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Digitalization: A Literature Review and Research Agenda

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Given the noticeable and quick progress of digitalization it is well accepted that digital practices are changing business landscapes. However, while this concept is being labelled in the literature it is also often used indistinctively. To avoid misconceptions, we propose to clarify the concept by providing an overview of the existing theory. This research is one of the first attempts to define the “digitalization” term, and to make a distinction between similar ones. The authors have conducted a systematic review of the existing literature, by identifying and synthesizing the existing body of knowledge. While going digital, firms are expecting to enhance their competitive advantage by offering services throughout virtual channels and operationalize its operations management. Furthermore, the literature suggested the development of new digital technologies along with automation and artificial intelligence is enabling a new wave of smart companies, a topic that deserves to be studied in the future.
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Digitalization: A Literature Review
and Research Agenda
João Reis
1(&)
, Marlene Amorim
1
, Nuno Melão
2
, Yuval Cohen
3
,
and Mário Rodrigues
4
1
Department of Economics, Management, Industrial Engineering and Tourism,
GOVCOPP, Aveiro University, Aveiro, Portugal
{reis.joao,mamorim}@ua.pt
2
Department of Management and CISED,
School of Technology and Management of Viseu,
Polytechnic Institute of Viseu, Viseu, Portugal
nmelao@estgv.ipv.pt
3
Department of Industrial and Management Engineering,
Afeka Tel-Aviv College of Engineering, Tel-Aviv, Israel
yuvalc@afeka.ac.il
4
IEETA and ESTGA, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal
mjfr@ua.pt
Abstract. Given the noticeable and quick progress of digitalization it is well
accepted that digital practices are changing business landscapes. However, while
this concept is being labelled in the literature it is also often used indistinctively.
To avoid misconceptions, we propose to clarify the concept by providing an
overview of the existing theory. This research is one of the rst attempts to
dene the digitalizationterm, and to make a distinction between similar ones.
The authors have conducted a systematic review of the existing literature, by
identifying and synthesizing the existing body of knowledge. While going
digital, rms are expecting to enhance their competitive advantage by offering
services throughout virtual channels and operationalize its operations manage-
ment. Furthermore, the literature suggested the development of new digital
technologies along with automation and articial intelligence is enabling a new
wave of smart companies, a topic that deserves to be studied in the future.
Keywords: Systematic literature review Automation Articial intelligence
Operations management
1 Introduction
Digitalization has been identied as the most signicant technological trend that is
changing both, society and business [1,2]. Nowadays, rms are constantly under
pressure to use digital technologies and to adapt their business models to this new
reality [3]. However, although going digital evokes many benets, it also requires
investments and associated costs [4]. Given the noticeable progress of digital tech-
nologies [5], the question is how digitalization is being employed by practitioners and
into what extent this progress is being followed by scholars and academics. Therefore,
©Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020
Z. Anisic et al. (Eds.): IJCIEOM 2019, LNMUINEN, pp. 443456, 2020.
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-43616-2_47
our main goal is to illustrate the current state-of-the-art and to provide a better
understanding of the digitalization term. Interestingly, there are several articles in the
literature on digital transformation, but few on digitalization. One of the rst literature
reviews on digital transformation were notably conducted by Henriette et al. [6], and
followed similar research, such as Gebayew et al. [7], Reis et al. [8], Vukšic et al. [9]
and Vial [10]. It is well-known that digital transformation term was coined by business
professionals and later studied by academics. On the other hand, we also know that the
large knowledge gap is currently present at the governmental level, which accounts for
only 1% of world research [8]. In response to the changing expectations, governments
are currently changing their mode of operation to improve public service delivery,
while public administrators themselves are dening digital transformation in their own
day-to-day practices [11]. Thus, in that regard, academics such as Mergel et al. [11] are
providing empirical-based denitions of digital transformation retrieved from expert
interviews, rather than literature reviews. With regard to digitalization, we could nd
few literature reviews, one focus on the organizational effects of digitalization by
Kuusisto [12] and another research by Parida et al. [13], which developed a framework
that communicates and sets the direction for future research by linking digitalization,
business model innovation, and sustainability in industrial settings.
