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Aloe sp. leaf gel and water glass for municipal wastewater sludge treatment and odour removal


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Aloe gel (Alg), which is a natural extract from the Aloe sp. plant, was evaluated in this study for its potential use as a bioflocculant to treat urban wastewater sewage sludge. The gel was used alone and combined with water glass, (WG) under controlled conditions in laboratory experiments. Alg was found effective to settle the flocculated sludge rapidly and remove distinctive unpleasant odours of the sludge as highlighted by GC/MS analysis. Furthermore, Alg was pH tolerant and had no effect in changing the pH of the wastewater. The optimum dose of Alg was 3% at which a sludge volume index (SVI) of 45.4 ml/g was obtained within 30 minutes settling time. To enhance the treatment performances of Alg, WG was also evaluated as an alkali agent to further reduce the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia (NH4-N) in the wastewater. At equal doses of 3% of WG and Alg each, the combined treatment outcomes showed high turbidity and NH4-N removals of 83 and 89%, respectively but the overall COD removal was at best 25%. The settling rate of treated sludge with combined Alg/WG was very rapid giving an SVI of 25.4 ml/g within only 5 minutes.
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Aloe sp. leaf gel and water glass for municipal wastewater
sludge treatment and odour removal
Thameur Jaouadi, Mounir Hajji, Mariam Kasmi, Amjad Kallel,
Abdelwaheb Chatti, Hichem Hamzaoui, Adel Mnif, Chedly Tizaoui
and Ismail Trabelsi
Aloe gel (Alg), which is a natural extract from the Aloe sp. plant, was evaluated in this study for its
potential use as a bioocculant to treat urban wastewater sewage sludge. The gel was used alone
and combined with water glass (WG) under controlled conditions in laboratory experiments. Alg was
found effective to settle the occulated sludge rapidly and remove distinctive unpleasant odours of
the sludge as highlighted by gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis.
Furthermore, Alg was pH tolerant and had no effect in changing the pH of the wastewater. The
optimum dose of Alg was 3% at which a sludge volume index (SVI) of 45.4 mL/g was obtained within
30 min settling time. To enhance the treatment performances of Alg, WG was also evaluated as an
alkali agent to further reduce the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia (NH4-N) in the
wastewater. At equal doses of 3% of WG and Alg each, the combined treatment outcomes showed
high turbidity and NH4-N removals of 83 and 89%, respectively, but the overall COD removal was at
best 25%. The settling rate of treated sludge with combined Alg/WG was very rapid giving an SVI of
25.4 mL/g within only 5 min.
Thameur Jaouadi
Ofce National de lAssainissement (ONAS),
Tunis, Tunisia
Thameur Jaouadi
Mariam Kasmi (corresponding author)
Abdelwaheb Chatti
Ismail Trabelsi
Laboratoire de Traitement et Valorisation des
Rejets Hydriques (LTVRH),
Technopark of Borj-Cedria, 8020, Soliman,
University of Carthage,
Avenue de la Republique, P.O. Box 77, 1054
Amilcar, Tunis, Tunisia
Mounir Hajji
Hichem Hamzaoui
Adel Mnif
Laboratoire de Valorisation des matériaux utiles,
Centre national des sciences et recherche de
matériaux University of Carthage, Tunis,
Amjad Kallel
Laboratoire Eau-Energie-Environnement (3E), Sfax
National School of Engineering,
University of Sfax,
P.O. Box 1173, 3038, Sfax, Tunisia
Chedly Tizaoui
College of Engineering, Bay Campus,
Swansea University,
Swansea SA1 8EN, UK
Key words |Aloe sp. gel, COD removal, odour removal, sewage sludge, turbidity, water glass
In municipal wastewater treatment, sludge treatment
accounts for about a third of the total wastewater treatment
plant costs (Nowak ), making it one of the important
treatment sections of the process. New cost-effective and
environmentally friendly sludge treatment technologies are
hence needed by wastewater undertakers. In Tunisia,
where this study was carried out, the activated sludge pro-
cess (AS) is the most used biological process for
wastewater treatment and the solidliquid separation of
the sludge from the treated water remains a challenge due
to overload resulting in poor quality of treated wastewater
(Jemli et al. ). To enhance the performance of the sec-
ondary clariers, addition of organic and/or inorganic
occulants is widely practiced. The coagulants/occulants
used in wastewater to aid the separation of sludge can be
either inorganic such as aluminium sulphate, or chemically
1© IWA Publishing 2020 Water Science & Technology |in press |2020
doi: 10.2166/wst.2020.123
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synthetic organic occulants such as polyacrylamide deriva-
tives (Zahrim et al. ). Although these coagulants/
occulants have been successfully used for many decades
in the water and wastewater sectors, there have been con-
cerns about their environmental impacts, cost and the
sustainability of over-extraction of raw materials, which
are not renewable resources. The leaching of monomers
from sludges treated with synthetic organic polymeric oc-
culants has also been highlighted as a signicant barrier
for the use of wastewater sludge in other areas such as agri-
cultural applications (Abdelaal ). Therefore, demand for
new coagulants/occulants to improve the characteristics of
the produced sludge to be safely disposed of or utilized in
other sectors (e.g. land spraying) is increasing. In recent
years, bioocculants have emerged as potential substitutes
to traditional inorganic and synthetic polymeric coagu-
lants/occulants because they are effective in treating
water, generally nontoxic, harmless, less sensitive to pH
changes, and are biodegradable (Giri et al. ;Liu et al.
,). Bioocculants such as Moringa seeds (Menkiti
& Onukwuli ), Lablab purpureus peels (Shilpa et al.
