positive correlation with negative life events and neuroticism. On the other hand, mental health problems had a negative correlation with social support, extraversion, and resilience. Regression analysis showed that resilience moderated negative life events and mental health problems. Promoting resilience may be helpful for the adjustment of college students.
Situation Report of the Pneumonia Cases Caused by the Novel Coronavirus
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Analysis of influencing factors of anxiety and emotional disorders in children and adolescents during home isolation during the epidemic of novel coronavirus pneumonia
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Psychological investigation of university students in a university in Jilin Province
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Correlation Between Psychological Changes of The Community Crowd and The Social Support in Grave Public Health Event
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