This article is structured as follows. Section 2presents the methodological process,
discussing how the systematic review was structured. Section 3describes the analysis
and general discussion of the selected articles. Section 4concludes the paper, by
presenting contributions to theory and practice, as well as the guidelines for future
research.
2 Methodology
In order to achieve the stated objective, a systematic literature review was employed in
order to clarify the digitalization concept, to provide an overview of the existing theory
and to suggest guidelines for future research. This method is of particular value due to
the uncertainty about what the evidence says about this topic [14], being the right tool
to study the phenomenon.
On March 5th, 2019, a search was conducted using Elseviers Scopus citation
database of peer-reviewed literature. The initial search criterion was based on the word
digitalizationin the article titles. To improve our review process and to justify why
we chose a certain type of articles and not others, we applied several lters to exclude
irrelevant papers and save time [15]. The initial search revealed 1,441 documents,
which included journal articles in the English language to enable interpretation. The
inclusion criteria focused on management and social sciences, given they are the most
promising ones of theoretical research, due to the existence of extensive empirical
evidence. The nal systematic literature review included 121 articles. Table 1presents
an overview of the review process.
444 J. Reis et al.
We analysed the data through the content analysis technique, which is widely used
to detail the proportion or percentage of a text dedicated to a determined subject, and
that allowed to make evaluative comparisons of materials with established goals [16].
Content analysis can be brieydened as the systematic, objective, quantitative
analysis of message characteristics it included both human-coded analysis and
computer-aided text analysis [17]. Using a computer-assisted qualitative data analysis
software NVivo 11 QSR International [18], we examined the data by generating
codes and clustering the text into hierarchized categories and subcategories to identify
patters and establish new relations within the literature. After coding the 121 articles in
order to coin a consistent denition of digitalizationwe are now presenting the
results of the systematic review in the next section.
3 Findings
We have noticed that Nordic European countries are investing on the integration of
information and communication technologies (ICT) and digitalization processes [1]in
new or existing business models (Fig. 1). While, at the same time, these countries are
studying its implications to the business landscape [19], several cases are illustrating
the current Nordic investment on digitalization, e.g., manufacturing companies are
pursuing servitization strategies, which are increasingly relying on developing digi-
talization capabilities to interact and co-create value to their customers [20].
Drawing on the results of this research, we found that the development of digital
technologies exists along with advancements in articial intelligence (AI) and
automation, which are enabling a new wave of service delivery systems [2123] and
manufacturing innovations [24]. On the other hand, digitalization and servitization of
manufacturing processes are moving companies to nd competitive advantages through
innovative digital business models [25]. Moreover, the literature best identies sup-
plementary technologies that are identied as facilitator and do have a broader effect on
digitalization, examples are: the use of mobile devices that are changing consumer
practices and organizational behaviours [19,26].
Table 1. Systematic review process.
Elseviers Scopus database Documents
Search term
Digitalization
All elds 13,194
Title-Abstract-Keywords 7,954
Article title 1,441
Language English 1,018
Source type Journal 572
Document type Article 442
Major subject
area
Social sciences; Business, management and accounting;
and Economics, econometrics and nances
121
Digitalization: A Literature Review and Research Agenda 445
Interestingly, few articles distinguish between digitalization, digitization, and dig-
itation, which are being sometimes used indistinctly in the literature [8,27] or, at least,
there seems to be quite some confusion regarding the usage of terms [28]. Common
themes associated to the aforementioned concepts are digital innovation, digital dis-
ruption, digital convergence and digital transformation, which are the abilities of dif-
ferent companies to compete when digitalization alters the dynamics of core
technologies and core markets shifts [29]. Srai and Lorentz [30] also argues that much
of the literature on digitalization appears to be ambiguous in terms of the exact de-
nition of the term, probably due to the elusiveness of the concept. Only a couple of
articles, which are interested in making such distinction, were identied. Notable
examples are presented by Clerck [28], where digitalization is presented as the use of
digital technologies and of data in order to create revenue, improve business,
replace/transform business processes and create an environment for digital business,
whereby digital information is at the core, and Gobble [22] which identies the term
as digital technologies and probably digitized information, to create the harvest value
in new ways. Srai and Lorentz [30] evidences that past contributions mixed e.g.