), Moroccan cactus extract (Abid et al. ), dates
seeds (Al-Sameraiy ) and Opuntia dillenii (Nougbode
et al. ) have been investigated for turbidity removal pro-
viding removal percentages in the range 7894%. Moringa
oleifera seed, maize and chitosan were also used in direct
ltration of lake water and were successfully evaluated for
turbidity and microorganism removal as reported by
Mandloi et al. (). A widely reported Indian grown natu-
ral coagulant (Nirmali seeds), Okra seeds pod tips, sap,
plant stalk, and roots have also been studied (Al-Samawi
& Shokralla ). Al-Samawi & Shokralla ()have
used okra extract to treat clay suspensions and have con-
cluded that the okra extract was a powerful polyelectrolyte
coagulant whether it was used as a primary and/or as a
coagulant aid with alum. They also conrmed that the natu-
ral okra extract performed much better than alum at high
turbidity waters. Aloe vera has also been used in water
and wastewater treatment to remove suspended solids, tur-
bidity, chemical oxygen demand, heavy metals and textile
dyes (Lee et al. ;Adugna & Gebresilasie ). Aloe
leaves are well known for their mucilaginous jelly, which
is referred to as Aloe gel (Femenia et al. ;Hamman
). Aloe gel contains mainly monosaccharides such as
glucose and mannose, vitamins, minerals, polysaccharides
and phenolic compounds together with some organic
acids (Hamman ;Mazzulla et al. ). In their study
on textile wastewater, Adugna and Gebresilasie (Adugna
& Gebresilasie ) reported that Aloe steudneri performed
as polyacrylamides for treating the wastewater and
suggested that this natural occulant can substitute the syn-
thetic occulant. Nougbode et al. ()have also conrmed
that leaf gels from several Aloe species could be used as
natural occulants for water treatment. Adsorption was
suggested as the mechanism by which Aloe gel provides
water treatment due to its high bre content (Adugna &
Gebresilasie ). In addition, other constituents of the
gel such as glyco-aloe-modinanthrone and tannins are postu-
lated to be responsible for the gels coagulation property.
Despite being effective to treat water, Aloe gel, similarly to
other natural occulants, could increase the residual
organic matter in the treated water. According to literature,
the chemical composition of Aloe plants largely depends on
the species analysed but overall the organic matter can
reach up to 81% of the mass of Aloe plants (Eugene et al.
;Radha & Laxmipriya ). In this study, Aloe gel
was evaluated for the rst time as a bioocculant to enhance
the gravity settling of municipal wastewater sludge. The
study also highlights the increased performance of using
Aloe gel in combination with sodium silicates to obtain
faster settling velocities of the treated wastewater sludge.
Several jar tests were carried out to select the optimal
doses of Aloe gel and sodium silicates and the effects on
pH changes and the volume of sludge produced.
Sludge collection
The sludge samples were collected in two 20 L plastic jerry
cans from the wasted line of a secondary settling reactor of
an activated sludge process of the municipal wastewater
treatment plant (Chotrana II, Tunis, Tunisia). The Chotrana
treatment plant serves a population equivalent to 400,000
with a total wastewater ow of 110,847 m
per year and
serves several industries (textile, slaughterhouse and food
wastewater). The average total solids concentration in the
sludge is TS ¼33 g/L. The sludge samples were immediately
stored after collection in a fridge at 5 C. In certain exper-
iments, the pH of the sludge was adjusted using 1M
NaOH and 1M HCl solutions.
Preparation of Aloe sp. gel
The Aloe sp. leaves were harvested in March 2018 from a
two-year-old Aloe vera plant grown in the garden of the Bio-
technology Center of Borj Cedria, Soliman, Tunisia. The gel
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was prepared as described by Kasmi et al. (). Briey, the
whole leaves were washed with a tap water and the spikes
which were placed along their margins were removed
before slicing the leaf to separate the skin from the let.
The resulting lets were mixed and homogenized using a
hand electric blender (Moulinex, model genuine). The gel
was used freshly in each experiment immediately after its
Aloe sp. gel analysis
Aloe gel composition in terms of fats, sugars, proteins and
minerals content was determined. Fats assessment was
performed according to the methodology reported by
Hamman (). Sugars were assessed using Dubois proto-
col (Dubois et al. ). Proteins content was determined
using Bradford methodology (Bradford ). As for min-
erals, phosphorus and magnesium concentrations were
determined by means of colorimetric method using vana-
domolybdic complex and atomic absorption. Calcium
concentration was determined using EDTA method; zinc,
copper, and iron assessments were performed using
atomic adsorption method (Rodier et al. ). Sodium
and potassium contents were determined by the ame
photometer method. Lyophilized Aloe sp. leaf gel was
incubated in (1N) H
at 80C for 30 min to extract
cations. Concentrations of Cd, Zn and Fe in the extracts
were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry
(SpectrAA 220, Varian, Australia). Protocol adopted from
Zorrig et al. ().
Preparation of water glass
Water glass (i.e. sodium metasilicate (Na
)) was pre-
pared by reacting Tunisian silica sand (SiO
>99%) with
sodium carbonate, Na
(>99%, Honeywell) in a 1:1 M
ratio at temperatures between 1,200 and 1,300C as indi-
cated by Bouaoun et al. ().
Coagulation and occulation process
The coagulation and occulation tests were carried out in a
jar apparatus equipped with four steel paddles. The doses
of the Aloe gel varied according to the values 1, 3, 5 and
7% (v/v) of sludge. The coagulation experiments were
performed using a modied protocol as described by Patil
& Hugar (). The coagulation step was done at high
speed of 200 rpm for 2 min followed by the occulation
step at 50 rpm for 30 min. The settling time was set to
60 min after occulation.
Settling experiments were made using a glass column
(46 cm high and 7.8 cm in diameter) in which the height
of the liquid/sludge interface was recorded at regular time
intervals (Zodi et al. ). The effect of pH on sludge settle-
ability was also studied using initial pH values of 7, 11, 12
and 13 adjusted by 1M NaOH solution.
Flocculating rate measurement
To calculate the occulating rate of Aloe gel, Kaolin clay
was used to make suspensions at 5 g/L in which Alg was
added and stirred for 2 min. After settling for 1 min, the
absorbance at a wavelength of 550 nm of the supernatant
sample was measured by a spectrophotometer UV/VIS
Lambda 25 (PerkinElmer). The occulating rate was
calculated according to Equation (1) (Liu et al. ),
where A
is the absorbance of the supernatant sample
at 550 nm and A
is the absorbance of the control at
550 nm.
Flocculating rate ¼(A0A1)=A0×100% (1)
Analytical methods
The total solids content (TS), suspended solids (SS) and
volatile suspended solids (VSS) were measured according
to the standard methods described by Rodier et al. ().
The total organic carbon (TOC) was measured using a
total carbon analyzer Shimadzu TOC 5050. The total nitro-
gen and phosphorous contents were determined following
the standard methods proposed by Rodier et al. ().