digitalization and digitization, where digitization is the material process of converting
analogue streams of information in digital bits [31], thus, digitalization refers to the
technology of digitalising information. Ringenson et al. [32] support those denitions
and nd them useful for highlighting the difference between the technological condi-
tions necessary for digitally related social change (digitization) and the actual change
(digitalization). The limited research regarding the usage of terms, evidenced that this is
an area to be explored and suggests future research on the topic.
We analysed each denition and then presented the scholar debate around the term,
which is summarized in Table 2.
Fig. 1. Documents by country or territory (Top 10).
446 J. Reis et al.
Table 2. Digitalization denitions.
Author(s) Denition(s)
Maxwell and McCain
[33]
Digital technology takes information and breaks it down into its
smallest components. By transforming an analogue signal into
discrete pieces, digitalization makes it possible to manipulate
information, text, graphics, software code, audio, and video in ways
never before thought of, thus its informating, transforming
capabilities
Hagberg et al. [26] Digitalization is one of the most signicant on-going
transformation of contemporary society and encompasses many
elements of business and everyday life. Digitalization refers both to
a transformation from analogueto digital(e.g. a shift from cash
to electronic payments) and to the facilitation of new forms of value
creation (e.g. Accessibility, availability, and transparency) (citing
Amit and Zott [34])
Clerck [28] Digitalization is dened as the use of digital technologies and of
data in order to create revenue, improve business, replace/transform
business processes and create an environment for digital business,
whereby digital information is at the core
Lenka et al. [20] The industrial management literature denes the digitalization as
the phenomenon of intelligent connected machines that information
and digital technologies power (citing Lerch and Gotsch [35] and
Parida et al. [36])
Machekhina [37] Digitalization means transformation of all information types (text,
sound, visuals, video and other data from various sources) into the
digital language
Parviainen et al. [2] The action or process of digitizing; the conversion of analogue data
(esp. in later use images, video, and text) into digital form
Thorseng and Griot
[38]
The transformation of existing socio-technical structures that were
previously mediated by non-digital artefacts or relationships into
ones that are mediated by digitized artefacts and relationships with
newly embedded digital capabilities (citing Yoo et al. [39])
Valenduc and
Vendramin [40]
The term digitalisationis not the irruption of a new revolution,
but the pervasive synergy of digital innovations in the whole
economy and society (citing Perez [41])
Crittenden et al. [23] Digitalization creates new forms of interaction between companies
and customers through channels (citing Hansen et al. [42])
Devereux and Vella
[43]
Digitalization is the process of spreading of a general purpose
technology. The last similar phenomenon was electrication.
Digitalization of products and services shortens distances between
people and things. It increases mobility. It makes network effects
decisive. It allows the use of specic data to such an extent that it
permits the satisfaction of individual customer needs be it
consumers or businesses. It opens up ample opportunities for
innovation, investment, and the creation of new businesses and
jobs. Going forward it will be one of the main drivers of sustainable
growth (citing Gaspar et al. [44])
(continued)
Digitalization: A Literature Review and Research Agenda 447
Summarizing the Table 2; the rst focused denition was presented by Maxwell
and MacCain [33], who considered digitalization as the transformation of analogue
signals into digital pieces. The aforementioned description was therefore supported by
Hagberg et al. [26], Parviainen et al. [2] and Eling and Lehmann [27]. Whereas
Machekhina [37] described digitalization in a broader way, characterizing it as all
information types to the digital language. Should be noted that digitalization is the most
signicant on-going transformation of contemporary society and encompasses several
domains of daily life, such as: the social [30,32], the economic [40], and the orga-
nizational domain [27,47], in order to create and harvest value [22]. In their article,
Eling and Lehmann [27] also presented a very similar debate about the concept of
digitalization, with the difference that, in the end, they present a middle ground con-
ceptualization, between the broad and the narrow. Likewise, in our view: digitalization
is the phenomenon of transforming analogue data into digital language (i.e. digiti-
zation), which, in turn, can improve business relationships between customer and
companies, bringing added value to the whole economy and society.