The pH, conductivity (mS/cm) and total dissolved solids
(TDS) (g/L) of each sample were determined using a
multi-parameter instrument (C860, Consort bvba, Belgium).
Chemical oxygen demand (COD) values were measured by
the potassium dichromate colorimetric method using an
open reux system (Rodier et al. ). Ammoniacal nitro-
gen was determined according to the NF T90-15 method
(AFNOR). Sludge settling ability is expressed by means of
the sludge volume index (SVI) which is often recommended
for the characterization of the sludge formation (Tchobano-
glous et al. ;Zodi et al. ;Kallel et al. ). The SVI
is dened by Equation (2).
SVI ¼H30
H0SS 1000 (mL=g) (2)
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where H
is the sludge height after 30 min settling (cm),
the initial height of the sludge in the settling column
(cm) and SS is the initial sludge concentration after treat-
ment (g/L).
Odours measurement
The odour from raw and treated sludge were qualitat-
ively assessed by the mean of GC-MS. Four samples
identied as raw sludge (control), sludge treated with
Alg, sludge treated with water glass and sludge treated
with Aloe gel (3%) plus water glass (3%), were collected
and sealed in 250 mL glass. 100 mL of raw and treated
sludge were used as reactor for 24 h incubation at
room temperature. All samples were subjected to VOCs
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were analyzed
using a headspace (TELEDYNE TEKEMAR HT3TM)
coupled with an Agilent GCMS system (GC with 7890A,
mass detector 5975C with Triple-Axis, insert XL MSD). A
30 mL headspace vial was used for incubation of the
sample performed during 30 min in headspace oven at
50 C, then transferred in a heated line at 85C to avoid
condensation of VOCs and injected in the GC inlet for
2 min. An HP-5 ms (5% phenylmethylsiloxane) column
(Agilent 19091S-433: 2169.66548) was used (30 m ×
250 μm×0.25 μm) at 1.6 mL/min ow with helium N60
(99.9999%) as carrier gas and the run was performed
over 25 min. The temperature programme of the oven
was: 70 C for 2 min, then, 230 C for 20 min and 270 C
for 25 min. The inlet had the following characteristics:
temperature of 250 C, helium gas carrier, split ow of
20 mL/min, splitless split/splitless inlet: splitless injection
mode, 60.688 kPa as inlet pressure, 50 mL/min and 2 min
for purge ow and time, respectively; gas saver on and
20 mL/min for gas saver ow and 2 min for gas saver
time. In this analysis, the used MS had the following speci-
cations: ms quadrupole at 150C, from 50 to 550 m/z full
scan, 70 eV ion ionized energy, source and transfer line
temperature at 250C. The volatile compounds were ident-
ied by reference to mass spectra and the retention time of
Wiley09 NIST2011 library.
Particle size distribution was determined with a Master-
sizer 2000 laser light scattering instrument (Malvern
Instruments Ltd., UK) as reported by Rahsepar et al.
(). The samples of treated and untreated sludge were
observed qualitatively with a scanning electron microscope
(SEM) (FEI Quanta FEG 650).
Sludge characterization
The main characteristics of the collected sludge are summar-
ized in Table 1. The results reveal that the mean value of
7.15 for pH, 11,200 mg O
/L for COD and 16 g/L for SS.
VSS content was 2.6 g/L, the TOC was about 473 mg/kg
and the ammonical nitrogen and phosphorus contents
were 400 mg/L and 6.53 mg/kg, respectively. Compared to
a similar sludge reported in Ramirez et al. (),we
observed a low carbon-nitrogen content of Tunisian sludge
and quite high level of COD which might be attributed to
the industrial efuent co-treated at the Chotrana wastewater
treatment plant.
Aloe sp. gel characterization
In order to provide meaningful discussion on the effect of
the bio-occulants on the sludge treatment, the Aloe sp.
leaf gel characteristics were determined (Table 2). The analy-
sis revealed an important amount of soluble sugars of about
22.8 g/100 g of lyophilized gel and high content of proteins
(7.8 g/100 g). Fats minerals and metals were also detected.
Table 2 illustrates other plants composition such as Morin-
ga oleifera seeds and cactus (Opuntia cus indica) plants,
that various studies pointed out the importance of their
use as occulant, coagulant or coagulant/occulants aid
for the removal of turbidity, COD and heavy metal
(Lopez-cervantes et al. ;Leone et al. ;Ben Rebah
& Siddeeg ). As it can be easily noticed, Aloe sp. fat,
protein and total sugars contents are always in the range
of the other plantsvalues.
Table 1 |Characteristics of sludge generated by Chotrana municipal wastewater
treatment plant
Measured parameters Unit Recorded values
pH 7.15 (at 25 C)
Moisture content % 84 ±1
Total solid content (TS) g·L
33 ±1.2
Suspended solids (SS) % 16 ±0.5
VSS g·Kg
2.6 ±0.5
TOC mg·Kg
473 ±5
Ammoniacal-nitrogen mg·L
400 ±0.5
Total phosphorous mg·Kg
6.53 ±0.05
COD mg O
11,200 ±10
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Treatment of sludge with Aloe gel and water glass
Effect of Alg and water glass addition on sludgespH
Figure 1 illustrates the effect of the Aloe sp. gel (Alg)
addition on the sludges pH. The gure also shows the
effect of adding water glass (WG) alone or combined with
Alg (Alg-WG) on pH values. Following the addition of
3 mL/100 mL Alg, the pH showed only a modest increase
from 6.95 to 7.9 to remain constant at 7.9 regardless of the
increased amount of Alg added. However, the addition of
3 mL/100 mL water glass exhibited a remarkable increase
in pH from 6.95 to 12.5. A further increase in WG has
increased pH modestly to reach a value of pH 13 after
adding 7 mL/L of water glass. In fact, the alkaline character
of sodium silicate is the main cause of pH increase as shown
by the reaction equation:
Effect on turbidity removal
Figure 2 shows the turbidity changes versus the added
volumes of Alg and WG separately and in combination.
The results show that as the added volume increases, the
turbidity decreases. According to Figure 3, Alg was less
effective than water glass to remove turbidity (Alg: 45%;
WG: 89%). This could be attributed to the formation of cal-
cium silicate as main precipitate following the reaction of
water glass (sodium silicate) and calcium content in the
sludge (Table 1). The obtained precipitate had a potential
to adsorb ne particles, making the supernatant free of
Effect of Alg and WG addition on SS and VSS
Figure 3 illustrates the effect of the different doses of Aloe
gel and water glass added separately or in combination on
both SS and VSS removal. The obtained results show that
the SS content increased instead of being reduced. How-
ever, no signicant effect was noticed for VSS removal
with both treating agents used separately or combined.