Table 2. (continued)
Author(s) Denition(s)
Eling and Lehmann
[27]
The integration of the analogue and digital worlds with new
technologies that enhance customer interactions, data availability
and business process
Gobble [22] Digitalization refers to the use of digital technology, and probably
digitized information, to create and harvest value in new ways
Morley et al. [45] Digitalization is the growing application of ICT across the
economy encompassing a range of digital technologies, concepts
and trends such as articial intelligence, the Internet of Things
(IoT) and the Fourth Industrial Revolution(citing IEA [46])
Ringenson et al. [32] Digitalization is about social lifes restructuring around digital
communication and media infrastructures (citing [31])
Gebre-Mariam and
Bygstad [47]
Digitalization refers to the development and implementation of ICT
systems and concomitant organizational change, it involves the
transformation of socio-technical structures formerly mediated by
non-digital artefacts into ones mediated by digitized artefacts
(citing Yoo et al. [48])
Srai and Lorentz [30] Digitalization is dened as the way many domains of social life are
restructured around digital communication and media
infrastructures. In simple terms, digitalization may be dened as the
use of digital technologies
448 J. Reis et al.
The above denition is somewhat broader and brings back all the domains that
were previously identied in the literature social, economic and organizational.
Therefore, it is not surprising to verify that the major subject areas
1
(Table 1) are tied
together with the minor subject areas (Fig. 2): (1) business, management and
accounting (30%); (2) social sciences (26%); (3) engineering (10%), and (4) eco-
nomics, econometrics and nances (8%). During the last two decades, new techno-
logical developments such as, the Internet, and smartphones, have profoundly impacted
every part of economic, political and social life [49]. The integration of digital devices
reorganized the activities of business organization; thus by adopting business process
digitalization, companies have started to gain market and operational efciency [50].
According to Fig. 2, we could observe that the engineering area has had a great
preponderance on the digitalization landscape (10%), as it is inuencing, for example:
(1) the improvement of manufacturing processes industrial engineers [30,40]; (2) the
building of applications systems engineers [52]; (3) the developments of intelligent
machines and articial intelligence technologies electrical, mechanical and robotics
engineers [27].
We have also explored the journal distribution, which refers to the largest number
of publications in the digitalization scope (Fig. 3). We also cross-checked the journal
distribution with Scimago
2
Journal Ranking (SJR indicator), which measures the
journals impact, inuence and prestige that is measured from Q1 (best indexed
journals) until Q4 (lowest indexed journals).
Fig. 2. Documents by subject area.
1
Scopus classied the documents under four broad subject clusters (life sciences, physical sciences,
health sciences and social sciences & humanities), which are further divided into 27 major subject
areas and 300 + minor subject areas [51].
2
https://www.scimagojr.com.
Digitalization: A Literature Review and Research Agenda 449
The journals with highest percentage of publication were: The German journal of
ZWF Zeitschrift für Wirtschaftlichen Fabrikbetrieb, which is mainly addressed to
companiesexecutives and specialistsin production and service engineering domains;
the Swiss journal of Sustainability and the Romanian Journal Quality Access to
Success, which are cross-disciplinary, scholarly and open access journals. Although the
ones with better quotation were the British Journals Transfer, Research Technology
Management, and the Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services. As mentioned
above, the highest scientic journal emphasized practice-based research, which is a
clear indication that research is largely driven by practitioners; followed by academics,
particularly with respect to publications in major journals i.e. between quartiles 1 and 2.
The bars in Fig. 4illustrate the dispersion of each research approach. Although the
Fig. 4does not present all the research methodologies and methods, we have con-
sidered the generic ones with more incidences, giving just a few examples: mixed
methodologies included multimethod research or mixed method research; and empir-
ical research included case studies or focus group.