The progressive addition of WG in the sludge at contents
higher than 1% induced a reestablishment of the SS con-
tent to its original value (20.3 g/L) after a drop to
14.5 g/L at 1% WG (Figure 3(b)). In order to investigate
the combined effect of Aloe gel and WG addition on the
sludge treatability, further experiments were carried out
at xed Alg content of 3% while WG dosages were
Figure 1 |pH values variation following the Aloe sp. leaf gel (Alg), water glass and aloe þ
water glass addition to sludge at different volume.
Figure 2 |Turbidity variation with different volume of Aloe sp. leaf gel (Alg), water glass
and Aloe gel þwater glass, removal rate.
Table 2 |Aloe leaf gel biochemical characterization compared to Moringa oleifera seeds
and Cactus (Opuntia cus indica)ours
(g/100 g)
Lyophilized Aloe
sp. leaf gel
Moringa oleifera
seeds (Leone
et al. 2016)
Cactus ours
et al. 2011)
Fats 4.8 36.7 2.38
Soluble sugars 22.78 18.4 67.6
Proteins 7.82 31.4 7.24
Ca 3.02 ––
Mg 0.98 ––
Na 3.03 ––
K 3.89 ––
P 0.01 ––
Fe 0.87 ––
Cu 0.04 ––
Zn 0.01 ––
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Figure 3 |Variation of suspend solid (SS) and volatile suspended solid (VSS) of sludge following the application of (a) Aloe sp. leaf gel (Alg), (b) water glass and (c) Aloe þwater glass.
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varied from 1 to 7%. The more WG was added, the higher
the SS content was recorded (ranging from 20.4 g/L at 1%
WG dosage to reach 27.5 g/L at 7% WG). The VSS values
recorded a moderate increase from 9 g/L at 1% to 10 g/L
at 7% (Figure 3(c)).
The mechanistic of occulation/coagulation as pro-
voked by Aloe gel was reported by many studies. In fact,
gels from Aloe species are composed of low protein and
lipid contents, and polysaccharide is considered as the
main ingredient. Interestingly, Aloe species are known by
the polysaccharide mucilage production. Furthermore, the
presence of minerals, such as Ca
and K
, is necessary
for the gelatinous properties of mucilage (gel) (Hamman
). The Aloe sp. coagulation/occulation mechanism
could be interpreted as hypothesis by analogy to the
cactus, where the high occulation/coagulation capacity
of cactus was mainly attributed to its polysaccharide struc-
ture that is composed of various carbohydrates, such as
L-arainose, D-galactose, L-rhamnose, D-xylose and galac-
turonic acid (Vijayaraghavan et al. ). In this context,
it was reported that galacturonic acid is signicantly impli-
cated as the main active coagulant agent, based on its
polymeric structure. This polymeric structure provides a
bridge for particles to adsorb. Moreover, the functional
groups of cactus polysacharides included carboxyl
(-COOH), hydroxyl (OH) and amino or amine (NH
groups, as well as hydrogen bonds. These functional
groups are considered as preferred groups for the occula-
tion process (Sepúlveda et al. ).
Effect of Alg and WG addition on COD and NH
Figure 4 illustrates the changes of COD and ammonia nitro-
gen concentrations with the added volume of Aloe gel and
water glass separately and combined. At low doses, the
recorded data reveal a slight increase of COD value when
Aloe gel was added to the sludge (Figure 4(a)). Similar obser-
vations were also reported by Ramavandi & Farjadfard
(). This increase in COD following the addition of Alg
was expected due to the organic matter content of Aloe
gel which is rich in organic substances (e.g. carbohydrates
and proteins). Yet, above 1 mL/100 mL of added Alg, the
COD values of the solution showed a decreasing trend but
the overall COD of the solution remains higher than the
initial COD of the sludge until the applied dose of Alg
exceeded 5 mL/100 mL Alg. A further increase in Alg
doses above 5 mL/100 mL results in COD values slightly
lower than the original COD value of the sludge. In contrast,
the addition of WG alone or combined with Alg resulted in a
much more effective COD removal than Alg reaching a
removal percentage of about 25% at a dose of 7 mL/
100 mL water glass.
Figure 4(b) shows the removal of NH
-N at different
doses of Alg and WG. According to Figure 5(b), the addition
of Alg and WG alone or combined at low doses resulted in a
signicant reduction in ammonia. At a dose of 1 mL/
100 mL, the removal of NH
-N was 66% for all agents to
reach 89% at 7 mL/100 mL WG. A further increase in Alg
dose above 1 mL/100 mL did not increase NH
-N removal
but it made it worse (only 40% removal at 7 mL/L), possibly
due to a competition with COD removal as illustrated in
Figure 4(a) where COD removal with aloe gel becomes
relevant only at high doses. In addition, Alg active constitu-
ents (e.g. proteins) may aggregate and fold at high doses
(Gupta et al. ), which reduces the number of active
functional groups available for NH
accumulation and
adhesion. The action of water glass was much more pro-
nounced since its alkali character changes ammonium to
ammonia gas (pKa ¼9.25 at 25 C) that can be easily
removed from solution via the increase of pH to 12.9
(Figure 1), which justies the high ammonia removal of
89% obtained following the addition of WG.
Figure 4 |Variation of COD (a) and ammoniacal nitrogen (b) with volume of Aloe sp. leaf
gel (Alg), water glass and Aloe þwater glass removal rates.
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Performances of Aloe gel and water glass on sludge
Figure 5 depicts the sludge settling performance for Alg and
for combined Alg-WG treatments as well as the raw sludge
without any coagulant being added. The SVI values are
also indicated in Figure 5. The combined Alg-WG treated
sample exhibited a net drop from 100 mL to reach 15 mL
within only 5 min. The settled volume stabilized at 10 mL
after 10 min until the end of the experiment (90 min). The
Alg treated sample settled volume was limited to 28 mL
after 40 min or higher settling times. However, it is note-
worthy that both Alg and combined treatments recorded
better results compared to the settling of raw samples with-
out addition of any of the coagulants; where, at best, a nal
settling sludge volume of 34 mL was recorded after 80 min
settling. The effect of the optimal dosages of the combined
treatment of sludge after settling using 3% of Alg and 3%
of WG dosages showed a net difference of settling rates
(Supplementary Material).