Figure 4shows that there is a higher incidence of empirical studies when compared
to the conceptual ones, which shows that there is still room to study the phenomenon
from a conceptual point of view, so future research should focus more on dening the
theoretical foundations of the eld. We could also verify that most part of the empirical
research were qualitative case studies, which according to Yin [53] have no general-
ization perspectives, only theoretical, and therefore it would be useful to invest on
quantitative research methods to allow generalization. There is also a great lack of
mixed studies and therefore it would be more valuable to draw more attention in that
regard. Mixed studies allow researchers or a team of researchers to combine elements
of qualitative and quantitative research approaches for a broader purpose of breadth and
depth of understanding and corroboration [54]. Moreover, there is a level of agreement
that mixed studies are superior in comparison with single methods [55,56], as are less
prone to errors or biased conclusions [57].
Fig. 3. Documents distribution by journal (Top 10).
450 J. Reis et al.
Although the quality of publications increased, i.e. in the rst two months of 2019,
approximately 70% of publications were Q1, the number of publications also increased
progressively over the years (Fig. 5). The document distribution increased mainly due
the transition of digital technologies from computer science to the service and manu-
facturing industry, thus the digital transformation is re-shaping the industrial processes:
e.g. industry 4.0, industrial articial intelligence or internet of things.
The digital era is not only driving innovation into the industry sector, as it seems to
being inuencing developments in the public sector as well [58]. Moreover, Reis et al.
[8] argue the government digitalization is one of the promising themes, with more
Fig. 4. Major research approaches.
Fig. 5. Documents distribution by year (10 yearsperiod).
Digitalization: A Literature Review and Research Agenda 451
prospects for future development. A perspective that has already been veried in the
rst two months of 2019, with a slight increase of studies related to public education
[23,59] and public health services [47,51] when compared with the same period in
2018. In the next section we present the conclusions, where is included the contribu-
tions to theory and practice, as well as the guidelines for future research.
4 Conclusions
This study draws on evidences that are paving the way on how new technologies are
assisting customers and companies to create value. This article provides cutting-edge
results: on the one hand, the developments achieved in the service industry are being
made in combination with synergies between digital services and other new tech-
nologies, such as AI or IoT; on the manufacturing domain, companies are also pursuing
new venues in nding competitive advantages by applying innovative digital practices
on their industrial process (e.g. servitization strategies).
Moreover, this study contributes to the digitalization literature, by providing a clear
understanding of its foundations in regard to the advancements achieved in the last few
years. To strengthen the aforementioned argument, several authors [26,60] have
concluded that additional debate on the digitalization agenda is needed, to further
develop a deeper understanding on how digital initiatives are changing existing busi-
ness models.
This article has some limitations: rstly, the way we choose the search term
inuences which publications were included in the review, while choosing the term
digitalizationmany contributions using synonyms were excluded from this work
[61], on the other hand, we must accept that in conducting systematic reviews there is a
hierarchy of evidence and that what can be empirically stated about the world is derived
from studies in which design is explicit and rigorous [62]; secondly, we only include
articles in English, excluding all works in other languages, although we recognize that
excluded articles may have different results, we decided to give priority an accurate
interpretation of the articles, thus avoiding any kind of misunderstanding; nally, we
also know that most systematic reviews use more than one database to be more
comprehensive in choosing articles, but for this article we decided to prioritize trans-
parency and easy reproducibility of results.
Future research should aim at a broader understanding of the digitalization phe-
nomenon, therefore our research can be enriched by the analysis of related topics, such
as digital disruption, digital convergence or digital divide. Such attempts may focus on
presenting a clear denition of the conceptual eld, as well as a brief bibliometric
analysis of each term. Researchers should also draw on the theoretical foundations of
the eld of digitalization, identifying existing theories or developing new ones in order
to theoretically support novel empirical research. The literature review has also pre-
sented other perspectives that have received little attention to date, and which are well
highlighted by Martín-Peña et al. [25], such as the challenges and success factors in the
transformation from traditional to digital business models [63] and the analysis of
strategic implications [64], just to mention some.