Figure 6 gives the particle size distribution of the
untreated sludge, sludge with Aloe gel and sludge with
both Aloe gel and water glass. Particle size shifts are clearly
observed for the Alg-WG treated sludge. The sludge particles
shifted from ne sizes (100 μm) to larger particles and the
agglomerates were found to have a bimodal distribution
with a mean size value of 300 μm. This might explain the
accelerated settling velocity observed in the presence of
WG.The increased particle size as a result of WG addition
could be explained by the formation of large aggregates
resulting from the interaction between silicate polymers
Figure 5 |Effect of Aloe gel () and combined Aloe gel-Water glass () addition on the
treated sludge compared to the raw sample () during 90 min.
Figure 6 |Raw and treated sludge particle master size distribution.
Figure 7 |SEM image of raw sludge (a), and aloe gel (b) combined Aloe gel and water
glass (c) treated sludge.
8T. Jaouadi et al. |Municipal wastewater sludge treatment and odour removal Water Science & Technology |in press |2020
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Figure 8 |Mass spectra of VOCs from the untreated sludge (a) and the treated sludge using Aloe sp leaf gel (b) and water glass (c).
9T. Jaouadi et al. |Municipal wastewater sludge treatment and odour removal Water Science & Technology |in press |2020
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(i.e. WG) and sludge with possible ion binding with inorgan-
ics in the wastewater (e.g. Ca
)(Okano et al. ;Zuo
et al. ).
The SEM images (Figure 7) show that the structures of
the raw sludge and the treated sludge with Alg-WG have
an abundance of micro pores. The SEM images suggest
that signicant changes in the ocs morphology occurred
following the addition of Alg-WG as evidenced by the for-
mation of large aggregates showing pillars of 1020 μmof
length between aggregates in the presence of Alg-WG. The
observed building structure might be attributed to calcium
silicate due to the reaction of silicates in the water glass
with calcium in the sludge (Okano et al. ).
The outcome of this novel combined treatment of waste-
water sludge by addition of Aloe gel and water glass
highlighted the clear macroscopic aspect of coarse agglom-
erates of sludge with raw sludge having suspended ne
The activated sludge ocs are known to have a com-
plex and heterogeneous composition. Furthermore, the
ocs characteristics (size, structure, etc.) vary widely
according to the surrounding environment variation
which could affect their dewaterability mainly the size dis-
tribution and the presence of small particles. Next to
bacteria, the ocs contain extracellular polymeric sub-
stances (EPS) and various inorganic and organic
molecules. Water represents the main component of the
microbial aggregates, followed by the EPS and biomass.
The EPS embody a highly hydrated matrix reaching 98%
of water content (Keiding et al. ). Consequently, con-
sidering the reported Aloe gel compositions and the
involvement of its ingredients in the occulation/coagu-
lation process, the preeminent role of Aloe gel in the
ocs formation mechanism could be considered. More-
over, it has been reported that Aloe gel can inuence
sludge oc characteristics, including: morphological
aspects; physical properties; and chemical constituents of
polymeric substances and metallic ions.
Performances of Aloe gel on sludge odour removal
The mass spectrum of VOCs emitted by the untreated
sludge is illustrated in Figure 8(a). The analysis allowed
the detection of four compounds identied as Toluene
(peak 1), Benzenamine, N-ethyl- (peak 2), 4-uoro-1,2-
xylene (peak 3) and phenol, 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)
(peak 4) with retention times (min) of 5.087, 12.394,
13.415 and 17.981 and relative areas (%) of 41.03, 38.34,
12.76 and 7.86, respectively. Figure 8(b) and 8(c) illustrate
the mass spectra of VOCs emitted by the treated sludge
using Alg and WG, respectively. The spectra show that
the addition of either Alg or WG results in the disappear-
ance of peaks 2, 3 and 4 initially detected among the
untreated sludge VOCs. Nevertheless, a new compound
identied as D-limonene with retention time (min) of
9.867 and relative area of 48.64% was detected after Alg
addition. Limonene is one of the most widespread terpenes
in the avour and fragrance industry (Zodi et al. ). A
human olfactory sensing experiment was carried out and
showed that the twenty people did not detect any unplea-
sant smell from the treated sludge, which provides a
further evidence of the removal of odour following the
application of Alg.
This study presented a new insight of the potential use of
Aloe gel for the treatment of municipal wastewater sludge
as a novel bioocculant. Aloe sp. leaf gel, at different
doses (1, 3, 5 and 7%), was tested as bioocculant via
sequential treatments that used coagulation, occulation
and sedimentation processes under dened operating con-
ditions. The Aloe gel showed good performance for
sludge solidliquid separation. To enhance the Aloe gel
action, a further step was necessary by the addition of
water glass. The combined treatment showed that the use
of aloe gel and water glass at 3% yielded a removal of tur-
bidity up to 83%, and 89% of ammonia nitrogen. Moreover,
the resulting ocs from the treatment using aloe gel and
water glass generate much coarser particles and readily
settling sludge, typically with only 5 min of settling time.
SEM investigation enabled the observation of multi pillars
of 10 to 20 μm length located within the sludge intra par-
ticles. Furthermore, the Aloe leaf gel odour removal
efciency was revealed through VOCs analysis of the trea-
ted sludge which indicated the disappearance of odour-
causing substances following application of Aloe gel or
water glass. The proposed process would be an attractive
approach not only to reduce the treatment cost but also
to minimize environmental concerns and generate eco-
friendly sludge.
The Supplementary Material for this paper is available
online at
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... Consequently, the use of natural products as bioflocculant for sludge conditioning constitutes a new strategy with sustainable impacts. To the best of our knowledge, the only study reporting the use of AV as biological flocculant for wastewater sludge treatment was conducted recently by Jaouadi et al. (2020) [94]. In this study, AV gel was blended and used freshly as bioflocculant. ...
... Consequently, the use of natural products as bioflocculant for sludge conditioning constitutes a new strategy with sustainable impacts. To the best of our knowledge, the only study reporting the use of AV as biological flocculant for wastewater sludge treatment was conducted recently by Jaouadi et al. (2020) [94]. In this study, AV gel was blended and used freshly as bioflocculant. ...
... Moreover, a combined treatment using AV gel and water glass (3%) enhanced the particles size and promoted sludge settling. At the same time, AV gel promoted the odor removal from the sludge, which was confirmed by volatile organic compounds analysis [94]. The use of AV materials as conditioner for wastewater sludge treatment represents a processing technology in line with the sustainable development goals. ...
Full-text available
Aloe vera plant offers a sustainable solution for the removal of various pollutants from water. Due to its chemical composition, Aloe vera has been explored as coagulant/flocculant and biosorbent for water treatment. Most of the used materials displayed significant pollutants removals depending on the used preparation methods. AV-based materials have been investigated and successfully used as coagulant/flocculant for water treatment at laboratory scale. Selected AV-based materials could reduce the solids (total suspended solids (TSS), suspended solids (SS), total dissolved solids (TDS), and dissolved solids (DS)), turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), heavy metals, and color, with removal percentages varied depending on the coagulant/flocculant materials and on the wastewater characteristics. In the same context, AV materials can be used as biological flocculant for wastewater sludge treatment, allowing good solid–liquid separation and promoting sludge settling. Moreover, using different methods, AV material-based biosorbents were prepared and successfully used for pollutants (heavy metal dyes and phenol) elimination from water. Related results showed significant pollutant removal efficiency associated with an interesting adsorption capacity comparable to other biosorbents derived from natural products. Interestingly, the enzymatic system of Aloe vera (carboxypeptidase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase) has been exploited to degrade textile dyes. The obtained results showed high promise for removal efficiencies of various kinds of pollutants. However, results varied depending on the methodology used to prepare the Aloe vera based materials. Because of its valuable properties (composition, abundance, ecofriendly and biodegradable), Aloe vera may be useful for water treatment.
... Particle size distribution was determined with a Mastersizer 2000 laser light scattering instrument (Malvern Instruments Ltd., UK), as reported in some previous research studies(e.g. Jaouadi et al. 2020). ...
... To determine the optimal dose, speed agitation and treatment duration, a series of experiments were performed in a specific Jar test (Jaouadi et al. 2020) with different doses from 0.5 to 7% (Na 2 SiO), a stirring speed of 50 to 200 revolutions per minute (rpm), and different time durations of 5 to 90 min. Then, the mixture was kept for decantation for 30 min. ...
... In order to choose the most effective conditions for reducing pollutants, several Jar test experiments as described (e.g. Jaouadi et al. 2020) were carried out on the produced water by changing the dose of sodium silicate, the speed of agitation, and the time required for the pollutant removal. ...
Oil field wastewater (produced water) management is a crucial environmental issue due to its hydrocarbons content, heavy metal, and high salinity. In this study, soluble sodium silicate was used, under controlled conditions in laboratory, for treating generated water from a petroleum field situated in Southern Tunisia. The efficiency of soluble sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) in the removal of organic matter and heavy metal from produced wastewater was investigated, the optimization of the proposed process (Na2SiO3dose, agitation speed, and required treatment time). Soluble sodium silicate (SiO2/Na2O = 1) at a dose of 1%, low agitation (50 rpm), and a treatment duration of only 5 min achieved a high removal efficiency for simultaneous removal of chemical oxygen demand(COD) and major heavy metals. The removal yield of contaminant could reach up to 97%. Instantaneous chemical precipitation and adsorption onto calcium silicate are the main processes that yielded a high removal rate of organic matter and heavy metals. Silica and calcium silicate with absorbed contaminants were found to be the two stabilized by-products that could safely be dumped at landfill sites. Sludge by-product was carefully investigated with FTIR analysis, XRD and SEM-EDAX. The silicate-derived component along with co-precipitated calcium carbonate and sodium chloride are the main recognized salts.
... Consequently, the use of natural products as bioflocculant for sludge conditioning constitutes a new strategy with sustainable impacts. To the best of our knowledge, the only study reporting the use of AV as biological flocculant for wastewater sludge treatment was conducted recently by Jaouadi et al. (2020) [94]. In this study, AV gel was blended and used freshly as bioflocculant. ...
... Consequently, the use of natural products as bioflocculant for sludge conditioning constitutes a new strategy with sustainable impacts. To the best of our knowledge, the only study reporting the use of AV as biological flocculant for wastewater sludge treatment was conducted recently by Jaouadi et al. (2020) [94]. In this study, AV gel was blended and used freshly as bioflocculant. ...
... Moreover, a combined treatment using AV gel and water glass (3%) enhanced the particles size and promoted sludge settling. At the same time, AV gel promoted the odor removal from the sludge, which was confirmed by volatile organic compounds analysis [94]. The use of AV materials as conditioner for wastewater sludge treatment represents a processing technology in line with the sustainable development goals. ...
... It was found that there was a mean percentage reduction in colony count of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans after 3 minutes of immersion in aloe vera and after 3 minutes spray disinfection. Other research studies that investigated the usage of aloe vera as water treatment agent included aloe vera usage as; coagulants or flocculants [19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28], and bisorbent [29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36]. In another study conducted by Pareek and his colleagues [37] on disinfection of dental unit water line using Aloe Vera, the comparison was made on the efficacy of aloe vera, 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), and 10% hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), each at different concentrations, in controlling microbial contamination of dental unit water system. ...
Full-text available
The importance of potable water for human survival cannot be understated, just as human body cannot carry out its functions without water. Oftentimes, chemical such as sodium hypochlorite is used to make contaminated water fit for human consumption but overuse of this chemical has its attendant health effects including carcinogenic effect. It is therefore, important to find a substitute for sodium hypochlorite, without attendant health effects, for water disinfection purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the antimicrobial effects of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and aloe vera gel, stored under various conditions and parameters, on coliform and Escherichia coli isolates from some water samples. Four water samples including tap water, well water, oil polluted water and leachate were collected across Lagos State, Nigeria. All water samples were subjected to presumptive, confirmatory and complete tests. Disinfectant efficacies of the NaOCl and aloe vera were evaluated and compared on the eight isolated microorganisms from the water samples, using the disc diffusion method with various condition and parameters for the two disinfectants. The results showed that coliform counts were <2, 49, >1800 and >1800 cfu/100ml for the tap water, well water, oil polluted water and leachate respectively. Aloe vera looks more stable in its disinfectant capability when compared with NaOCl at the storage temperatures especially at 0, 25 and 35 o C. Furthermore, the p-values for using aloe vera and NaOCl as disinfectants under various conditions of concentration, temperature and sun exposure period ranged between 0.011 and 0.749 with most of the p-values indicating non-significant differences while few ones showed significant differences. On the average, the results showed that aloe vera could be used as a substitute for sodium hypochlorite for disinfection of water from multiple sources.