452 J. Reis et al.
Acknowledgments. The authors gratefully acknowledge the nancial support from the
Research Unit of Governance, Competitiveness and Public Policies (GOVCOPP) from Aveiro
University Portugal.
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... However, despite the popularity of this field, a common, sustainable and widely accepted theoretical basis is lacking. At the same time, we noticed the tendency of very specialized approaches, limited to certain fields of study (Hausberg et al., 2019), from medicine to environment, engineering, human resources, management or public administration (Reis et al., 2020;Espina-Romero and Guerrero Alcedo, 2022). Therefore, the objective of this article is to provide a comprehensive analysis of the state of scientific knowledge in the field of digitalization in the last 5 years through a bibliometric analysis and to identify the main themes of study. ...
... Digitalization is a broader concept that involves the integration of digital technologies in the activities of organizations and in the daily lives of people by modifying some operations or business processes to create new products or services or to add value (Rachinger et al., 2018;Parida, Sjödin and Reim, 2019;Reis et al., 2020;Verhoef et al., 2021). Digitalization involves the use of digital technologies to transform business processes and the manner in which consumers or citizens interact with businesses and government institutions. ...
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... The digital transformation takes a central role in the strategy of companies (Parviainen et al., 2022;Reis et al., 2020) and describes the transformation from analogue to digital to enable the availability and accessibility of new information, services, and products (Amit & Zott, 2001). Particularly, companies need to have a digital strategy to stay competitive on the market (Lipsmeier et al., 2020). ...
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... Specifically, digitalization within a management accounting context can be defined as "the use of digital technologies and of data in order to [...], improve business, replace/transform business processes [...] whereby digital information is at the core." (Clerck 2017;Reis et al. 2020). With respect to forecasting, value can be derived by new possibilities to generate future-oriented information more conveniently and with higher assurance in decision-making (Schneider et al. 2015). ...
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Especially in times of crisis, reliable predictions about probable future developments are difficult, but critical for successfully managing business operations. At the same time, it remains unclear what constitutes a good forecasting process during crises. The aim of this study is to analyze whether and how digital transformation can enhance forecasting processes and enable firms to better deal with crises. To do so, we refer to the concept of digital maturity, i.e., the extent to which digital transformation is adopted in internal processes, studied at the practice of forecasting. Specifically, we analyze whether digitally more mature forecasting processes positively influence (1) satisfaction with forecasting during crises, (2) the effectiveness of countermeasures, and (3) the economic situation during crises. We conduct a cross-sectional survey among 195 medium-sized and large companies in Germany to shed light on the forecasting process and its digital maturity as well as on the impact of the COVID-19 economic crisis on companies. Based on ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, we find that digitally more mature forecasts increase satisfaction with forecasting and the effectiveness of countermeasures. Overall, this study provides new insights into relevant aspects of forecasting to support successful crisis management, and it highlights the importance of advancing digital transformation in forecasting, especially to successfully deal with crises.
... Digital integration of production processes is the provision of connectivity between scientific, technical and production and technological operations and works based on the combination of information flows caused by them, including data about the involved digital technologies, economic assets and other types of resources owned by an industrial enterprise, which is carried out using a corporate information system. Further, we revealed the economic effect's essence of the digital integration of production processes based on studies on efficiency assessment [Meyer, 2004, p. 198;Limareva, Limarev, 2014, p. 7;Dubrovskiy, Ivanova, Chuprakova, 2019, p. 92;Orekhova, Misyura, Kislitsyn, 2020, p. 50;Plakhin, Blinkov, 2022, p. 141] and the research on the specifics of digital transformation [Piller, Moeslein, Stotko, 2004, p. 440;Li, Merenda, Venkatachalam, 2009, p. 52;Kuusisto, 2017, p. 341;Vogelsang, Brink, Packmohr, 2020, p. 25;Phuyal et al., 2020, p. 18;Reis et al., 2020;Fremont, 2021, p. 94;Haijia, Cailin, 2021, p. 24;Śledziewska, Włoch, 2021, p. 282;Verhoef et al., 2021, p. 900;Bhatia, Kumar, 2022, p. 2439Brink, Packmohr, 2022, p. 4849;Guo, Chen, 2023, p. 3124]. ...