Due to the diversity of microbiota and the high complexity of their interactions that mediate biogas production, a detailed understanding of the microbiota is essential for the overall stability and performance of the anaerobic digestion (AD) process. This study evaluated the microbial taxonomy, metabolism, function, and genetic differences in 14 full-scale biogas reactors and laboratory reactors operating under various conditions in China. This is the first known study of the microbial ecology of AD at food waste (FW) at a regional scale based on multi-omics (16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, metagenomics, and proteomics). Temperature significantly affected the bacterial and archaeal community structure (R² = 0.996, P = 0.001; R² = 0.846, P < 0.002) and total inorganic carbon(TIC) slightly changed the microbial structure (R² = 0.532, P = 0.005; R² = 0.349, P = 0.016). The Wood-Ljungdahl coupled with hydrogenotrophic methanogenic pathways were dominant in the thermophilic reactors, where the acs, metF, cooA, mer, mch and ftr genes were 10.1-, 2.8-, 16.2-, 1.74-, 4.15-, 1.04-folds of the mesophilic reactors (P < 0.01). However, acetoclastic and methylotrophic methanogenesis was the primary pathway in the mesophilic reactors, where the ackA, pta, cdh and mta genes were 2.2-, 3.2-, 14.3-, 1.88-folds of the thermophilic group (P < 0.01). Finally, the Wilcoxon rank-sum test was applied to explain the cause of the temperature affecting AD microbial activities. The findings have deepened the understanding of the effect of temperature on AD microbial ecosystems and are expected to guide the construction and management of full-scale FW biogas plants.
Full-text available
The rapid expansion of global trade and human activities has resulted in a massive increase in wastewater pollution into the atmosphere. Suspended solids, organic and inorganic particles, dissolved solids, heavy metals, dyes, and other impurities contained in wastewater from various sources are toxic to the atmosphere and pose serious health risks to humans and animals. Coagulation–flocculation technology is commonly used in wastewater treatment to remove cell debris, colloids, and contaminants in a comfortable and effective manner. Flocculants, both organic and inorganic, have long been used in wastewater treatment. However, because of their low performance, non-biodegradability, and associated health risks, their use has been limited. The use of eco-friendly bioflocculants in wastewater treatment has become essential due to the health implications of chemical flocculants. Because of their availability, biodegradability, and protection, plant-derived coagulants/flocculants and plant-based grafted bioflocculants have recently made significant progress in wastewater treatment. This study will undoubtedly provide a clearer understanding of the current state, challenges, and solutions for bioflocculation in wastewater remediation using green materials for the sake of a cleaner climate. HIGHLIGHTS Plant mucilage as a cost-effective and eco-friendly natural bioflocculant.; It can serve as a potential bioflocculant for treatment of wastewaters released from different sources.; Significant removal of pollutants from wastewaters revealed the novelty of plant mucilage as a bioflocculant.; It throws light on their applications aiming to exploit the green materials for remediation of wastewater.;
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Abstract This study focused on the evaluation of Aloe steudneri gel for textile wastewater clarification with identification of major phytochemical groups and physicochemical characteristics of Aloe steudneri. Optimization of pH, flocculant dose, mixing speed and time were studied for Aloe steudneri gel and synthetic polyacrylamide. A jar test was used to perform the flocculation at optimum conditions (pH 7.3, flocculant dose 33 ml, mixing time 20 minutes and speed 61 rpm). Phytochemical groups like tannins, flavonoids and saponins were identified and the gel showed a good result of 1.9 g H2O/dry polymer for swelling capacity and 6.2 g oil/weight for fat adsorption capacity. At the optimum conditions, the turbidity removal was 92.3% for Aloe steudneri gel and 92.7% for polyacrylamide. Moreover, the removal efficiencies for chemical oxygen demand, 5-day biological oxygen demand, total suspended solids and lead were 76.8%, 83.5%, 57.9% and 77% for Aloe steudneri gel and 78%, 89%, 51% and 72% for polyacrylamide, respectively. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that Aloe steudneri gel can substitute the polyacrylamide as there are no significant differences in their removal efficiencies. Key words: Aloe steudneri, jar test, natural flocculant, phytochemicals
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In this study the biotreatability of Jebel Chakir landfill leachate (Tunisia) using a mixture of dairy industry reject (bactofugate) and Aloe sp. leaf gel was evaluated. The effect of Aloe gel fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain was investigated against some selected bacterial and fungal strains. The inoculation size effect of the treatment mixtures (2, 6, 10 and 12%) in the treatment efficiency was also studied. The obtained results showed that when natural Aloe gel and bactofugate mixtures were used the recorded chemical oxygen demand removal rates exceeded 56% within 48 h of treatment. Whereas, the use of the fermented Aloe gel in the treatment mixtures has promoted the organic matter removal to reach 72%.
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Renewable approaches involving the use of natural materials for pollutant removal from wastewaters can offer a favorable solution fitting well with the definition of sustainability. Materials from biological origin (Bean, Moringa, Maize, etc.) have been investigated for their potential use for wastewater treatment. Interestingly, cactus, an abundant plant, offers various options for the treatment of wastewater. The present paper reviews wastewater treatment technologies that may involve cactus. This biomaterial can be involved as coagulant/flocculant, as biosorbent and as packed material for biofilter. Also, cactus may offer enzymatic system useful for the transformation of toxic textile dyes. The results obtained in the depollution of wastewaters using various cactus preparations showed very high and promising pollutant removal efficiency. Generally, cactus reduced significantly many wastewater parameters (turbidity, COD, heavy metal, conductivity, salinity, etc.). Consequently, for many accessibility criteria (composition, properties, abundant, non-toxic, etc.) cactus may be useful material for wastewater treatment making it appropriate for regions of the world, where cactus is available.
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Moringa oleifera seeds are a promising resource for food and non-food applications, due to their content of monounsaturated fatty acids with a high monounsaturated/saturated fatty acids (MUFA/SFA) ratio, sterols and tocopherols, as well as proteins rich in sulfated amino acids. The rapid growth of Moringa trees in subtropical and tropical areas, even under conditions of prolonged drought, makes this plant a reliable resource to enhance the nutritional status of local populations and, if rationalized cultivation practices are exploited, their economy, given that a biodiesel fuel could be produced from a source not in competition with human food crops. Despite the relatively diffuse use of Moringa seeds and their oil in traditional medicine, no pharmacological activity study has been conducted on humans. Some encouraging evidence, however, justifies new efforts to obtain clear and definitive information on the benefits to human health arising from seed consumption. A critical review of literature data concerning the composition of Moringa oil has set in motion a plan for future investigations. Such investigations, using the seeds and oil, will focus on cultivation conditions to improve plant production, and will study the health effects on human consumers of Moringa seeds and their oil.
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This study focused on the evaluation as natural flocculant in water clarification and identification of major phytochemical groups of Aloe vera, a plant which belongs to Liliaceae family.Phytochemical groups such tannins, saponins, mucilage, flavonoids, anthracene derivatives, quinone derivatives and proteins were identified. However, they were devoid of alkaloids, reducing compounds, cardiotonic glycosides in this plant. The results obtained for determined Aloe vera constituent materials showed a high rate of organic matter in this plant (81.05% of dry matter) and low levels of dry matter and ash (respectively 4.2% of fresh matter and 12.04% of dry matter). The clarification tests using this plant for very turbid surface water (turbidity: 185-200 NTU, Suspended solids: 160-170, Obvious color: 275-285 Pt Co), showed a good elimination of turbidity and suspended solids. Removal efficiency was 72% for turbidity, 91% for suspended solids and 15% for the obvious color. Aloe vera can be promoted as a good natural floculant in surface water clarification.
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Hybrid coagulants, aluminium sulphate-Aloe vera (ALAV) and magnesium sulphate-Aloe vera (MGAV) were prepared for the primary treatment of methylene blue (MB) dye wastewater treatment through coagulation-flocculation process. The effects of the independent factors and their interaction on the dye removal (%) were determined using two independent factors, i.e. pH and dosage based on 22 full factorial design. All the independent factors and their interaction were significant in removing dye. The dye removal (%) for both ALAV and MGAV were then optimized through central composite design. ALAV was able to remove 50–55% of dye while MGAV was able to remove 60-70% of dye. Therefore, MGAV was proven to be a more effective hybrid coagulant in removing dye.
The water treatment process generates a residue called water treatment plant (WTP) sludge, which needs to be correctly characterized to ensure appropriate disposal or reuse. This study aimed to characterize the centrifuged sludge produced at the Tamanduá WTP, Iguaçu Falls City, Brazil, and considered opportunities for its reuse in the production of concrete for the civil construction industry. Wet sludge (sludge in its natural form) analysis included the determination of total solids, moisture content, density, pH, and inorganic parameters (As, Al, Ba, Cd, Pb, Cr, F, Hg, Ag, and Se) through thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, and chemical analysis by X-ray fluorescence and loss ignition. For calcined WTP sludge, chemical and mineralogical composition and laser granulometry were evaluated. The results indicated that calcined sludge had the potential to be used in the production of cement materials; conversely wet sludge did not reach the appropriate safety standards due to the high quantity of organic matter.
During the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill, interactions between oil, clay particles and marine snow lead to the formation of aggregates. Interactions between these components play an important, but yet not well understood, role in biodegradation of oil in the ocean water. The aim of this study is to explore the effect of these interactions on biodegradation of oil in the water. Laboratory experiments were performed, analyzing respiration and n-alkane and BTEX biodegradation in multiple conditions containing Corexit, alginate particles as marine snow, and kaolin clay. Two oil degrading bacterial pure cultures were added, Pseudomonas putida F1 and Rhodococcus qingshengii TUHH-12. Results show that the presence of alginate particles enhances oil biodegradation. The presence of Corexit alone or in combination with alginate particles and/or kaolin clay, hampers oil biodegradation. Kaolin clay and Corexit have a synergistic effect in increasing BTEX concentrations in the water and cause delay in oil biodegradation.
This study reports the use of magnesium silicate (M-S-H) for magnesium phosphate cement (MPC) formulation and aims to study the effect of calcination temperature of the magnesium silicate on mechanical properties and setting time of the MPC. Synthetic magnesium silicate was obtained by precipitation method using solutions of magnesium sulfate and sodium silicate with a molar ratio of Mg/Si = 1. MPC mortars were prepared with a mass ratio of magnesium silicate to potassium phosphate of M-S-H/KH2PO4 = 1. Results showed that mortars prepared with magnesium silicate calcined at temperatures above 700 °C did not set into hardened cement. However, calcination of magnesium silicate at temperature below 700 °C and particularly at 600 and 650 °C enhances the mechanical performance of the cement due to improving the availability of magnesium from magnesium silicate powder to react with phosphate for cement phase formation (K-struvite). MPCs with an optimal compressive strength up to 39 MPa at 28 days were obtained with magnesium silicate calcined at 600 and 650 °C.
Landfilling is a common practice worldwide for solid waste management. The leachate generated at landfill sites contains various organic and inorganic pollutants while it should be treated properly. In this study, the electrocoagulation (EC) process was recognized for its simplicity and effectiveness which was used for the treatment of leachate from the Djebel Chakir landfill site in northern Tunisia. In addition, we investigated the effect of microorganisms (e.g., bacteria, fungi, spore) on sludge production by the application of autoclaving treatment on raw leachate. The application of low current density (15 mA/cm2) within 2 h of treatment and using Al-Al electrodes revealed significant improvement of performance when autoclaving was applied. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nitrogen removal increased from 39 to 64% and from 13 to 30%, respectively. The sludge volume was reduced from 40 to 10%, and thus, its handling and disposal costs would be significantly decreased. The energy consumption rate was stable after 40 min of treatment at about 0.8 kWh/kg COD removed. Our study shows that removal of microorganisms by autoclaving prior to the EC process is promising for landfill leachate treatment. However, since autoclaving is far from being practical and cost-effective at full-scale plant, research on coupling EC with an alternative disinfecting process might be of great interest.