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Moreover, Big Data Analytics harnesses vast datasets to uncover valuable insights, leading to improved decision-making, better resource allocation, and product quality enhancement. The paramount focus on quality and safety is strengthened by digitalization through more precise quality control, traceability, and compliance management. In conclusion, the digitalization of the pharma sector not only saves time and money but also elevates the overall quality and safety of pharmaceutical products. This review provides a comprehensive overview of these technological advancements, emphasizing their pivotal role in reshaping the pharmaceutical landscape. Introduction: The advancement of the manufacturing industry heavily relies on digitalization as a pivotal step in enhancing production processes. This digitalization encompasses the greater utilization of robotics, automation solutions, and computerization. This, in turn, leads to cost reduction, enhanced efficiency and productivity, and increased adaptability to changes. Among the various sectors, the pharmaceutical industry (PI) stands out as one of the fastest-growing economic segments, boasting global sales surpassing $1,228.45 billion in 2020. Over the period since 2017, the pharmaceutical market has displayed remarkable growth, experiencing an impressive annual rate of 5.8%. (1) Pharmaceutical companies have the opportunity to adopt digitization as a strategic response to the anticipated increase in demand from international markets. This digital transformation can be leveraged for several purposes, including ensuring compliance with regulatory requirements, identifying manufacturing efficiencies to lower operational costs, and establishing faster and more efficient communication channels with suppliers and distributors through cloud-based information exchanges (2). The acknowledgment of digitalization as the prevailing technological trend is fundamentally transforming not only our society but also the very fabric of the business environment (3). Embracing digitalization within the manufacturing sector is a crucial step forward in enhancing the intricacies of the production process. This transformative transition to digitalization involves the seamless integration of robotics, automated solutions, and computerized systems. This orchestration of technological advancements not only helps reduce operational expenses but also significantly boosts operational efficiency and productivity to unprecedented levels. Furthermore, the integration of digitalization into manufacturing bestows a heightened capacity to navigate the ever-evolving dynamics of the industrial landscape (4) Digital transformation offers pharmaceutical companies the capability to collect data from diverse sources, standardize its format, and conduct comprehensive analysis to enhance quality assurance. Simultaneously, it enables continuous monitoring of various stages and production levels within manufacturing facilities, facilitating the identification and correction of quality issues while streamlining reporting processes. By leveraging digital innovations, organizations can significantly enhance their insight into supply chain operations, enabling quicker and more informed decision-making. The digitization process enables seamless integration of the entire supply chain, thereby improving operational effectiveness and efficiency, as well as increasing adaptability and responsiveness to changing circumstances According to the International Trade Administration (ITA), the pharmaceutical industry primarily revolves around activities related to the research, development, production, and promotion of medications and biological products for both human and veterinary purposes. This sector plays a pivotal role in healthcare worldwide. To gain insights into consumer demand and enhance the effectiveness of supply chain operations, the pharmaceutical industry is increasingly embracing digitalization. This entails harnessing the power of shared information through systems integration, the utilization of connected devices, and various other
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Digitalization is revolutionizing the way business is conducted within industrial value chains through the use of Internet of Things (IoT) technologies, intensive data exchange and predictive analytics. However, technological application on its own is not enough; profiting from digitalization requires business model innovation such as making the transition to advanced service business models. Yet, many research gaps remain in analyzing how industrial companies can leverage digitalization to transform their business models to achieve sustainability benefits. Specifically, challenges related to value creation, value delivery, and value capture components of business model innovation need further understanding as well as how alignment of these components drive sustainable industry initiatives. Thus, this special issue editorial attempts to take stock of the emerging research field through a literature review and providing a synthesis of special issue contributions. In doing so, we contribute by developing a framework that communicates and sets the direction for future research by linking digitalization, business model innovation, and sustainability in industrial settings.
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Man lives in a global environment where new technologies, mainly digital, information and communication technology, is changing the possibilities and manner in which corporations produce and provide services their customers. Given the noticeable and quick progress and the increased reliance on modern technology, the question of how it is changing work, employment and processes, methods, approaches and processes related to human resources management field in today's corporations. This research paper presents part of a research focusing on the process of digitalization and e-recruitment in business environment in the Czech Republic. The aim of this contribution was to examine the present implementation of social media platforms in business practice in the context of the size and industry classification of the selected corporations in the Czech Republic. The research was conducted on the basis of a structured questionnaire survey available in printed form. Two research hypotheses have been formulated. The verification of null research hypotheses was performed through the statistical method of the Pearson’s Chi-square test. A research sample included 426 respondents (the employees of selected corporations in the Czech Republic that are active in and responsible for area of human resources). Main results of research confirmed a statistically significant relation between implementation of social media platforms in business practice and the size and industry classification of the selected corporations in the Czech Republic. © 2018, Czestochowa University of Technology. All rights reserved.
Book
Reflecting the rising popularity of research that combines qualitative and quantitative social science, Multi-Method Social Science provides the first systematic guide to designing multi-method research. It argues that methods can be productively combined using the framework of integrative multi-method research, with one method used to carry out a final causal inference, and methods from other traditions used to test the key assumptions involved in that causal inference. In making this argument, Jason Seawright considers a wide range of statistical tools including regression, matching, and natural experiments. The book also discusses qualitative tools including process tracing, the use of causal process observations, and comparative case study research. Along the way, the text develops over a dozen multi-method designs to test key assumptions about social science causation.
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Digitalization exacerbates the problems faced by the existing system for taxing corporate profit in an international context. It does so by making it much easier for all aspects of a company to be spread around the world: its shareholders and creditors, its operations and its consumers. As many of these problems ultimately stem from the fact that the existing system taxes companies in the location of their mobile factors, this article argues that a more direct and satisfactory response to these problems would be to move to a system in which companies are taxed where their immobile factors are located. The article considers two such possibilities: the location of shareholders and that of consumers. It also considers two specific issues which arise particularly in the context of digital companies, namely two sided markets and free usage.
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Purpose Digital practices of facility management (FM) are undergoing transformation. Several Nordic countries have ambitious hospital-building projects, driven by large public clients with long-term experience of operating complex building campuses. There is thus an opportunity for creating state-of-the-art digital FM. This paper aims to investigate the role of digital FM in new hospital projects in Scandinavia. Design/methodology/approach Based on a literature review, a framework of understanding of digital FM in hospital operation is established. Two longitudinal cases are presented and analysed, one for a greenfield hospital and the other for an extension of an existing hospital. Findings The literature highlights the importance of integration between technical digitalization, competences, organization and management of digital FM. The projects are in different phases and represent quite advanced preparations for digital FM. State-of-the-art computer-aided FM systems are prepared before operation. External consultants are involved, posing a dilemma of in-house/outsourced human resources in the future digital FM operation. Research limitations/implications Two case studies provide insights, but they have limited generalizability. Practical implications The study underscores the importance of preparation of management, organization and competences for digitalization. Originality/value Documented research on building information modelling (BIM) integrations in FM is still scarce. This article adds to the few empirical studies in the area. The findings illustrate that real estate administrators investing in FM software for new hospital buildings face challenges of aligning BIM models from design and construction to the FM system.
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Extant literature has increased our understanding of specific aspects of digital transformation, however we lack a comprehensive portrait of its nature and implications. Through a review of 282 works, we inductively build a framework of digital transformation articulated across eight building blocks. Our framework foregrounds digital transformation as a process where digital technologies create disruptions triggering strategic responses from organizations that seek to alter their value creation paths while managing the structural changes and organizational barriers that affect the positive and negative outcomes of this process. Building on this framework, we elaborate a research agenda that proposes [1] examining the role of dynamic capabilities, and [2] accounting for ethical issues as important avenues for future strategic IS research on digital transformation.